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ras with myself, my husband, and the young priestess of Eros; because, not only of Cymon's desire, and yours, good Meton, but because of my first promise to Lysis, that I would relate the history of my life. From the date of this interview I began to live differently, turning all my thoughts upon spiritual matters, that I might attain that prophetic power which it is conceded that 1 now possess. But before this, even to the thirtieth year of my life, my thoughts had been limited to my pleasures and reputation. Until then I loved glory for the pleasure it brings; how, I loved it no less, but began worthily to pursue it. For I would have you know that the passion of glory, like love, differs in the pure and the impure, not as to the end, but as to the mode of attaining it. For as an honorable lover gains his end by generous and unreserved affection, and the dishonorable by the contrary, thinking only of his own pleasure,"— Here Diotima glanced at Cymon, who crimsoned with delight and shame—" so, the true lover of glory seeks the universal love of men, by cultivating in himself true and loveable qualities, while the falsely ambitious entices men with a show, and feasts upon stolen praises."
"Let us compare him," said Lysis, "to a cunning fisherman, who with a bit of glittering metal draws the fish to his hook."
"And the other," rejoined Cymon, "is like a good shepherd whom the sheep love for the good food he gives them."
"I will compare him," said the jester, "to a jar of sweetened vinegar, which a rascally slave brings you for wine of Cos, when you arc so drunk you know no difference of tastes."
"Good," responded Mycon ; "and half mankind are drunk all their lives, and know not the taste of true honor."
"Pythagoras," continued the prophetess, "after many kind words and pleasant compliments, drew us gradually to the topic, as I had forewarned him to do, and presently engaged us all in a delightful manner; hearing the word of each, and giving the stupidest remark an elegant turn to the advantage of the person who made it. We were soon qufte intoxicated with the beauty of his discourse. The young nobles forgot themselves and their fair companions, and all eroded about us,
standing or pushing their seats as near u civility would let them. I took care lit-.1 a soft strain of music should continue whut we talked, which rolled tenderly througt the alcoves and took off the harshness < I our voices."
"Gods," exclaimed Meton, "I shall begin presently to shed tears, good Dioti ma, to think I was not there."
But the others bid him be silent, inj Diotima continued:
"Pythagoras would not direct his eon versation to the young priestess of Ercq more than to the others, for fear of put ting her to shame; but shaped all he ssk with wonderful ingenuity to her thoujhtH while he seemed to be answering tti question of another, or relating some an«i dote to please the whole. I cannot \>:t tend to any recollection of his word?, aa must repeat his sentiments in my en He related to us the fable of Eros, and o his birth out of the darkness, and thei said that this fable signified the birth <i love in the soul; for that the first darbw meant only the selfish instinct of man, v\ of which love for the parent who cheri>b^ him, springs like a smiling infant full i light and warmth."
"There is hope in this infant," said is jester: "I perceive it will grow a grei baby."
At this, Lysis could not help lauijl ing, but Cymon showed signs of viola anger.
"He spoke of Typho," continued li prophetess, "as one with darkness an selfish isolation. That there is a coniinu war between this evil principle and li first love, the Eros or Horus; for ihi Typho, dark and cruel, draws all thmj down to death and isolation; but lb love expands and unites, producing a wa derful music or harmony for souls, win is the language, or song, of the gods.
"Love appears first in matter warn! with the evil Principle, or with darkns and the fixed. It perpetuates the ani« ties of all things, and is the cause of tl oneness of the world. The planets revol about the sun according to its law; (vr the love of the child causes it to rcToli in a manner about the parent, and tl love of the wife causes her to move h.i moniously in the sphere of her superii so move the heavenly lovers, the plant] rith their sun. Hence the people of the laat call the sun the husband of the lanets, because they move about him, ■ound by his love. If the power of the :»ve of two heavenly bodies is equal in ach, then are they sun and planets, each o> the other, and move in one circle about heir common centre; and this is the most >cantiful of all heavenly motions. But it isrually happens that an inferior is bound o a superior; and then she moves about >im as inferior, receiving from him both ij^ht and warmth. But all love is mutual ven among the stars, and the lover orignates it in her he loves, and she in him in ler turn. But he is moved according to if-r power; if equal, equally; if unequal, anequallv.
"Then the young priestess, Dione, the laughter of Polias, addressing herself to me, spoke as follows:
'•' Pythagoras tells us anew thing, that the most beautiful of all the heavenly motion.*, is that of an equal about an equal; and I am persuaded the women of Egypt will not agree with him in this; for the oath r-f marriage makes them superior to their husbands in domestic affairs, nor are they backward in asserting a superiority in all other things. But it seems more beautiful Uj me, that the husband should be the superior in all important matters, as is the custom among the barbarians and the Greeks.' 'How,' said I, hastily, 'do you >ee the better kind of women asserting a taperiority, or even an equality? or is it only a few discontented weaver's wives who do this, of the kind that are forward to speak at the sacrifices, and in the market? 1 have seen one of these lead home her infant in one hand and her husband in the '•ther, as the greater infant of the two."
Then began a great contest among the women, as to which was the better condition, that the wife should rule the husband, or the husband the wife, as our law bas it. But Dione, with Pythagoras, Manes and myself, remained silent until there should be room for a reasonable word. After the uproar had a little subsided. Manes spoke.
"' I begin to see,' said he, 'my wise friends, that you will never decide this question in theory, but that each of yon must discover what is true in practice.'
"Then, as his custom was, he began to relate a fable in the eastern manner."
"Let us hear this fable," said Lysis; "I like an apologue above all things."
Then, when the jester and the young man had signified the same desire, the prophetess spake as follows:
"In Mandara, before Amun had created men, there lived a nation of apes who had speech. The bodies of these apes were inhabited by certain demons, who used them for their own purpose. Barata, a wise spirit, who inhabited the body of a crow, conceived a hatred against the apes because they mocked his chattering, and ridiculed his grave and cunning ways. He determined to destroy them, and set about it in the following manner: Assuming the figure of a very aged ape, he came and stood by a spring where the females came to drink. He stood leaning on his staff, looking into the water, and retaining this position, without change, for a jrear, acquired the reputation of extreme sanctity; for it is necessary that the fickle should venerate the fixed. At the end of a year, the females began to bring offerings; and the water of the spring was esteemed holy. At the end of a second year, Barata keeping his position, great multitudes flocked to worship him, and throw offerings of fruit into the water, which floated away and were eaten by the crows and other birds friendly to' Barata, and who knew his design. At the end of the third year, Barata moved his head as though to speak, and the multitude of females fled away in terror or dropped down in a swoon, so astonished were they to see a motion in him. When they were a little recovered, Barata waved his hand and addressed them as follows: 'Listen to me, ye females who desire sacred knowledge.' When he had said this, a number came forward and approached near him, and some would have embraced his feet. Then he continued; 'Listen to me, ye who desire the prosperity of the just.' When Barata had said this, one only came forward of the multitude that covered, as it stood, a plain broader than Shinar. But when, for the third time, he added, 'Listen to me, you who would reap honor where you have sown idleness,' the whole demoniacal body rushed eagerly to be near him, and in their haste trampled the single just one to death.
"When my husband came to this part of the story," said the prophetess, "I perceived a movement as of indignation in the listeners, though it was so slight none seemed to observe it. Then, in a grave voice, he continued:
"When Barata saw the multitude attentive, and eagerly expecting what he should say to them, he spoke as follows:
"' I know not what I shall say to win your regard, which I desire above all things. A god inspires me to think him blessed whom you love. What can I more desire than your love, and how can I more deserve it than by making you blessed? But my wisdom is able to do this. Is not all virtue admirable? But what avails virtue unadmired'?' Then the multitude murmured, signifying that they cared nothing for virtue unadmired. 'Nay, then,' continued Barata, 'we are nothing without honor. To be honored is to be blessed. I seek to make you blessed by making you honored. If you desire to know by what means, signify as much.' Then the whole multitude screamed an assent, and Barata continued: 'To be honored is to be an equal or a superior. For what honor has an inferior? Ye are miserable inferiors.' 'We know it,' exclaimed many; but some groaned, and would have stoned the sage had they been allowed by the rest. 'To be superior is to have ease, and pleasure, and honor. To be inferior is inconsistent with happiness. But you were made for happiness. 'We were,' screamed the multitude. 'Go, then,' he continued, 'bid your husbands grant you happiness ; refuse any longer to defeat the ends of your being; invent a thousand ways to show your equality, and if possible your superiority; and you will not fail to become the rulers of those whom you serve." So saying, Barata quit the shape he had assumed, and taking that of a griffon, flew away over their heads. Then the multitude of females agreed among themselves to observe the words of Barata, and to conceal them from the males. But failing to accomplish their aim with these, they began to educate their male offspring in a feminine manner, to have them at their service, while the females were permitted to enjoy their ease.
Then letters were invented by these demon.-. and the males being unused to warli occupation, addicted themselves to sefe tary pursuits. And theirnumbersgradual!' diminished, for they became a prey to wild beasts and birds, the friends of Barau. and in two centuries their race" was eiucct, and the crows inhabited their forests."
When Diotima had made an end of tk fable, Lysis said, hesitatingly:
"The story, good Diotima, is displeaso: to me in many respects, nor do I full? perceive the application of it; tboup Manes clearly intends to speak of a «c test between the sexes which did Doi begin yesterday, nor will end, as I think while men and women exist. The conch sion is like a bad verse at the end of i good poem, which the poet is afriid u finish as he began. But now let us hear more of Pythagoras and the wise daagbtf i of Polias. I fancy she might say a good thing or so."
"We were all disappointed as yo« were," continued Diotima, "with the eveelusion of the fable, as well as with tin moral of it, and expected to be mad* amends by what Pythagoras should Mj further to the young priestess. But seeing that some began to be weary, I proposed games, and among others a game « penalties, that I might compel Diooe tu repeat verses, which she did with a peculiar a grace, that we were perfectlj delighted and snatched away from our selves. Then, being director of our sport* I commanded Pythagoras to make u oration in praise of Love, which he did though very unwillingly; and I saw thai he turned his eyes away from Dione, win sat blushing and hiding her mouth whl her lotus.* Pythagoras looked a Mm angry and disturbed when I commands him to make an oration in praise of Love but when lie perceived the guests expect) ant, and a silence made, he began, hd tatingly, as follows:
"' We are all lovers and beloved—cliiH and parent, brother and brother, busbsd and wife, friend and friend. But in Ion there are degrees. We love or hate evetj living thing when we behold it, because 1
• Water lily, carried in the hand by Efrypti* ladies at entertainments.—Wilkinson, Mail- ** Cust. of the Egyptians.
fires pain or pleasure to the eye, and promises pain or pleasure to the soul. The blind love the hand that touches Jiem kindly, and the voice that affects ;hem gently. Pleasure, therefore, is the rround of love, and if we desire to be oved, we must be able to please. By the jleasure we receive our love is measured; Imt as the dull ear receives no pleasure from the rarest music, the dull heart is insusceptible to the tender pleasures of love. Observe how the touch of the musician's linger draws a sweet tone from the harp; so will the touch of a loving hand draw out a bliss in the soul.
"' The whole action of a true votary of Eros, will be to convey happiness to others, while he seeks the same for himself. But if the votary finds it in vain to do this, appealing to a dull heart, he will cease, and have no more desire to give or to receive his proper pleasure.
"' The friend desires only to please his friend, seeking no reward but that of knowing that he gives pleasure in the manner intended. For if he means only to eonvey a pleasure of sense, he is satisfied when he succeeds in this. But if he df>ires also to convey a pleasure to the heart, or to the spirit, he will not be satisfied unless this desire is accomplished.
"' The first kind of love is base in its decree, regarding only the pleasure of the lover, and not that of the person loved. The second is personal and of the heart, and unites friends of all name—husband »od wife, parent and child, friend and friend. This is the affection that must lharc the pleasure that it gives with the pen-on pleased; but it is limited to such *> are able to return good for good, and pleasure for pleasure.
"' The third and last kind is indifferent »bo the person pleased may be; but reRirds all mankind, existing, present, and to be hereafter. This is the love of glory. Its desire is to impress all with a sense of the worth of the universal lover—the lover °f glory; and it docs this by laying open to all eyes, its own admirable qualities. "' In the school of sensuous and affection•K pleasure, this Immortal Love takes its first lessons of pleasing, but its own pleasure is only in a persuasion that it is regarded by ail men as an universal source or cause of pleasure. Leam, then, O friends, to know
when it is that you mistake the sensuous desire of self-pleasure for that true friendship, which can receive only while it gives. And learn to separate your friendship from your love of glory, which, in less or greater circle, includes all your world."'
Here Diotima paused in her narrative, and the jester would have made one of his sharp speeches, but Cymon, shaking the cup as though to hurl it, put him to silence.
"Pythagoras took an advantage of you, good prophetess," said Lysis, "and fairly revenged himself. You looked for entertainment, and he treated you to a prosy lecture with a moral at the tail of it."
"Ay," rejoined the jester, defending his head with his arm, with a wink at Cymon, "this sage might have said a wise thing or so, had he not been in love. But, alas! the passion makes fools of us."
Cymon, upon this, could not contain his vexation.
"Dear Diotima," said he, "command this joker to keep silence, since you will not let me break his head for him."
But she, waving her hand to the young man, bade him put down the cup which he seemed ready to throw, for that she set a great value on the jester's head for the value of what was in it.
"It is a vinegar-cruet," retorted Cymon, "with the face of a satyr carved on it."
"And thy cranium," rejoined Meton, "shall be compared to a milk pitcher with a straight handle; but the milk is a little turned."
At this sally, Diotima smiled a little, but at the same time looked kindly at Cymon, as if to see how he would bear it. But Lysis, taking up the silver cup out of which he had been drinking, showed Cymon two masks carved on either side of it, one the face of Admetus's shepherd, and the other, of a Pan with pipes.
"There are two sides," said he, "young sir, to every perfect figure; and he is the fool who insists there is but one."
Then Cymon blushed and hung down his head, and the prophetess continued her story as follows:
"When Pythagoras had made an end of his hrief oration, of which I have related only the substance to you, having no ability to give it that elegance which it took from him, the guests were silent, as not daring either to applaud or condemn. But the young priestess, plucking up a spirit, spoke as follows:
"' You spoke, grave sir, of a love of glory, as though it were like friendship, or even the same with true love itself, but more universal and refined. Is it necessary to think, then, that the ambitious, who are lovers of glory, are in truth a kind of passionate lovers, and affect fame as if it were a mistress'?'
"Dione spoke these words with hesitation and a great deal of blushing, so that we were all ashamed for her, and wished to help out her wise speech ; which had so happy an effect upon our spirits, somewhat sunk by Pythagoras's great manner of speaking, (for his voice was like harmonious thunder,) we seemed all to join in her question, and every one looked kindly upon her. - Then the Greek spoke again in these words:
"' The lovers of true glory are visited by a comforting spirit, which is pure and holy. It fills them with magnanimity, and grace, and honor. It exalts them to great endeavor for the sake of men: they despise all else for the happiness of men. But the happiness which they desire to give is not solitary, like that of a selfreliant soul, but harmonious, as when a company of friends listen together to sweet music, by which they are made one, and feel as one. This, therefore, is a kind of love: the passion of glory is a kind of love. For the mark of love is, that it desires a harmony or union of pleasure and grief; converting pleasure into bliss, and sorrow into tender sadness. And this it is that teaches the poet to harmonize his sorrows and his pleasures, that others may mingle in them, as in love with himself; for the poet is a lover of glory. And this it is that inspires the speaker with rich power, and gives a pleasure to his voice; for he desires to be mingled in the great sea of divine ideas with the souls of those that hear him. And this it is that \irges the hero to the gate of death, defying terror and terrible rage; for he wishes to be mingled in courage with the souls of all the brave, both present, and that have been, and to come. This, then, is a love that we call love of glory, magnanimity, humanity, and by other harmonious appellations; but we might name it the inspir
ing or comforting spirit, since it is thai which inspires all good deeds for the low of man. It makes men lovers of their country and their name, descending a whole companies like a fire from heaven making all despise death for the love oi all.*
"While he said these things," continued the prophetess, "I was in a manner seized upon by the spirit of silence, and the others with me remained mute. Bat Dione wept passionately, and was not able to hide her tears. But it was tk power of his voice and of his eye whit's moved us, for it seemed as if the sea tad spoken to the hills.
'■ After we had waited a little time in this silence, I rose and invited my gnes'-into the garden. We went out into coi air, under a heaven glowing with stars. The jewel of Athor had sunk behind tk western mountains, but Athor herself, tk gloomy Night, rested on the hills. Ascending by a great stair to the summit ol the sepulchre at the end of the garden we stood overlooking the city that \t\ silent like a place of tombs. The N2< was at the full of his rise, and covered »I Egypt like a sea. We beheld afar off tin arlimmer of lights in the island cities, u saw them moving on the waters. Die* leaned on the arm of our guest, and begai to ask him many things regarding tk heavenly spheres. Then we drew nea him, expecting to hear a wonderful dfi course of astronomy; nor were we disap pointed, for he spake of the all-gloriou sun as of the lord of the near worlds, ais of the stars as of other suns ruling oth« worlds. He told us of the sacred eirck of the planets and their harmony: of it music of their motion, which is a geometii melody of the mind. But of these y« have often heard*. Then opening the bw of the centuries, he set forth the order i creation, and spoke of man the crownui work of God, declaring that for him a these were made; that in him the Deir hidden from his own sight, emerge* 1 from a sea, casting up a wave which his form.
"Need I tell you, my friends, how ti discourse affected us? Dione caught tl fall of his slow voice as a thirsty soul wil open mouth catches large drops of n over the desert. I confess I listened wi