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forbid any movement upon Kentucky soil, or occupation of any port or place therein, for any purposes whatever, until authorized by invitation or permission of the legislative and executive authorities."

The Confederate States resolved to allow no cotton to be exported to the North during the struggle, knowing how dependent the manufacturers there were upon the South for the supply of that material, and hoping that the distress thereby occasioned would tend to make the war unpopular with a numerous and influential class in the Northern States. The Congress accordingly passed an act declaring―

"That from and after the 1st of June next, and during the existence of the blockade of any of the ports of the Confederate States of America by the Government of the United States, it shall not be lawful for any person to export raw cotton or cotton yarn from the Confederate States of America, except through the seaports of the Confederate


On the 13th of May, a Royal Proclamation was issued by the Queen of the United Kingdom, commanding all her subjects to observe a strict neutrality in the war that was raging in America. It stated:

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"And we do hereby strictly charge and command all our loving subjects to observe a strict neutrality in and during the aforesaid hostilities, and to abstain from violating or contravening either the laws and statutes of the realm in this behalf, or the law of nations in relation thereto, as they will answer to the contrary at their peril.

"And we do hereby further warn all our loving subjects, and all persons whatsoever entitled to our protection, that if any of them shall presume, in contempt of this our Royal Proclamation, and of our high displeasure, to do any acts in derogation of their duty, as subjects of a neutral sovereign, in the said contest, or in violation or contravention of the law of nations in that behalf they will in no wise obtain any protection from against any liabilities or legal consequences; but will, on the contrary, incur our high displeasure by such misconduct."


The Emperor of the French also declared, by a proclamation or notice in the Moniteur, his resolution "to maintain a strict neutrality in the struggle between the Government of the Union and the States which propose to form a separate Confederation.' He also declared that no vessel of war or privateer of either of the belligerent parties" would be allowed to enter or stay with prizes in the French ports longer than twenty-four hours,




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and he prohibited the sale of prizes there. All Frenchmen were likewise prohibited from enlisting or taking service either in the land army or on board vessels of war or privateers of either of the two belligerent parties.

The State of Maryland did not venture to oppose the passage of the Federal States' troops through its territory, and, on the 15th of May, Baltimore was occupied by two thousand men under General Butler, who immediately proclaimed martial law, as the city was in a very disaffected state. The Maryland Legislature passed resolutions condemning the conduct of the President, but in favour of adhesion to the Union. The chief importance of this small State consisted in its being the highway between the North and Washington, which would have been completely isolated if Maryland had seceded or been able to exclude the Federal States' troops.

The Federal army under General Scott, at this juncture, was strongly posted in the neighbour hood of Washington. They also occupied Arlington heights on the other side of the Potomac, and all the bridges between Alexandria and Harper's Ferry were destroyed. Cairo, at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi, was strongly fortified, and made the base of operations in the West.

General Butler, commanding the Federal Forces at Fort Munroe, finding that runaway negroes were, to use his own expression, constantly flocking" to his lines, applied to the

Government for instructions how he was to deal with them, and he received from Mr. Cameron, the Secretary of War, directions not to surrender them to their masters, who had joined the rebels. Mr. Cameron said :

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"The department is sensible of the embarrassments which must surround officers conducting military operations in a State by the laws of which slavery is sanctioned. The Government cannot recognize the rejection by any State of its Federal obligations, nor can it refuse the performance of the Federal obligations resting upon itself. Among these Federal obligations, however, no one can be more important than that of suppressing and dispersing armed combinations formed for the purpose of overthrowing its whole constitutional authority. While, therefore, you will permit no interference, by the persons under your command, with the relations of persons held to service under the laws of any State, you will, on the other hand, so long as any State within which your military operations are conducted is under the control of such armed organizations, refrain from surrendering to alleged masters any persons who may come within your lines. You will employ such persons in the service to which they may be best adapted, keeping an account of the labour by them performed, of the value of it, and of the expense of their maintenance. The question of their final disposition will be reserved for future determination."


CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA CONTINUED.-Proclamation of the Confederate General Beauregard-Harper's Ferry abandoned by the Confederates -The Confederate Cabinet-Battle of Bull's Run-Success of the Confederates at Springfield-Measures with regard to Slaves-Proclamation of President Lincoln-Landing of Federal Troops on the Coast of South Carolina-Resignation of General Scott-Seizure of Passengers on board the British Mail Steamer Trent-Preparation for War by Great Britain-Surrender of the Passengers-Message of President Davis to the Confederate Congress-Message of President Lincoln to the Federal Congress-Operations of the Federal Marine Force during the War.


T is worth while to give an extract from the proclamation which General Beauregard issued from Camp Pickens, at Manassas Junction, on the 1st of June, and in which he called upon the inhabitants of Virginia to "rally to the standard of their State and country," and drive back and expel the invaders from their land:

"A reckless and unprincipled tyrant has invaded your soil. Abraham Lincoln, regardless of all moral, legal, and constitutional restraints, has thrown his Abolition hosts among you, who are murdering and imprisoning your citizens, confiscating and destroying your property, and


mitting other acts of violence and outrage too shocking and revolting to humanity to be enumerated.

"All rules of civilized warfare are abandoned, and they proclaim by their acts, if not on their banners, that their war-cry is 'Beauty and Booty. All that is

dear to man-your honour and that of your wives and daughters

your fortunes and your lives are involved in this momentous contest."

The Confederate forces, under General Johnston, had for some time occupied Harper's Ferry, and appeared resolved to defend it to the last, but suddenly, on the 16th of June, they began to evacuate it, and finally abandoned the place, after setting fire to the railway bridge and public buildings, and spiking such heavy guns as they were not able to remove. Harper's Ferry was then taken possession of by a detachment of the Federal army.

The Confederate Government changed its head-quarters from Montgomery to Richmond in Virginia, and the Congress met there on the 20th of July. Mr. Davis's Cabinet consisted of the following members:--

Secretary of State, Robert Toombs, of Georgia. Secretary of the Treasury, C. L. Memmin

ger, of South Carolina. Secretary of War, Leroy P. Walker, of Alabama. Secretary of the Navy, Stephen R. Mallory, of Florida. Postmaster-General, John H. Reagan, of Texas. AttorneyGeneral, Judah P. Benjamin, of Louisiana.

The Vice-President was Mr. with his verbal instructions, the plan of operations and estimate of force required, the time I was to proceed to carry it into effect was fixed for the 8th of July (Monday). Every facility possible was given me by the General-in-Chief and heads of the administrative departments in making the necessary preparations. But the regiments, owing, I was told, to want of transport, came over slowly. Many of them did not come across till eight or nine days after the time fixed upon, and went forward without my even seeing them, and without having been together before in a brigade. The sending reinforcements to General Patterson, by drawing off the waggons, was a further and unavoidable cause of delay. Notwithstanding the herculean efforts of the Quartermaster-General, and his favouring me in every way, the waggons for ammunition, subsistence, &c., and the horses for the trains and the artillery, did not all arrive for more than a week after the time appointed to move. I was not even prepared as late as the 15th ult., and the desire I should move became great, and it was wished I should not, if possible, delay longer than Tuesday, the 16th ult.


explanation of the causes, as far
as they can be seen, which led to
the results herein stated, I trust
it may not be out of place if I
refer in a few words to the imme-
diate antecedents of the battle.
When I submitted to the
General-in-Chief, in compliance


Stephens, of Georgia.

On the 20th of July the headquarters of the Federal army, under the command of General M'Dowell, were at Centreville, about eighteen miles to the southwest of Washington, and the Confederate forces were in the neighbourhood of Manassas, distant from Centreville about seven miles further to the southwest. Centreville is a village on the west side of a ridge which runs nearly north and south, and the road from it to Manassas, or Manassas Junction as it is called, was along this ridge, crossing a stream called Bull's Run, three miles from Centreville. General M'Dowell determined to attack the Confederates, and his original intention was to turn the enemy's positions on their right, but a reconnaissance made on the 18th showed that they were too strongly posted in that direction. The plan of attack was therefore altered, and directed against the extreme left. The troops were ordered to march at half-past 2 A.M., on the morning of Sunday, the 21st, in order that they might reach the scene of intended action before the heat of the day What followed will best appear from General M'Dowell's official report of the engagement. He says:

"As my position may warrant, even if it does not call for, some

When I did set out, on the 16th, I was still deficient in waggons for subsistence. But I went forward, trusting to their being procured in time to follow

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me. The trains thus hurriedly gathered together, with horses, waggons, drivers, and waggon managers all new and unused to each other, moved with difficulty and disorder, and were the cause of a day's delay in getting the provisions forward, making it necessary to make on Sunday the attack we should have made on Saturday.



"I could not, with every exertion, get forward with the troops earlier than we did. I wished to go to Centreville the second day, which would have taken us there on the 17th, and enabled us, so far as they were concerned, to go into action on the 19th, instead of the 21st; but when I went forward from Fairfax Courthouse, beyond German-town, to urge them forward, I was told it was impossible for the men to march further. They had only come from Vienna, about six miles, and it was not more than six and a half miles further to Centreville-in all a march of twelve and a-half miles; but the were foot-weary, not much, I was told, by the distance marched as by the time they had been on foot, caused by the obstructions in the road, and the slow pace we had to move to avoid ambuscades. The men were, moreover, unaccustomed to marching, their bodies not in condition for that kind of work, and not used to carrying even the load of light marching order. There was delay in the First Division getting out of its camp on the road, and the other divisions were in consequence between two and three hours behind the time appointed-a great misfortune, as events turned out. The wood


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road leading from the Warrenton turnpike to the upper ford was much longer than we counted upon, the general direction of the stream being oblique to the road, and we having the obtuse angle on our side.

"General Tyler commenced with his artillery at half-past 6 A.M., but the enemy did not reply, and after some time it became a question whether he was in any force in our front, and if he did not intend himself to make an attack, and make it by Blackburn's Ford. After firing several times, and obtaining no response, I held one of Heintzelman's brigades in reserve in case we should have to send any troops back to reinforce Miles's Division. The other brigades moved forward as directed in the general orders.

"On reaching the ford at Sudley's Spring, I found that a part of the leading brigade of Hunter's Division (Burnside's) had crossed; but the men were slow in getting over, stopping to drink. As at this time the clouds of dust from the direction of Manassas indicated the immediate approach of a large force, and fearing it might come down on the head of the column before the division could all get over and sustain it, orders were sent back to the heads of regiments to break from the column and come forward separately as fast as possible. Orders were sent by an officer to the reserve brigade of Heintzelman's Division to come by a nearer road across the fields, and an aide-de-camp was sent to Brigadier-General Tyler to direct him to press forward his attack, as large bodies of the enemy were passing in front of him to

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