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Simmons, George C., Esq., New York,
Clerk U.S. Board of Engineers.
Summers, Thomas O., S. T. D., LL.D.,
Late Prof. of Systematic Theology, Vanderbilt Univ., Tenn.
Prof. of Systematic Theology in Vanderbilt University.
Waldo, Leonard, Esq., Cambridge, Mass.,
Walker, Francis Amasa, LL.D., Boston, Mass.,
Editor of Times.
Weld, M. C., Ph.B., Closter, N. Y.,
Late Assistant Editor of American Agriculturist.
Sims, J. Marion, M. D., New York.
President of Virginia Military Institute.
Late Governor of Georgia.
Woolsey, Theodore D., S. T. D., LL.D., Ex-President of Yale College, Conn. Stoughton, Rev. John, S. T. D., LL.D., London, Eng. Wurtz, Prof. Henry, A. M., Ph. D., Hoboken, N. J. Stuart, H. L., Esq., New York. Zinsser, Frederick, M. D., New York.
Thori'ida [Thorius-Gr. Bopóeis, "undeveloped "-the | 1860), Life of J. M. W. Turner, R. A. (2 vols., 1861), True name of the only known genus], a family of salamanders (Gradentia), distinguished by Prof. Cope for a species found in Mexico exhibiting the "lowest grade of ossific deposit found among the tailed batrachians [whence the name], accompanied by characters of full development in other respects. The parietal and palatine bones are represented mostly by cartilage and membrane; the posterior nares are therefore not separated from the orbit, the palatine bones are not prolonged over the parasphenoid; there is no postorbital arch; teeth are developed on plates on the parasphenoid bone: the tongue is boletoid and free in front; the earpus and tarsus are ossified; the vertebræ eoneave behind. The single known species has been named Thorius pennatulus, and is terrestrial in habits." (See Cope in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1869, pp. 110-112.) THEODORE GILL.
Tho'rium, also Thorinum, one of the rare metals, discovered by Berzelius in 1828 in a Norwegian mineral which he called thorite, from the mythical being Thor. Thorite is a hydric silicate of thoria, or oxide of thorium, consisting of ThO.SiO2.2H2O. Berzelius and Chydenius both obtained metallic thorium of densities 7.657 and 7.795 by treating the chloride ThCl2 with sodium. It is a gray metallic powder, which burns with great brilliancy to snowwhite infusible thoria or thorina, ThO. Water does not act upon it, and nitric and sulphuric acids with difficulty, though muriatic acid attacks and dissolves it powerfully.
This is the statement of Berzelius, but Chydenius makes it
Thorn. See CRATEGUS.
Thorn, town of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the Vistula, is strongly fortified, surrounded with walls, and defended by forts; has some manufactures of cloth, linen, soap, tobacco, and gingerbread, and carries on an active trade in corn and cattle. Copernicus was born here, and a fine monument in his honor has been erected in the market-place. P. 20,617.
Thorn-Apple. See DATURA.
Thorn'back [i. e. "back with prickles" or "thorns"], the name given in some parts of England to the Raia el rata. This is a short-snouted ray, whose dorsal surface, especially about the snout and interorbital space, is covered with small spines, and along the middle of the back and tail with a row of large spines, resembling somewhat the thorns of a rose-bush; the male has further still larger thorns on the sides of the head and pectoral fins, and the female has numerous spines, each arising from a large roundish base. It is very abundant along some parts of the English coast, and is the most esteemed as a table-fish of any member of the genus. It comes into the shallow water in spring and summer, and is then taken in the greatest numbers. THEODORE GILL. Thorn'borough (Sir EDWARD), b. in 1756; entered the British navy was first lieutenant of the Falcon, one of the vessels which participated in the attack on Bunker Hill, 1775; took an active part in subsequent naval actions during the war of the American Revolution, and distinguished himself on various occasions in the war with France, rising to the rank of admiral of the white and receiving the thanks of Parliament. D. Apr. 3, 1834.
Thornbury (GEORGE WALTER), b. at London, England, in 1828: became contributor to periodicals at the age of seventeen: was connected with the Athenæum 1851; studied art and occasionally practised painting, but devoted himself to periodical literature, including essays, poems, novels, travels, and biographies. D. June 7, 1876. Among his numerous works are Shakespeare's England, or Sketches of on Social History during the Reign of Elizabeth (2 vols., 1556, Songs of the Cavaliers and Roundheads (1857), Life in Spain (2 vols., 1859), Turkish Life and Character (2 vols., 1860), British Artists from Hogarth to Turner (2 vols., VOL. VIII-1
as Steel (1863), Haunted London (1865), Two Centuries of Song (1866), A Tour round England (1870), Old and New London (2 vols., 1873-74), Criss-Cross Journeys, and Historical and Legendary Ballads and Songs (1876).
Thorndike (GEORGE QUINCY), b. in Boston about 1825; graduated at Harvard 1847; studied art in Paris; settled ing. Among his best-known productions are The Dumpat Newport, R. I., and devoted himself to landscape-paintlings, Lily Pond, Swans in Central Park, and The Wayside
Thorndike (ISRAEL), b. at Beverly, Mass., in 1757; received a common-school education; was commissioned
captain of the privateer Warren Oct. 30, 1776; subsequently acquired wealth by commerce with China and the East Indies and by manufactures; was a member of the convention that framed the Federal Constitution; settled at Boston 1810, and in 1818 presented to Harvard University the valuable library of Prof. Ebeling of Hamburg. D. at Boston May 10, 1832.
Thornton (EDWARD), b. at Clapham, Surrey, England, in 1810; entered the civil service of the East India Company at an early age; spent many years in the India House, London, from which he retired 1860 with the decoration of commander of the Bath. Author of India, its State and Prospects (1835), Chapters on the Modern History of British India (1839), History of the British Empire in
India (6 vols., 1841-45; 3d ed. 1862), A Gazetteer of the Countries adjacent to India on the North-west (2 vols., 1844), and A Gazetteer of India (4 vols., 1854; 2d ed., 1 vol., 1857). He edited William Milburn's Oriental Commerce (2d ed. 1825), and wrote most of the articles upon India in the 8th ed. (1853-60) of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Thornton (Sir EDWARD), LL.D., K. C. B., b. about 1820, son of Hon. Edward Thornton, British minister in Portugal, who for services rendered the government of that country was created count of Casi!has in the Portuguese nobility; entered the diplomatic service in 1842 as attaché at Turin; became paid attaché in Mexico 1845, and secretary of legation there 1851; rendered valuable unofficial services in
facilitating the negotiation of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848: was secretary of legation at Buenos Ayres 1852-53; appointed chargé d'affaires to Uruguay 1854; also commissioned to Paraguay, which country he repeatedly visited; minister to the Argentine Republic 1859'; envoy to Brazil 1865-67, and in Dec., 1867, appointed envoy to the U. S. (retired 1881); knighted Aug. 9, 1870; a member of the joint high commission on the Alabama claims 1871; a privy councillor 1871; arbitrator of the Mexican and American claims commission 1873, and participated in the Centennial ceremonies at Philadelphia July 4, 1876. He was appointed British ambassador to Russia 1881.
Thornton (HARRY I.), b. in Virginia; removed in early life to Kentucky. He removed to Huntsville, Ala., and became a judge of the supreme court; resided in Mobile and in Eutaw, Ala., and was a successful lawyer. Mr. Fillmore appointed him a commissioner of California land-titles in 1853, a few years after which he died.-His brother, CoL. JAMES O. THORNTON of Tuscaloosa, was secretary of state of Alabama 1824-34.
Thornton (JAMES S.), U. S. N., b. Feb. 25, 1827, in New Hampshire; entered the navy as a midshipman Jan. 15, 1841; became a lieutenant in 1855, commander in 1866, captain in 1872; was executive officer of Farragut's flagship at the battle of New Orleans and the passage of Vicksburg, and executive officer of the Kearsarge when she captured the Alabama. D. May 14, 1875. Capt. Thornton was an officer of great gallantry and a prime seaman, highly commended by Farragut, and thus spoken of by Capt. Winslow in his official report of June 20, 1864: "I feel it due to my executive officer, Lieut.-Com. Thornton, who superintended the working of the Kearsarge's battery, to particularly mention him for an example of coolness and encouragement of the men while fighting, which contributed much toward the success of the action." FOXHALL A. PARKER. Thornton (JOHN WINGATE), b. at Saco, Me., Aug. 12, 1818; graduated at Cambridge Law School 1840; was one of the founders of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society, vice-president of the American Statistical Associ
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