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ship bill, which was lost in the Chamber, where a remonstrance against it was presented signed by fourteen thousand women. The General Assembly adjourned on November 20, 1888, and the months following witnessed marked republican activity and increase. December 10, 1888, a mob of roughs broke up a Republican meeting at Rio. The early part of the year 1889 was memorable for a fatal epidemic of yellow fever in the cities of Rio, Santos, and Campinas, and bitter invectives were leveled at the Government for the lack of sanitary precautions. The number of deaths at Rio in the month of March was twenty-five hundred.
The General Assembly was opened on May 3, 1889, by the Emperor, in a speech “ from the throne,” abounding in the usual generalities; but there was soon a Cabinet crisis. The Liberals, instead of standing by Alfredo at
. such a juncture, now opposed him; and having to contend also with the jealous hostility of the Cotegipe faction of his own party, his Cabinet was obliged to resign, unless the Emperor, rising above a temporizing policy, should decide to dissolve the Chamber and appeal to the country. But this he did not do. He accepted their resignation, and appointed a new Cabinet from the Liberal party, with Senator Viscount Ouro Preto (of the family name of Affonso Celso) as prime minister, who took the government on June 7, 1889. The profound indignation of the Conservatives in that crisis was illustrated by the sig. nificant, and, as it proved, prophetic exclamation, “ Long live the republic !” uttered by a Conservative member of the Chamber, when the decree announcing the fall of the Alfredo Cabinet was read.
Only four days after this the Chamber passed a vote -79 to 20%of want of confidence in the Ouro Preto Cab
inet, whereupon the Emperor, June 12th, by advice of the Council of State, dissolved the Chamber and ordered a new election to take place on the 31st of the following August. The Ouro Preto Cabinet continued in power meantime. As had been too frequently the habit of previous administrations, it used unscrupulous means to carry
the elections, and so overdid the business that scarcely any but Liberal members were returned. Considering what a mockery elections had come to be, it is no wonder that Brazilian patriots should seriously meditate on a radical change in the Constitution. Discontent was profound. Complaints were outspoken and loud. Eloquent editorials in popular journals advocated the republic.
The Ouro Preto administration, which by some means raised exchange to above par, borrowed, August 27th, fifty million dollars, the disbursement of which, in loans to planters and in other ways, created a fictitious prosperity. It made sweeping removals from office on spoils principles, and, though acknowledged to be brilliant, was regarded as prodigal in the extreme. Brazilian opinion is much influenced by what occurs in France, and repub-' lican government had lately gained great prestige there by its signal victory over Boulanger and his royalist allies. Several thousand people at Rio, of French birth or descent, were accustomed to celebrate the great French republican anniversary of the fall of the Bastile, July 14th, by illuminations and a grand ball at the Casino. July 14, 1889, was the centennial of that event, and its observance at Rio and the current of thought it awakened gave republicanism a decided boom.
Of social events occurring at Rio during this critical period one was a great ball given in honor of the consort of the Princess Imperial in the sumptuous hall of the
Casino, October 15th, about the opening of Brazil's luxuriant summer. Another was a reception of lavish expenditure and splendor given by the Government to the officers of the Chilian ship of war, November 9th, and which was attended by four thousand people. At each of these the Emperor was present, and treated with every mark of respect and admiration.
It was known, however, that disaffection existed in the military and naval forces stationed at the capital. The regular troops were jealous of the measures taken by the Government for organizing the so-called National Guard. They had also long felt themselves slighted by the civil authority, and protracted routine guard duty in the city had impaired their discipline. There had been a dispute of long standing between the civil power and the commander, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca. The Government ordered the 7th battalion of infantry to start for a distant province on the 20th of November, but the principal officers resolved to resist. The Republicans, whose chosen leader was Quintino Bocayuva, editor of the “Paiz” (mentioned on page 227 of the text), organized and diligently worked to profit by the situation in bringing about a revolution. The Government learned of the plot on the 14th, and ordered the battalion to move on the 15th instead of waiting till the 20th. At daybreak of the 15th the Cabinet ministers were at the navy-yard (situated at the foot of the Benedictine Hill), and thence accompanied a force of two hundred marines to the military barracks, a mile distant, at Acclamation Park, and where the war-office and army headquarters are situated. These buildings inclose a large parade-ground, where were soon formed the 1st, 7th, and 10th battalions of infantry and quite a force of police and firemen. About eight
o'clock Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca arrived there with a column of cavalry and artillery, and was hailed by the other officers with “hurrahs” for himself and “downs” for the ministry. Most of the latter were observing the spectacle from the windows of the war-office. As, however, Admiral Baron Ladario, the Minister of Marine, was approaching the grounds, on his return from the navyyard, he was ordered by a lieutenant to surrender as a prisoner to Marshal Deodoro. “That,” he exclaimed,
. “is impossible! Who is to take me?” Upon the lieutenant attempting to take hold of him, he drew a pistol and fired, but without effect. Then, by Deodoro's orders, some soldiers fired at the admiral, who fell wounded, but not mortally. (He has lately been placed on the retired list by the Provisional Government.) Marshal Deodoro, after having a short conversation with the adjutantgeneral, went to the room where the Cabinet ministers were assembled and told them they were deposed, in the name of the army, and would be held under guard. At eleven o'clock he paraded the streets with the troops and Republican leaders, marching to the navy-yard and back and returning at 1 P. M. It was during this that the republic was proclaimed. The public offices and business houses closed. There were all sorts of rumors and considerable alarm. Previous to their surrender, the Cabinet telegraphed to the Emperor at Petropolis their wish to resign, and that they had ascertained it would be useless to offer resistance to the military. At half-past two they were allowed to go to their homes. The Emperor, accompanied by the Empress, immediately came down from their summer residence at Petropolis and arrived at the City Palace about 3 P. M., where they were soon joined by the Princess Imperial and Count d’Eu, together with
ional Government, in as courteous form as could be expressed, that a ship would be provided on which he would be expected to leave Brazilian territory within twentyfour hours. To avoid, however, any popular manifestation and possible disturbance, he was required to leave between two and three o'clock on the morning of the 17th. From the palace to the landing, Cáes Pharoux, the distance is only two hundred yards. Thither the Emperor and Empresss went in a carriage, and the Princess, who was weeping incessantly, her husband, and the Princes, on foot; thence they were taken on a small launch to the gunboat Parnahyba, which at 10.15 A. M. conveyed them to Ilha Grande, where they embarked on the Brazilian steamship Alagoas, which had been chartered exclusively for them, and which immediately sailed for Lisbon. They arrived there safely after an uneventful voyage. The general sympathy everywhere felt for them was increased by the death of the ex-Empress which occurred very soon after at Oporto. Previous to their departure the Provisional Government handed to Dom Pedro a decree granting him for his future support the sum of $2,500,000, but which after his arrival in Europe he declined to accept.
The ex-Emperor, apparently much broken down, accompanied by his daughter, her husband, their three children, his grandson, Prince Pedro of Saxe-Coburg, and a numerous suite, arrived at Cannes on the 16th of January following, and took quarters at the Hôtel Beau Séjour, the first floor of which was reserved for his party. He himself occupied the same rooms he had two years before, his working-room overlooking the beautiful gardens of the hotel and the island of St. Marguerite, across the bay. There, with the exception of a few journeys that he