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CHINA.*

The first of the works whose titles Hai, i. e. [all within the Four Seas. Tang are appended, is in two thick volumes of Shan, or the Hills of_Tang, also denotes six hundred pages each, and contains the whole country. For the people, Li the result of the author's personal obser- Min, or Black-Haired Race, is a common vations, together with frequent extracts appellation ; the expressions Hwa Yen, from the best works hitherto written on the Flowery Language, and Chung Hwa China ; making in the whole by far the Kwoh, the Middle Flowery Kingdom, are fallest compendium of information respect also frequently used for the written laning that great Empire of the East which guage and the country--the sense of Hwa vur Western World has ever yet pos- being that they are the most polished and sised. Mr. Williams went to China as civilized of all nations. The term “ CePrinter to the American Board of Foreign lestials," which would be an extremely awkMissions, and resided twelve years at Can- ward phrase in their language, comes from ton and Macao, “ in daily and familiar con- Tie Chau, i. e. Heavenly Dynasty, one of laet with the people, speaking their lan- the titles of the present dynasty of Tsing. tuage and studying their books.” He is Our author gives a full account of the evidently an able philologist, and a well- topography of the eighteen provinces, arformed, sensible observer. The work is and the entire empire—its mountains and te of the most interesting that has lately rivers, the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, appeared, and we cannot do our readers a the public roads, and the

appearances more acceptable service than to run it over which the landscapes usually present to and string together some of the novelties the eye. The general aspect of the counwhich it adds to the general stock of try is as much modified by cultivation as knowledge.

that of England, but there are no fences The narrative of Mr. Smith, who went or hedges. Temples and pagodas, which at in 1844, as agent of the English are used for ions and theatres as well as hurch Mission to the cities where there idols, sometimes occupy commanding situ2 British Consuls, is quoted by Mr. Wilations. The acclivities of hills under teriams, so that it does not require a sepa- race cultivation are often very beautiful. sie notice. It is interesting, but the style But distant views of cities are tame, from diffuse.

the absence of spires and towers to relieve Chung Kuoh," the Mid-kingdom," is the dead level of tiled roofs. be most common name for their coun- Along the sea-coast of southern China ty among the Chinese. The naine China the tyfoons (from ta-funç, i. e. a great wind) · dever used among them, and is sup- are much dreaded. The people have

ced to have been taken by foreigners another name for them, which signifies im Tyin or Chin, a famous

iron whirlwind. th, who flourished B. C. 770. The The names given to streets and halls thor suggests that it may be the “ land are very curious. Thus the Emperor's

Sinim," referred to in Isaiah xlix. 12. Council at Peking is held in the kien we natives have many other names for Tsing Tuny, or Tranquil Palace of Heaven; ir country : sometimes it is called Sz' | the Empress resides in the Palace of the

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* The Midille Kingdom ; a Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, *, of the Chinese Empire and its inhabitants. By S. Wells Wiliams, author of "Easy Lessons in

nese," " English and Chinese Vocabulary," &c. In two volumes. New York and London : Wiley rad Potnam, 1818. 1 Narrative of an Exploralory Visit to the Consular Cities of China, and to the Islands of Hong Kong

Chusan. By the Rev. George Smith, M. A., of Magdalen Hall, Oaford, and late Missionary in aina. New York: Harper and Brothers. en 1

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Earth's Repose ; near by is the Hall of | ton are almost all for foreign trade. The Intense Thought, where sacrifices are pre- city contains 50,000 persons employed in sented to Confucius and other sages, and weaving and embroidering cloth; there also the Hall of the Literary Abyss, or are also 7000 barbers, and 4200 shoeLibrary. In reading these queer titles, one makers. The contempt for the few cannot help fancying, what if we had such foreigners residing there, renders their buildings here, and who would be the fit. position very irksome and confined. None test persons to occupy them ? whether of them have ever adopted the native our transcendental cotemporaries should costume, the English clerks probably rather be made to officiate as high priests objecting to the shaven poll and indispen- | in a Hall of Intense Thought, or follow sable pigtail. The foreign shipping lies their readers into a Literary Abyss? To at Whampoa, (pronounced Wompoo, i. e. pursue such suggestions would how- Yellow Anchorage.) In the mountainous ever interfere with our present purpose, parts of Kwangtung, there are many which is merely to give a diminished pic- tribes who resist every attempt on the ture of an entertaining volume.

part of the lowlanders, to penetrate into The celebrated porcelain manufactories the fastnesses. They occasionally come are in the department of Jauchau in Fau- down to Canton to trade, and the Cantonlang hien, and, it is stated, give employment ese firmly believe that they possess tails to a million of workmen. They were es- like monkeys. tablished A. D. 1004. Near them is the The last census of China, taken in 1812, vale of the White Deer, where Chu Hi, makes the entire population of the eighteen the great disciple of Confucius, lived and provinces amount to 362,447,183. The taught in the 12th century. It is a place means and intention of the government to of frequent pilgrimage for the Chinese lit estimate the number of the people accuerati, and its beauty and sublimity a con- rately are not questioned; yet the result stant theme of the poets.

is so enormous that our author very sensiThe capital of the province Hupeh, bly considers the subject still open, Wuchang fu, on the river Yangisz' Kiang, until further statistics are obtained. The is said to be one of the largest assembla- averages of 850, 705 and 671 to the ges of houses and vessels, inhabitants and square mile, in the provinces of Kiangsu, sailors, in the world ; London and Yedo Nganhwui, and Chehkiang, are too great can alone compete with it. Indeed, in to be credited without minute circumstanthe accounts of several other great cities tial evidence. No one can doubt, however, whose names are alike strange and eupho- that the population is exceedingly great, nious, one is constantly astonished at the and constitutes by far the largest assemimmensity of the population. Any place blage of human beings using one speech, in China under a half million would seem ever congregated under one monarch. to be a mere village.

The revenues of the empire are, as might The true name of Canton is Kwanglung be supposed, still more difficult to ascer

1 Sáng Ching, i. e. the capital of the prov- tain than the population. The government ince of Kwangtung. The names of the Red Book for 1840, places the total at city gates remind one of the Pilgrim's 58,007,007 taels of $1,33 each, but this Progress: thus we have Great-Peace gate, is probably only the surplussage sent from Eternal-Rest gate, Five-Genii gate, Bam- each province, for the support of the boo-Wicket gate, &c. Among the names emperor and his court. The revenue from! of the six hundred streets, are Dragon Canton alone, in 1842, is given in the Red street, Martial Dragon street, Pearl street, Book at 43,750 taels, whereas it is well (what city was ever without one ?) Golden known that the collector of customs there Flower street, New Green Pea street, was obliged to remit from 800,000 to Physic street, Spectacle street, &c. These 1,500,000 taels, and his gross receipts were streets are very narrow, being never used not far from 3,000,000. The expenditures for carriages, and for uncleanliness, are of the government almost always exceed probably, if such a state of things can be the receipts, but in what way the deficit imagined, much in advance of the dirtiest is made up does not appear. The salaries in New-York. The manufactories of Cans of the government officers are not high,

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but their exactions are so great, that it | legs fall through the meshes, and two men is impossible to guess how much they carry him off, squealing somewhat, we may actually receive.

suppose, but unable to do himself any The greatest part of the cultivated soil personal injury. The contrivance is equally is employed in raising food for man. ingenious and humane. The camel is in

Woolen garments and leather are little use in western China ; one species is used , used, and cotton and mulberry occupy but to carry light burdens and messages across

a small portion of the soil. Grass is never the deserts of Gobi, and is called fung-kiohraised. "Horses are very little used. The to, or wind-footed camel, on account of its few cattle feed on the waste grounds, and swiftness. Singing thrushes are kept as butter, cheese and milk are hardly known. pets by the Chinese gentlemen, parties of The principal food of the people is pork, whom are not unfrequently seen with ducks, geese, poultry and fish, of which their cages seated on the grass, or ramthe latter is a great item.

bling over the fields for grasshoppers. A Wood is scarce in China, and coal is the favorite song bird is a species of the lark, general fuel. All the common metals which is called peh ling, i. e. “hundredare abundant, but the processes used in spirit bird,” from its activity and melody. manufacturing them are little known. A Sparrows and crows are common about native dealer in iron at Canton, for example, Canton. They have also the cuckoo, can communicate no information as to how which is called kuku, as with us. it is smelted or forged; it is enough for So many kinds of fish are brought to bim that it sells. Lead is imported from the market of Macao, that if one is able the United States, and the lining of a tea to eat all that the Chinese do, he may chest may have made the voyage from have a different species every day in the

Galena to Canton, and back to St. Louis. year. Gold fish were introduced into > Chinese writers on natural history are Europe from China about the end of the almost as curious observers as ours were seventeenth century.

“ The effects of a few centuries ago. Of the bat, which culture and domestication in changing the they style “heavenly rat," "fairy rat,” natural form of this fish are as great as is

flying rat, night swallow," &c., they sometimes seen in animals : specimens are write, “It is shaped like a mouse ; its often seen without any dorsal fin, and the body is of an ashy black color; and it has tail and other fins tufted and lobed to such thin fleshy wings, which join the fore- a degree as to resemble artificial appendlegs and tail into one. It appears in the ages or wings rather than natural organs. summer, but becomes torpid in the winter; The eyes are developed till the globes proon which account, as it eats nothing ject beyond the socket like goggles, during that season, and because it has the presenting an extraordinary appearance. habit of swallowing its breath, it attains a Some of them are so fantastic, indeed, that great age. It flies with its head down- they would be regarded as lusus naturæ, wards, because the brain is heavy," &c. were they not so common. Specimens Cats they call “ household foxes.” One two feet long have been noticed, but usuitem in the description of the dog is, that ally they are no longer in China than in it “can go on three legs.” The maltese- Europe. One species of fish has the colored, hairless buffalo is their beast for faculty of darting a drop of water at infarming, and hence the picture of a country sects on the bank, and so catching them. lad astride one's back playing the flute, is Oysters and all sorts of shell fish are a favorite pastoral image. The Chinese abundant. The Chinese manufacture pearls pig is the clumsiest little lump of fat by inserting small mother-of-pearl beads imaginable. His disposition, however, so into the shell, which in a year are inmuch resembles that of his western crusted. brethren, that the people do not attempt There is a species of spider so large and to drive him through their narrow streets

. strong as to successfully attack small birds They place a loosely woven cylindrical on the trees. On the hills eastward of basket before an opening in his pen, and Canton are found immense butterflies and pull his tail till he runs into it; then lifting night-moths. One of these insects (Bomit by a pole passed through the top, his byx atlas) measures nine inches across the

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wings. Common crickets are caught and sofas for various uses of convenience and sold in the markets for gaming, the prac- luxury in the house. The mattress to lie tice being to fight them in bowls. The upon, the chair to sit upon, the table to Chinese naturalists describe the nests of dine from, food to eat, and fuel to cook it bees, ants, &c., very accurately." The with, are alike derived from it; the ferule composition of the characters for the bee, to govern the scholar and the book he ant and musquito, respectively denote the studies both originate here. The tapering awl insect, the righteous insect, and the barrels of the Sang, or organ, and the lettered insect, referring thereby to the dreaded instrument of the lictor—one to sting of the first, the orderly marching make harmony and the other to strike and subordination of the second, and the awe; the skewer to pin the hair and the letter-like markings on the wings of the hat to screen the head ; the paper to write last. Musquitoes are plenty in all parts on, the pencil handle to write with, and of China, and gauze curtains are considered the cup to hold the pencils; the rule to by the people as a more necessary part of measure lengths, the cup to guage quanbed furniture than a mattress.'

tities, and the bucket to draw water, the The bamboo is cultivated about villages bellows to blow the fire and the bottle to for its pleasant shade and beauty, and a retain the match; the bird-cage and crabgrove furnishes from year to year culms net, the fish-pole and sumpitan, the waterof all sizes. Its appearance is extremely wheel and eave-duct, wheel-barrow and rural, oriental and elegant. It is applied hand-cart, &c., are all furnished or comto so many uses that it may be called the pleted by this magnificent grass, whose Chinese national plant. The tender shoots graceful beauty when growing is comparare used for food. “The roots are carved able to its varied usefulness when cut into fantastic images of men, birds, mon- down.” kers, or monstrous perversions of animated The buckwheat is much used in China; nature ; cut into lanthorn handles or canes, it is called by a name which signifies “trior turned into oval sticks for worshippers angular wheat," a title perhaps quite as to divine whether the gods will hear or appropriate for it as ours. The Chinese refuse their petitions. The tapering culms consider the rest of the world dependent are used for all purposes that poles can on them for tea and rhubarb, and foreigners be applied to in carrying, supporting, pro- forced to resort to them to relieve thempelling and measuring, by the porter, the selves of an otherwise irremediable costivecarpenter and the boatman; for the joists ness. Commissioner Lin once actually of houses and the ribs of sails ; the shafts made use of this as an argument for cerof spears and the wattles of hurdles ; the tain trade restrictions, supposing foreigners tubes of aqueducts and the handles and would be compelled to purchase of them at ribs of umbrellas and fans.

any price. Pea-nuts are extensively cul“ The leaves are sewed upon cords to tivated, but whether used as an accommake rain-cloaks, swept into heaps to paniment to dramatic performances we form manure, and matted into thatches to are left uninformed. Pawpaws are eatex cover houses. Cut into splints and slivers after being cooked. Dried bottle-gourds i of various sizes, the wood is worked into are tied to children's backs on the boats.. baskets and trays of every form and fancy, | to hold them up when they tumble over twisted into cables, plaited into awnings, board. and woven into mats for scenery of the The Camella Japonica is as much ad theatre, the roofs of houses and the casing mired at home as abroad, though the outer of goods. The shavings even are picked barbarians have invented several new variinto oakum, and mixed with those of rattan eties. It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to to be stuffed into mattresses. The bamboo remark that Chinese gardeners are also furnishes the bed for sleeping, and the acquainted with the China aster. The couch for reclining; the chopsticks for tree pæony, with its large and variegated eating, the pipe for smoking, and the flute flowers, is much admired. But their great for entertaining; a curtain to hang before favorite is the jasmine, whose clusters of the door, and a broom to sweep around it; flowers are often wound in their hair by together with screens, stools, stands, and the women. In the north-eastern provinces

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