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and proudest, through God's blessing, than any correction by rod: and this without danger to the scholar, or offence to their friends. And therefore, when rod and all other means fail, let us look carefully to this, not to leave one stubborn boy, until he be brought as submiss and dutiful as any of the rest. For, those being brought into obedience, the rest may easily be kept in order, with very little correction: whereas one stubborn boy suffered will spoil, or at leastwise endanger all the rest.

4. Sometimes in greater faults, to give three or four jerks with a birch, or with a small red willow where birch cannot be had. Or for terror in some notorious fault, half a dozen stripes or more, soundly laid on, according to the discretion of the master. Some do only keep a bill, and note carefully their several principal disorders; and now and then, shew them their names and faults mildly, how oft they have been admonished, and when they take them in hand pay them soundly and by this policy keep them in great obedience.

In this correction with the rod, special provision must be had for sundry things.

I. That when you are to correct any stubborn or unbroken boy, you may be sure with him to hold him fast; as they are enforced to do, who are to shoe or to tame an unbroken colt. To this end appoint three or four of your scholars, whom you know to be honest, and strong enough, or more if need be, to lay hands upon him together, to hold him fast, over some form, so that he cannot stir hand nor foot; or else if no other remedy will serve, to hold him to some post (which is far the safest and free from inconvenience) so as he cannot anyway hurt himself or others, be he never so peevish. Neither that he can have hope by any device or turning, or by his apparel, or any other means to escape. Nor yet that any one be left in his stubbornness to go away murmuring, pouting, or blowing and puffing, until he shew as much submission as any, and that he will lie still of himself without any holding; yet so as ever a wise moderation be kept. Although this must of necessity be looked unto; because besides the evil example to others, there is no hope to do any good to count of with any, till their stomachs be first broken: and then they once thoroughly brought under, you may have great hope to work all good according to their

capacity; so that it may be, you shall have little occasion to correct them after. Moreover every child suffered in his stubbornness to escape for his struggling, will in a short time come to trouble two or three men to take him up and to correct him without danger of hurting himself, or others.

II. To be wary for smiting them over the backs, in any case, or in such sort as in any way to hurt or endanger them. To the end to prevent all mischiefs, for our own comfort; and to cut off all occasions from quarrelling parents or evil reports of the school. And withal, to avoid for these causes, all smiting them upon the head, with hand, rod or ferula. Also to the end that we may avoid all danger and fear for desperate boys hurting themselves, not to use to threaten them afore, and when they have done any notorious fault, nor to let them know when they shall be beaten; but when they commit a new fault, or that we see the school most full or opportunity most fit, to take them of a sudden.

III. That the master, do not in any case abase himself to strive or struggle with any boy to take him up: but to appoint other of the strongest to do it, where such need is, in such sort as was shewed before; and the rather for fear of hurting them in his anger, and for the evils which may come thereof and which some schoolmasters have lamented after.

IV. That the masters and ushers also do by all means avoid all furious anger, threatening, chasing, fretting, reviling: for these things will diminish authority and may do much hurt, and much endanger many ways. And therefore on the contrary, that all their correction be done with authority, and with a wise and sober moderation, in a demonstration of duty to God and love to the children, for their amendment, and the reformation of their evil manners.

Finally, as God hath sanctified the rod and correction, to cure the evils of their conditions, to drive out that folly which is bound up in their hearts, to save their souls from hell, to give them wisdom; so it is to be used as God's instrument to these purposes. To spare them in these cases is to hate them. To love them is to correct them betime. Do it under God, and for Him to these ends and with these cautions, and you shall never hurt them: you have the Lord for your warrant.

Correction in such manner, for stubbornness, negligence and carelessness, is not to be accounted over-great severity, much less cruelty...

Spoudeus. I like your advice wonderful well herein: but when would you have the time of common punishment to be inflicted; as namely that for their misdemeanors in the church, or other gross faults noted by the monitors?

Philoponus. I would have this done commonly at the giving up of the monitors' bills, some day before prayer; sometimes one day sometimes another: and when the master finds the greatest company present, then to call for the monitors of that week; lest keeping a set time, any absent themselves by feigned excuses or otherwise, or cry unto their parents, that they dare not go to the school, because they must be beaten. But for extreme negligence, or other faults in the school, the very fittest time is immediately before the breaking up, upon the play-days; then if needs so require, first to whip all the stubborn and notoriously negligent, as also those who have done any gross fault: and after to cause them to sit, and do some exercises, whereof they are to give a strict account, as I said. This will surely by God's blessing tame the proudest of them in time and bring them to be as submiss as the least child; as experience will manifest.

Spoudeus. But what if you have any, whom you cannot yet reform of their ungraciousness or loitering and whom you can do no good withal, no not by all these means? As some there are ever in all schools extremely untoward.

Philoponus. These I would have some way removed from the school; at least by giving the parents notice and entreating them to employ them some other way; that neither other be hurt by their example, nor they be a reproach to the school, nor yet we be enforced to use that severity with them which they will deserve. But keep these courses strictly, and you shall see that they will either amend, or get away of themselves, by one means or other; I mean by some device to their parents to leave the school, and to go to some other employment.

JOHN BRINSLEY, Ludus Literarius or the Grammar Schoole 1612

Country Schoolmasters

Sir, I praise the Lord for you, and so may my parishioners; for their sons are well tutored by you, and their daughters profit very greatly under you you are a good member of the commonwealth.

Love's Labour's Lost, IV. ii. 75-79

If they be well gowned and bearded, they have two good apologies ready made; but they are beholden to the tailor and barber for both: if they can provide for two pottles of wine against the next lecture-day, the school being void, there are great hopes of preferment: if he gets the place, his care next must be for the demeanour of his countenance: he looks over his scholars with as great and grave a countenance, as the emperor over his army. He will not at first be over busy to examine his usher, for fear he should prove, as many curates, better scholars than the chief master. As he sits in his seat, he must with a grace turn his mustachios up; his sceptre lies not far from him, the rod: he uses martial law most, and the day of execution ordinarily is the Friday: at six o'clock his army all begin to march; at eleven they keep rendezvous, and at five or six at night, they take up their quarters. There are many set in authority to teach youth, which never had much learning themselves; therefore if he cannot teach them, yet his looks and correction shall affright them. But there are some who deserve the place by their worth and wisdom, who stayed with their mother the university, until learning, discretion and judgment had ripened them for the well-managing of a school. These I love, respect, and wish that they may have good means either here, or somewhere else. These come from the sea of learning, well furnished with rich prizes of knowledge and excellent qualities, ballasted they are well with gravity and judgment, well steered by religion and a good conscience. And these abilities make them the only fit men to govern and instruct tender age; he learns the cradle to speak several languages and fits them for places of public note: being thus qualified, 'tis pity he should either want means or employment.

DONALD LUPTON, London and the Countrey carbonadoed 1632

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3. The University

Some to the studious universities.

The Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1. iii. 10

Study is like the heaven's glorious sun,

That will not be deep-search'd with saucy looks;
Small have continual plodders ever won,

Save base authority from others' books.

Love's Labour's Lost, 1. i. 84-87

The Universities of England

In my time there are three noble universities in England, to wit, one at Oxford, the second at Cambridge and the third in London, of which the first two are the most famous, I mean Cambridge and Oxford, for that in them the use of the tongues, philosophy and the liberal sciences, beside the profound studies of the civil law, physic and theology are daily taught and had: whereas in the latter the laws of the realm are only read and learned by such as give their minds unto the knowledge of the same. In the first also there are not only divers goodly houses builded four square for the most part of hard freestone or brick, with great numbers of lodgings and chambers in the same for students, after a sumptuous manner, through the exceeding liberality of kings, queens, bishops, noblemen and ladies of the land; but also large livings and great revenues bestowed upon them (the like whereof is not to be seen in any other region, as Peter Martyr did oft affirm) to the maintainance only of such convenient numbers of poor men's sons as the several stipends bestowed upon the said houses are able to support....

The manner to live in these universities is not as in some other of foreign countries we see daily to happen, where the students are enforced for want of such houses to dwell in common inns and taverns, without all order or discipline. But in these our colleges we live in such exact order, and under so precise rules of government, as that the famous learned man Erasmus of Rotterdam, being here among us fifty years past, did not let to compare the trades in living of students in these two places even with the very rules and orders of the

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