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rived here. Several failures have taken place in the commercial part of the community, but not so serious in amount as those which have preceded ; and it is confidently hoped that the severity of the crisis has passed. A steady influx of gold and silver has rendered the currency less restricted; although discounts still remain at very high rates, and money very difficult to be obtained. The Directors of the Bank of England availed themselves of one portion of the recommendation of the ministry, mentioned in our last—the charging "a high rate of interest;" but omitted to comply with that which urged an enlargement of the amount of discounts and advances; and their proceedings in this respect have called forth considerable animadversion. The number of bills drawn in the colonies, which have been returned in consequence of the late failures, together with the low price of sugar and other colonial products, will yet cause considerable embarrassment; but on the other hand, the slight rise in cotton and grain, will cause a greater buoyancy in the trade with this country ; and, although upon the whole, the amelioration is but small, the change will operate to restore confidence, and may prove more stable from being of slow motion. Strong hopes are entertained that the Royal Bank of Liverpool and the Bank of North and South Wales, both of which have suspended payment, will be enabled to resume business. Government stocks are more firm in price; and although the Bank of England still charges eight per cent, discount, many private establishments are content with seven and six and a half per cent. Accounts from the maniTTacturing districts are still unfavorable, and notwithstanding some little improvement has been evinced, it is to be apprehended that short work and a high price of provisions will be productive of very great distress among the operatives and the laboring population generally.

Ireland still continues to present a melancholy spectacle, and must cause very considerable embarrassment to the present Parliament. Famine appears again to threaten its appearance, while murder and agrarian outrages are so much on the increase, as to have produced a proclamation from the Lord Lieutenant, calling on all well-disposed persons to assist in their repression, and threatening offenders with the utmost rigor of punishment. The worst features in these offences are, that they seem to be committed by persons who have not the excuse of destitution; and that in many instances the victims are resident proprietors, who are exerting themselves to benefit the peasantry in their neighborhoods. The assassination of Major Rowan, of Stokestown, in the county of Roscommon, appears an offence of a most unaccountable character. With three years' rent due from the tenants of his estate, ne laBt year chartered two vessels to assist a portion of them to emigrate, and had just bor

rowed money to effect large improvements on his estate, by which he expected to employ i large number of persons during the coming winter. While engaged in this and other beneficent employments, he was shot down on his own estate—an occurrence, among othen. which most painfully shows the disorganized state of society. A number of Irish members of Parliament, and influential persons, organized, for the purpose of demanding from the government employment for the people, on the unfinished improvements which were commenced last year; and, it is to be hoped, ths in the present state of the peasantry, their efforts will be directed to measures of a purely practical character, and that no political feeling will be allowed to thwart the measures so imperatively demanded.

Intelligence has been received of the totil loss of the packet ship Stephen Whitney, whicfc left New-York on the 8th October. Mistaking the light upon Rock Island, near Cape Clear, on the South Coast of Ireland, for the old Hesil of Kinsale, she went broadside on a rock called the West Calf, about four miles inside the Cape, and in less than ten minutes was dashed to atoms, involving in her destruction, the melancholy loss of her captain and no less than 92 of her crew and passengers—18 only, ont of 110, having escaped with life—the ship «ii many articles on board being totally lost.

The commercial and financial difficulties of England do not appear to have reached Franc?: on the contrary securities have been steady, and notwithstanding the negotiation of a k»o of 250 millions of francs which was taken by the Rothschilds, and by which a large amoral of fresh stock was created, the price of fund? rose at the Bourse. A political agitation ft* the extension of the elective franchise is arrive in France, and though greatly discouraged by the government, large meetings are held, at which the name of the king is not very reaperfully greeted. Louis Philippe suffers mnch m public estimation from a belief of his interfering personally, with all the details of government, in a greater degree than is consistent with I limited and constitutional monarchy, where the responsibility for such acts is exclusively confined to the ministers. Count Bresson, wtx figured considerably in negotiating the marriage of the Queen of Spain, and also of her sister to the Due de Montpensier, lately committed suicide, while ambassador at Naples and his immediate predecessor at that pc*i Count Mortier, made a like attempt «'b:k laboring under mental alienation. Monsieu Deschappelles, the celebrated che-ss-plaver, di« in Paris about the beginning of the past month and Monsieur Parmentier, who was so di* gracefully connected with the late proceeding of General Cubieres and Monsieur Teste, fb* of grief at Lure. It is said that the Arch ductless of Parma, Maria Louisa, widow

ipoleon, has married the Count de Bombelles, \c of her ministers. The Commerce announces at reports from the Prefects have been reived by the Minister of the Interior, which ite that the potato crop had been gathered roughout France, and that it was abundant id of good quality, the disease having only own itself at a few points and its effects being «znificant.

Toe Universal Gazette of Prussia, publishes letter from St. Petersburgh of the I7th Noraber, which states:— "The cholera makes fresh progress in the ro directions, which it is following in Russia. baa just broken out in the governments of iiiibrisk, Kazan, Nijni, Novogorod, Riasan,Pol•*a, and Tainboff. Thus far, it does not apear disposed to spread on the side of Podolia ad Uallicia, and it even appears to have very tile intensity in that neighborhood. In that irection it has only shown itself on one point, t Ickaterinoslaf, where it traversed the Dnieper. I'ithout counting Georgia, Caucasus, and the ountry of the Cossacks of the Black Sea, it al>-ady reigns in sixteen governments. On the 'jih Tm1l it broke out at Moscow." The latest intelligence from the latter place late* the number of cholera patients there on lie 16th November, at 105; on the evening of be 11th October, the number was 135.

Spain still continues the victim of intrigue. lie French party is in the ascendant, and not.ilhatanding the constant changes in the min-try, Narvuez appears to be the director of afu±, aided by the queen mother, Christina. An fpuent reconciliation has been effected be»«n Queen Isabella and her husband, but a trong opinion is maintained in Madrid that i*'jr feeling* arc as much estranged as ever, initial their present union is only a matter of late necessity. The Carlist and MontemoliM parties are endeavoring to excite civil war ) Catalonia and other provinces, but meet Uh litle encouragement from the peasantry, nd are generally routed when met by the ueeo's troop*. EVpartero, the exiled general, U been offered the embassy to London; which t has refused, it is said, on account of want of tfn'M-nt fortune to sustain the dignity of the Mica.

Th? civil war in Portugal having been termiIfcd through the combined intervention of the ■ta of the queen's government, the parties ^>*ii are busy at the work of intrigue, and ■ mating great exertions to gain the su■nacy at the coming elections.

Italy, 1'ius IX. still continues to persevere n judicious reforms. His views all appear IttM Inward* practical results, and are, for m reason, likely to prove more lasting and cfIp'o- A commercial treaty and customs M'* liis lately been concluded between the W- die King of Sardinia, and the Grand P"' of Tuscany and Duke of Lucca, which

may be. copjidered the first step towards a political un'on 6rthe Italian States. The terms of this treaty' wll not be made public until it is known whether 'tf-e. King of Naples and the Duke of Modena'w,:fnoin the league, propositions having been'xade to them to do so. A Paris paper announces that the Sultan lias sent Chebel Effendi on a mission1 to Rome, to express his desire that the prote'c«K>H of the Christians of the Libanus should take piace in a direct manner by the intervention of^.-tepresentative of the Holy See; and the Pope Hcs, in consequence, re-established the office of Patriarch of Jerusalem, and raised to that dignity a simple missionary priest.

The civil war in Switzerland has commenced. The troops of the Federal Government were investing Fribourg, and the bombardment of that place was said to have commenced on the 12th inst.; but the latter fact appears doubtful, as reports of a later date state that the Grand Council of Fribourg had assembled, and demanded a suspension of hostilities, which had been granted by the commander of the Federal forces. Great excitement exists in the Tyrol, in consequence of the events taking place in Switzerland, and which is increased by the movements of the'Austrian troops. It is understood that overtures have been made, by the representatives of some of the continental powers, to the British Cabinet, for an amicable mediation to terminate the differences now existing in the Helvetic republic.

Mr. Gutzlaff, the missionary to China, has just completed a voluminous history of that empire, and sent the manuscript to Mr. Cotta, the publisher at Stutgardt. He has published at Hong Kong a universal geography, in Chinese, with sixty large maps; and has begun to compose a dictionary of that language. He has founded a Chinese society, which already numbers 600 members, and includes mandarins and native saians of the first rank; and the society has already published a large number of popular works. This establishment was instituted from a conviction that Christianity, and its civilizing results, can only be successfully propagated in China, by the Chinese themselves.

Dr. Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, the great musical composer, died suddenly, of inflammation of the brajn, at Leipsic, on the 4th of November last, aged 30. He was born at Berlin, on the 3d of February, 1808; and was son of the celebrated Archaeologist James Solomon Bartholdy, and grandson of the philosopher Mendelssohn. At 8 years of age, he had composed some remarkable pieces, and performed on the pinno, at Paris and I/Midon, with great success. Six songs for a soprano voice, three motets for mixed chorusses, (already in the press,) a large portion of his new Ortario of Christ, and some other works, were found in bis writing desk, after his decease.

\ CRITICAL NOTICES.

Old Wine in 'Xeic Bottles; or, Spare Hours of a Stil-tent in Paris. By Augustus Kinsley

• QABDKtR, M. D. New-York: C. S. Francis *-&.'Co., 252 Broadway. Boston: J. H.

"'■Francis, 128 Washington street. 1848.

Tins volume is a republication of a series of letters.written by the author when he wasa medical student in Paris, to the Newark Daily Advertiser. They are exceedingly entertaining and full of interesting description, good humor and good sense. Theauthorhas an observant eye, and while his correspondence lets us into the heart of life in the gay capital, its thousand excitements evidently did not disturb the serenity of his understanding. He appears the same quiet observer in all the various scenes through which he takes us—the theatres, the opera, the hospitals, the bal masque. One who wishes to ramble around the city, which seems the physical and social centre of the world, as London does its intellectual and moral, could not choose a more agreeable companion. He is always cheerful and amusing; not narrow in his views of French life, but at the same time thoroughly and indisputably American in his observations and reflections. Many of his opinions are deeply colored with the mode of thinking peculiar to physicians; but that of course does not diminish the gratification of the reader. It is curious to observe how differently the same incident will be regarded by different minds. The following, for example, would hardly have come from a young lawyer, after witnessing an execution by the guillotine:—

"An individual, it is agreed, by all people of sense, may take life in necessary self-delence. What may be thus done by one may be done by another, and so society becomes invested with the same high prerogative, as a dernier resort. I do not acknowledge myself under any obligation to incur the trouble, expense and risk of chaining a wild beast of a man, to keep him from preying on his fellow-men. The virtuous portion of the community is not bound, and sometimes is not able, to waste the fruits of its hard and honest labor in building penitentiaries, in which the worthless, aye, and still dangerous existence of-a demon may be carefully prolonged, and his body clothed and fed—often much better than the poor who are taxed to pay for it—till the .culprit shall be pardoned by an impotent or corrupt executive, to vex the country again with his murders and conflagrations; or till a natural death shall do for the people

what they had not the firmness to do for thu selves—rid them of an enormous and periio burden, not imposed by anv dictate of ratm law."

Here is no sympathy with crime, noimini into palliative circumstances. The man who* guillotined had attempted several times to mi der his wife, and at last nearly beat her bra> out with a hammer. The doctor was evident glad to see his head cut off. As the read glides over the description he feels so likewe though it is only medical and miliar; tof whose nerves' arc educated out of the symf thetic influence of pain, that can witness sw things with a becoming indifference. Perls it is owing more to this sympathetic innVnc which the subtle fancy can any moment iiw to the mind, that we have such discordance opinion respecting capital punishment. T! easy confidence with which physicians thro*« opinions on social questions is often not only? tertaining, but really instructive; we are led see the matter in a new light. A lawn* troubled with the uncertainties of jury mi and the thousand other hindrances to jusac* doctors consider all that as an accurately wot ing part of the social machine, and look a to the abstract question. A man who ki his wife ought to be hung, they think; n» people have an instinctive feeling to the s« effect, because the fact appeals directly to sense of natural justice. But the doctors step further: not only do they have the nsl feeling, but, being acenstomed to surgical c tions, they have also a feeling that they slioi perfectly willing to officiate in the matter, one else were at hand, and that by the least painful to the subject. They areti slashers. But perhaps their cool mode of ing contributes, on the whole, to the heal the body politic, no less than their scienea to that of the body individual. At all ef however much any one may differ will Gardner on this and other points, there wi no difference as to the fact of his having' ten a very readable volume.

The American in Paris. By Jons Sts
In two volumes. Third edition. Fhiladi
Carey & Hart. 1817.

Since these letters were originally publ in 1835, they have had many imitators! of them displaying much ability; yet, aiir after a lapse of more than ten years, wb

ioog immortality for such sketches, they have ,-*t none of their original excellence. If it be awful to use two words utterly outworn, we My express in them a sufficiently comprehenive criticism for a brief notice, and call these olmnes "graphic" and "racy." They are ictnresque, brilliant, sparkling—everything bat is animated. To read them is like seeing ireworks. And yet they fatigue and cloy us. ?he intense ebullience of the fancy, which is heir most remarkable characteristic, affects us, re know not why, sadly and even painfully. >Ve seem to be brought in contact with aburnng sonl, that is consuming its over sensitive ind excitable tenement. The vis animi is rearing out the body. After reading a few jages one feels heated and feverish. In this T-spect these letters are in marked contrast rith thoi-e of Dr. Gardner, just noticed: they ire more brilliant, but not so cheerful. It may >», however, that in this respect our perceptions ire too delicate. For those who can bear such uriting there is drollery enough, as well as sugjestivenes?. in these two volumes, to stimulate ihem for a month. "Here, on the Boulevard

P.nssimniere^ or near it, resides Mr. , of

New Jersey; he has been sent over (hapless frond!) to convert these French people to Christianity. He is a very clever man, and we will ask if he is yet alive: the journals of this morning say three or four missionaries late been eaten up by the Sumatras." This md a thousand other bon-bons are in the very •pint of a Parisian feuilletonist. One cannot noid a momentary smile at the absurdity of

lie idea, though Mr. may have done a

peat deal of good in Paris, notwithstanding.

7V Boys' Winter Book: Descriptive of the Season, Scenery, Rural Life, and Country Amusements. By Thomas Miller. Harper & Brothers.

It makes one almost sad to see how much Uerter boys are cared for now than they used to bo, especially during the annual holidays th»l arc just past. This little volume is another evidence of the increased attention that is paid them. It is very neatly printed, and the wood cuts «r? well executed. Mr. Miller evidently loves children, and has also excellent taste in matters «f literature, anecdote, &c. Our only fault with him is that he writes down too far, and is t Utile childish and goodyish at times, which boys do not like half so well as strong manly *nling, iliat says what it has to say in plain wordi, and leaves their own active fancies to •apply the coloring. Nothing offends their frit- more llian to be played baby with; they always feel that they are not appreciated, and liat their teacher, who approaches them in that *\v, rnM be weak in perception. But so it is lhrou|>h life; the pride of the old stands opMed to that of the young:

11 Crabbed age and Tooth
Cannot live together;"

and when there comes a young genius, who lives more in a month than others in a year, the proud world is seldom ready to acknowledge him till the struggle of life is past. Then it honors him for bravely dying.

The Lesson of Iiife, and otlter Poems. By George H. Baker. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chesnut street. 1848.

A very modestly attired little volume, containing several very gracefully written pieces, betokening good sense, a kind heart, and a genial fancy. The longest piece has many passages of truly poetic description, and is nowhere marred by the affectations of style, which are the fashion of the day with many young gentlemen who presume to come before the world in the character of poets.

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The republication of this great work is draw" ing to a conclusion, it having reached the thirty" third number, the whole being to be completed in about forty. It is fairly printed in ample two-column pages, and the engravings very respectable. The usefulness and interest of the work are too obvious to need a comment. It is a compilation from all sorts of histories, and presents a view not only of the progress of the government but also of the people, their religion, manners and customs, national industry, general condition, and gradual advancement in literature, science, and the fine arts. For those who read history only for their own gratification and mental improvement, and not to supply themselves with arms to be used in political or professional employments, such a work must supply a long-felt desideratum. For, in respect of the most picturesque parts of English history, we have hitherto relied more upon the old dramatists and the modern novelists than upon Hume and his successors: Shakspeare and Sir Walter Scott have in this sense been our best historians.

We have not had time to examine the tone and merit of the compilation, but it is fair to presume that it is of similar excellence with the many works tending to popularize learning and spread the love of knowledge which nave issued from the same press in London; and if so, it is a work which cannot fail in this country of doing good service among the people. It is attractive and will be read, and many who are drawn into reading it will find how many of the noisiest social fancies of the present day which claim to be great discoveries are only new developments of the one Adam, and are in fact as old as the hills. It will lead to reflection, and that is a habit which, in feverish and fighting times like these, all true men must be glad to see encouraged in every possible way.

Thomson's Seasons; and Goldsmith's Poems. Both Illustrated with Engravings by the Etching Club. Harper & Brothers. 1848.

To find these two familiar friends arrayed in dresses of such elegance, is like meeting an every-day acquaintance in a ballroom: they are so fine one scarcely recognizes them. Yesterday they lay in our chamber, soiled and rusty—one, sooth to tell, with his coat entirely torn off his back; to-day we behold them in blue and gold, and with their pages filled with elegant engravings. For our own part, we feel constrained and awkward in conversing with them in their new attire; but if there were any young lady friend, or relative, a cousin for example, upon whom we desired them to make a favorable impression, we could not present them to her in more attractive costume. They would surely be welcome guests in any parlor.

The Seasons, especially, is as charming a book as one could offer to a lady. It is such a beautiful work of art, eo gentle and refining, so well fitted to cause those lovely in themselves to perceive the loveliness of the world around them, and thus to exist in a larger and more various sphere of enjoyment. One cannot but rejoice in the republication of so delightful a book in such a garb. Here in the rough outside of life, in the struggles of business and the coarse contacts of the gross and selfish, one almost fears sometimes that all the refinement of the world is vanishing out of it—that ladies are no longer sensitive to the music of the poets, and have determined to favoronly the victors in those less severe and less exacting conflicts that occur in wars on fields of battle. The publication of these handsome editions is a proof that they have not forgotten how to estimate the greatness of those who conquer in ideal regions, as well as of those who dwell wholly in the actual.

Goldsmith would be less one's choice for such a purpose than Thomson, he having been obliged to sec so much of the worser part of the world in his youth, that he never quite recovered of it; yet the Deserted Village is excellent reading. Every one knows that "nihil qvod tetigit quod non ornarit:"—it is refreshing to see that he is at last beautified himself, more according to his deserts than he usually was in his lifetime.

Jlora Biblica Quotidians. Daily Scripture Readings. By the late Thomas Chalmkrs, D.D., L.L.D. In three volumes.—Vol. I. Harper &. Brothers. 1848.

This volume forms a number in Dr. Chalmers'

Posthumous Works, now in course of prtEcation by the Harpers. The second work of the series is entitled "/force Biblica Sahfrftac ; or Sabbath Meditations on the Holy Smplures." The third is called "Thenlagiai Institutes;" the fourth is the author's "Lw/wu on Butler's Analogy;" the fifth embrace "Discourses." We mention the names of the forthcoming volumes for the convenience of many of our readers, who may wish to mike themselves acquainted with one of the most distinguished theological writers of his time. The publishers promise also a life of Dr. Chalmers, by his son-in-law Dr. Hanna, Ediv: of the North British Review.

The Bethel Flag: a Series of Short Discwr to Seamen. By Gardiner Sprisg, P.D Pastor of the Brick Presbyterian Church d the City of New-York. New-York: Bike: & Scribner. 1848.

It is unnecessary to examine the litenr merits of a series of discourses addressed '• seamen by a clergyman whose writings ire » highly esteemed by his denomination is ft Spring. They are characterized by his Ubs plainness and sincerity of style, and hence m» nave, aside from their pious uses, a tendency 1 improve the minds of the many readers the will of course find, among the class for whoc they are intended.

The American Musical Times. A Gtarf Devoted to Music, Literature, Th>_ Arts, and the Drama. Henry C. Watsfl Editor. New-York: W. B. Taylor," Nassau street.

This is the title of the seventh number of new weekly paper devoted, as its name impon chiefly to music. Mr. Watson is very wf known in the city as an accomplished mosicii and an able writer on all topics connected w the art. The series thus far has been decided the most interesting literary and mow melange we have ever seen, and if it is w tinued with the same spirit the work n.r surely succeed. The editor promises a seri of articles on Instrumentation, to be edit,'d Mr. George Loder: these will of coarse both interesting and valuable to m'1811 students.

The present number of the paper is mourning on account of the death of Mende sohn, who was the greatest of the cotemf n composers,and whose grandest work.theoraw of Elijah, was successfully performed in ° city, la«t month, by our best choral society, t American Musical Institute, under Mr. 1*^ direction.

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