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THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL,
THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS.
The two books of Samuel originally formed only one, / anticipated by Moses four hundred years before (see which was called “The Book of Samuel;" but was divided | Deut. xvii. 14). As this was a change of great importby the Greek translators into two, and designated “The ance in the national history, the circumstances attending First and Second Books of Kings." Their authorship is it are related in detail. Under Divine direction, Saul is uncertain; but there is great probability in the ancient appointed king; but, not conducting himself in the opinion, founded on various passages in the books of government according to the command of God, he is reChronicles, that they were the productions of contem- jected; and the son of Jesse is chosen by God, and anointed porary prophets, with a few explanatory insertions by as his successor. David is then, by the arrangements their successors. Thus, the first sixteen chapters, with a of Providence, brought before the eyes of the nation, and few subsequent portions, may be attributed to Samuel, into relationship with Saul; who, however, being jealous whose name, according to Hebrew custom, is given to of his growing popularity, attempts his life, drives him the whole; and the rest to Nathan and Gad. The few from court into the wilderness, and subjects him to the passages which have been supposed by some to indicate most harassing persecutions. These are overruled by God a later origin appear to have been either subsequent to prepare David for the work he had to do; developing additions, or to be susceptible of a different explanation, his fortitude and prudence, and making him intimately Upon some of these, remarks will be found in the notes. acquainted with the power of the dreaded Philistines and The great subject of these books is the institution of
other enemies, whom he was afterwards to subjugate. the monarchy, and its establishment in the family of
The history of David is important, not only on account David. The Divine plan of redemption is thus presented
of the great moral and spiritual lessons which it affords, in a new aspect, exhibiting the delegation of royal au
but also for the understanding of many other parts of thority by the Invisible King to the hands of a human
Scripture, particularly the Psalms and much of the New representative. From the time when the man after
Testament. As an ancestor of the Messiah according to God's own heart' was seated on the throne, the Spirit of
the flesh, and as a representative of him and of his prophecy delights to employ the emblems of royalty to
people, both in his conflicts and in his triumphs, his set forth the spiritual glories of Messiah (see Psa. ii.,
whole life is invested with peculiar interest. See the Ils., cx., etc.) whilst the inspired history of the line
Preface to the Psalms. of David opens a track by which, step after step, we are led on to Him in whom the independent successions of
This book may be divided into two parts:prophets, priests, and kings finally meet.
I. THE CONCLUSION OF THE TIMES OF THE JUDGES : It is remarkable, too, that almost at the same time a
comprising the birth and early life of Samuel; the wickednew era of prophecy began, which extended, with scarcely
ness of Eli's sons, and denunciations of judgment against any interruption, to the days of Malachi. Samuel is
his family (ch. i.-ü.); defeat of the Israelites; capture spoken of, in Acts üi. 24, as the first of this succession of
of the ark; chastisement of the Philistines, and restoraprophets, whose chief object was to foreshow the redemp
tion of the ark (iv.-vi.); repentance and deliverance of tion of Christ, and to prepare the way for his coming, as
the Israelites (vii.) well as to give religious instruction to the people. The
II. THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE MOXARCHY. The maintenance of this succession was doubtless greatly
people desire a king (ch. vüü); designation and appointassisted by the schools of the prophets, so frequently
ment of Saul (ix., X.); Saul's victory over the Ammonalluded to in the subsequent history, which are supposed
ites (xi.); Samuel's address to the people on resigning to have been first established under Samuel
the government (xi.); Saul's wars with the Philistines These two books extend over a period of 154 years
and Amalekites, his disobedience and rejection (xiii.-XV.); accordir.g to Usher, or 172 according to Hales.
anointing of David by Samuel (xvi.); his victory over
Goliath (xvii.); his persecution by Saul, and flight to THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL begins with an account Ramah, Nob, Gath, and Adullam (xviii.-xxii. 1-5); of the birth and early ministry of that prophet: it de the slaughter of the priests at Nob (xxii. 6-23); David's seribes the low and oppressed condition of the people at rescue of Keilah, and flight into the wilderness and to that period; the appointment of Samuel as judge; and Gath (xxiii.--xxvii.); renewal of war by the Philistines; his eminently useful services, both as a prophet and as a Saul and the witch of Endor (xxvii.); David's dismissal ruler; and mentions the degeneracy of his sons. It then by the Philistine princes, and pursuit of the Amalekites relates the change in the mode of government by the (xxix., xxx.); defeat of the Israelites by the Philistines, introduction of the monarchy; an event which had been | and death of Saul and his sons (xxxi.)
Samuel's birth and dedication to the service of God; Hannah's song of thanksgiving. 1 NOW there was a certain man of Ramathaim-zophim, of mount Ephraim, and
his name was a Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, • Chr. & 27.34. 2 the son of Zuph, oan Ephrathite: and he had two wives; the name of the one Ru. 1. 2.
see refs. Ge. 4. 19. reas Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah : and Peninnah had children,
d see refs. Jnile. 13. !. but Hannah (had no children. 3 And this man went up out of his city 'yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto I Deu. 12 5-7
e Ex. 23. 11. 17: Dell
16. 16: L.k. 2. 41.
1 That is, Ramah of Zuph, whose descendants resided called “sons of Korah,' 1 Chron. vi. 33–38. He is called here. It is so called to distinguish it from another Ramah. an Ephrathite probably because he resided in Mount
He was a Levite of the line of Kohath, and the family Ephraim, which was a prolongation north wards of the of Korah; and his descendants, the singers, are therefore / mountains of Judah.
3: Jud. IL 31 9 Ge. 23.32Ex. 6. 31;
2 Sam. 16. 19; Ps.
the LORD of hosts 1 in 8 Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, 1 s Jos. 18. 1. 4 the priests of the LORD, were there. And when the time was that Elkanah "offered, Deu. 12 17, 19; 16.
he gave to Peninnah his wife, 2 and to all her sons and her daughters, portions : 5 but unto Hannah he gave a worthy 3 portion; for he loved Hannah : but the list. 21:30 2 6 Lord had shut up her womb. And her adversary 4 also a provoked her sore,
for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up lier womb. And as he did 7 80 year by year, when she went up to the house of the LORD, 80 she provoked 8 her;5 therefore she wept, and did not eat. Then said Elkanah her husband
to her, Hannah, why weepest thou ? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved ? am not I better to thee than ten sons?
I Ru 4 15 9 So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk.
eh.23 10 Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD. * And * Jab 2. 11; 10 I; le 11 she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore. And
P. 51. 15 she vowed a vow, and said, O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed . look on the
P Ge. 28. 90: Nam. 31 affliction of thine handmaid, and 'remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto the
Ge. & 1; 32 22; PL LORD all the days of his life, and 'there shall no razor come upon his head.?
Num. 6 5; Judg. 12 And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the LORD, that Eli marked 25
« Ne 2 4; P. X 1; 13 her mouth. Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but 14 her voice was not heard : therefore Eli u thought she had been drunken. And
Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from 15 thee. And Hannah answered and said, -No, my lord, I am a woman of a sor
Ps. 124; 62%; rowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but bave poured 16 out my soul before the LORD. Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of • Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken
I see reft. Dea 12 13 17 hitherto. Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel 18 grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him. And she said, - Let thine
handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman dwent her way, and did eat,
and her countenance was no more sad. 19 And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and
returned, and came to their house to Ramah. And Elkanahknew Hannah his 20 wife; and the LORD remembered her. Wherefore it came to pass when the
Ge. 21, 1; 30. 22. time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Samuel, 8 saying, s Because I have asked him of the LORD.
& Ge. 4. 25; SR 21 And the man Elkanah, and all his house, “ went up to offer unto the Lord the ver. 2 22 yearly sacrifice, and his vow. But Hannah went not up; for she said unto her
i see Ge. 91. X husband, I will not go up until the child ' be weaned, and then I will bring him,
+ ch, I, 2:1 1, 23 that he may appear before the Lord, and there * abide for ever. And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have
* 2 Sam. 7. SS weaned him; * only the LORD establish his word." So the woman abode, and
gave her son suck until she weaned him. 24 And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, 9 l un . 10; Des.
and one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto P the house of 25 the Lord in Shiloh: and the child was young. And they slew a bullock, and 26 brought the child to Eli. And she said, Oh my lord,' as thy soul liveth, my 2 27 lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the LORD. For 3.5
this child I prayed; "and the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of Ps. S. 19.. 178 5; 28 him: "therefore also I have lent him to the Lord; as long as he liveth he shall vers. 11. 2. 1 Clar. be lent to the LORD.10 And he * worshipped 11 the LORD there.
* Ge. 24. 25, 52
& Jode. 18 6: Mk
Ps. 20. 4,
Ge. 4. I.
I Ex. 21. 6: l. 9813
Num. 31 7-11,
P Joe. ls. 1
i This name, which occurs here for the first time, I near the entrance of the court, where he could attend to appears to denote the supremacy of Jehovah over all orders, many of his duties both as high priest and judge. of beings. Comp. Gen. ii. 1; Psa. ciii. 21.
7 As a Levite, Samuel would have been employed in 2 The males only were required to appear at the yearly the service of the tabernacle from the age of twenty-five festivals; but devout persons used to bring their wives to fifty; but, by his mother's vow, he was deroted to it and daughters with them. The 'portions are the parts from childhood; besides being subjected to the discipline of the peace-offerings which belonged to the offerer, and of a Nazarite: on which sec refs. This vow must have on which he was wont to feast with his family.
had the concurrence of her husband. See Numb. xxx. 8. 3 That is, a double portion.
& This is a contracted form, meaning asked of God. 4 Rather, affliction.' The Hebrew word translated 9 Some versions read, one bullock of three years old;' 'adversary' occurs frequently in Scripture, but nowhere which agrees with the next verse. As Samuel was taken else does it denote a person ; and the ordinary sense will to Shiloh soon after he was weaned from the breast (ver. suit this passage perfectly. Hannah's 'anguish,' or 'dis- | 23), probably when three or four years old, some protress,' for her childless state might truly be said to 'pro
vision must have been needed for attendance upon him. voke her sore,' etc.
10 Or, returned him whom I have obtained by peti5 Rather, 'it (i. e. her affliction) provoked her.' tion to the Lord; he whom I have obtained by petition
6 The tabernacle is probably so called, because it was shall be returned,' etc. now fixed, and some permanent buildings for the priests 11 Some ancient versions have 'they worshipped;' 1. €. had been erected around it. Eli's seat was most likely | Elkanah and his family.
1; Phil. 46 ! I.k. 1. 46, etc.; Phil
5: 35 %.
9. 6, 8; 89.5; I. 6 3; 67. 15. & Deti. 4. 35; ? Sam.
22. 32 e ree refs. Deu. 32. 30,
2 And Hannah "prayed, and said,
• Ne, 11. lĩ: Hab. 8 My heart rejoiceth in the LORD: mine horn? is exalted in the LORD: My mouth is enlarged over mine enemies;-because I rejoice in thy salvation. e Ps. 80. 17; 92. 10: 2 There is none holy as the LORD:--for there is none beside thee :
Neither is there any rock like our God. 3 Talk no more so exceeding proudly;
Let not arrogancy come out of your mouth: • For the LORD is a God of knowledge, and " by him actions are weighed, 4 The bows of the mighty men are broken,
* And they that stumbled are girded with strength. 5 'They that were full have hired out themselves for bread;
And they that were hungry ceased :-80 that m the barren hath borne seven;
And " she that hath many children is waxed feeble. 6 The Lord killeth, and maketh alive:
He bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up.
And lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill.
And he hath set the world upon them. 9 He will keep the feet of his saints,
And the wicked shall be silent in darkness;
For by strength shall no man prevail. 10 The adversaries of the LORD shall be d broken to pieces ;
Out of heaven shall he thunder upon them :
The LORD shall judge the ends of the earth;
And he shall & give strength unto his king,--and kexalt the horn of his anointed.4 11 And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house. " And the child did minister unto the LORD before Eli the priest.
& Ps. 21. 1,7; Mt. 28. The wickedness of Eli's sons ; prophecies against his family; Samuel s ministry.
A Ps. 89. 24: 92. 10 12 NOW the sons of Eli were 'sons of Belial; 5 they knew not the LORD. 13 And the priest's custom with the people was, that, when any man offered sacri
fice, the priest's servant came, while the flesh was in seething, with a fleshlook 14 of three teeth in his hand; and he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or 55; Ro. I. 28.
pot; "all that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself. So they did - Le. 7. 31: le. Si 11. 15 in Shiloh unto all the Israelites that came thither. Also before they burnt the Le. & 3-5, 16.
fat, the priest's servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed, Give flesh to 16 roast for the priest; for he will not have sodden flesh of thee, but raw. And if
any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, and then
take as much as thy soul desireth; then he would answer him, Nay; but thou 17 shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force. Wherefore the sin of
the young men? was very great p before the LORD:' for men I abhorred tho : 60.6.,1., 13. 13.
offering of the LORD. 18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, being a child, 'girded with a linen : ver. 11. 19 ephod. Moreover his mother made him a little coat,' and brought it to him i 'Sam. 6.14
from year to year, when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly ch. l. 3. 20 sacrifice. And Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife, and said, The Lord give thee Ge. 14. 19. seed of this woman for the loan 9 which is lent to the LORD. And they went ch. 1: 98
| ych. L. 19, 20; Ge. 21 unto their own house. And the LORD y visited Hannah, so that she conceived, 121. 1. and bare three sons and two daughters. And the child Samuel · grew before
sch. 3. 19: Jnde. 13.
24; Lk. 1. 80; 2. 40. the LORD.
Ps. 91. 4: Pro.& 13; M11. 3. 13: Juste 16 &1 ki. $ ; Ps 14
21; 139. 112: Jer.
17. 10: Rev. 2. 23.
Dan, S. 27.
Phil 4 13 | ! Ps. 34. 10. Lk. L. 52
eh. 1. 20; Ps. 113. y. " I. 54. 1; Jer. 139. • Deu. 32. 39: Jobs
18: Hos, 6 l.
Ps. 11278: Dat.
7.8; Job 36. 7.
%; 102.95; 104, 5;
Heh. I. & y Ps. 37. 23. 24: 91. 11,
19: 94. 18: 191. 3,5;
1 Pet. 1, 5. # Deu. 33. 3: Ps. 3.
29: Pro. 2 & a Jer, &. 14: Ro & 19. > Mt. & 1:: 22. 13;
2 Pet. 2. 17; Jude 13. . Ps. 33. 16, 17; Eee.
9. 11; Jer. 9. 23;
Zech. 4. 6.
40. 9: Ps. 18. 13.
li eh. 16. 3. 13: P 2
8; 22. 16; John &
ch. 22. 18; Ex. 23.
1 This is rather an ode of thanksgiving. Beginning | soon afterwards established in the family of David, as with allusions to Hannah's personal history, it goes on preparatory to the kingdom of the Messiah. to present general views of God's character; and, finally, 5 See note on Deut. xii. 13. prophetically intimates some of the important events 6 The only portions of the peace-offering to which the which the subsequent narrative is to develop. It appears officiating priest was entitled by law were the shoulder to have supplied Mary with some materials for her song and breast, the cheeks and maw (see Lev. vii. 34; Deut. of praise, Luke i. 46-55.
xviii. 3). Eli's sons not only defrauded the people, but Horns are an Oriental symbol of power and rank, they robbed God of his portion of the offering, which was and as such are used as an ornament for the head. essential to its acceptance. See Lev. iii. 3-5.
3 Both in prose and in poetry the sacred writers speak | 7 or, the men (i. e. Eli's sons) caused the Lord's on subjects of natural science in the ordinary language offering to be abhorred.' of their own age and country.
8 Oro robe,' as in Exod. xxviii. 4, 31. 4 This prophecy refers to that kingdom which God! 9 Or, .for the petition which she asked of Jehovah.'
e Den, 17. -12
Num. 15 20
rer. 21. # Pro. 3. 4: Lk. 2. 3:
Ac, 2. 47; Rom. 14.1
16. 5; 18 1.7.
10: 18 &
18 9, 10
91. 14; Job
22 Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did unto all Israel; and how
they lay with the women that assembled 1 at the door of the tabernacle of the a see Ex 38& 23 congregation. And he said unto them, Why do ye such things ? for I hear of 24 your evil dealings by all this people. Nay, my sons; for it is no good report 25 that I hear: bye make the Lord's people to transgress for, cry out). If one ver. 17 Kl. 15.;
man sin against another, the judge shall judge him: but if a man sin against the LORD, who shall intreat for him?? Notwithstanding they hearkened not * see refs. De 2 30. unto the voice of their father, because the LORD would slay them.3
Jos. IL. 9; Pro, IS 26 And the child Samuel 5 grew on, and was "in favour both with the LORD, and
also, with men. 27 And there came a man of God unto Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the
i Den. 1; 1 KL LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy father, when they were in * Ex. 4 14, 4. 28 Egypt in Pharaoh's house? And did I 'choose him out of all the tribes of Israel I Ex. X 1,4; Num.
to be my priest, to offer upon mine altar, to burn incense, to wear an ephod before
me? and ? did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings made by fire *te. 2., 10; 6 16; 29 of the children of Israel? Wherefore " kick ye at my sacrifice and at mine offering, s, 18 Num. & %
which I have commanded in my habitation; and honourest thy sons above me, : Deu, 2. Ta.
to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people? 30 Wherefore the LORD God of Israel saith, p I said indeed that thy house, and the
PE, 21.9. house of thy father, should walk before me for ever :4 but now the LORD saith,
? Be it far from mé; for them that honour me I will honour, and they that Chri, 15 2; Jer. 31 despise me shall be lightly esteemed. Behold, the days come, that I will cut 'Px 1& ; 23;
off thine « arm, 5 and the arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old Sams. 12 10; Mal 32 man6 in thine house. And thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation, in all thesce ch. 4. 11, 18, 20;
wealth which God shall give Israel (or, the affliction of the tabernacle for all the iki 2 ; Ese 4
wealth which God would have given Israel] : and there shall not be * an old man 33 in thine house for ever. And the man of thine, whom I shall not cut off from
mine altar, shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart:7 and all 34 the increase of thine house shall die in the flower of their age. And this shall be
ya sign unto thee, that shall come upon thy two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas ; " 1 Ki. 13. & 35 in one day they shall die both of them. And – I will raise me up a faithful Th112: 1 Chr.
priest, 8 that shall do according to that which is in mine heart and in my mind :) 2. 22: Eze. 14. 15.
and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before mine anointed for 36 ever. "And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left in thine house shall Ki. 11. *
come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread, and shall say, Put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece
of bread. 3. And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD before Eli. And the word . ch. 2. !!.
I/ ver. 21 ; P 74 9; of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no open vision. And it Am. 8. 11." ** 2 came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down in his place, & and his eyesen
& eh. 2 22:45: Ge. 3 began to wax dim, that he could not see; and ere h the lamp of God went out Ex. 97. 20, 21, 21
in the temple of the LORD, where the ark of God was, and Samuel was laid ii 11. 4 down to sleep; 10 that the LORD called Samuel: and he answered, Here am I. 5 And he ran unto Eli, and said, Here am I; for thou calledst me. And he said, I 6 called not; lie down again. And he went and lay down. And the LORD called
yet again, Samuel, And Samuel arose and went to Eli, and said, Here am I;
for thou didst call me. And he answered, I called not, a my son; lie down again. 7 (Now Samuel 'did not yet knowll the LORD, neither was the word of the LORD 8 yet revealed unto him.) And the Lord called Samuel again the third time.
And he arose and went to Eli, and said, Here am I : for thou didst call me. And 9 Eli perceived that the LORD had called the child. Therefore Eli said unto I
1 See note on Exod. xxxviii. 8. If the supposition in 6 So great was, and still is, the respect paid to old age that note be correct, the lewdness of Eli's sons will appear among most Orientals, that a heavier curse could searcely to be peculiarly infamous.
be uttered. 2 This is better rendered by Coverdale, “If one man 7 Eli is addressed here as the representative of his sin against another, the judge can redress it; but if a family. man sin against Jehovah, who can redress it?"
8 This sentence was fulfilled at the beginning of 3 See note on Josh. xi. 20.
Solomon's reign, by the appointment of Zadoc, of the 4 See note on Numb. xxv. 12. Eli was of the line of family of Eleazar, as high priest; and in this line the Ithamar; and it is not kuown on what account, or at priesthood remained as long as it existed. what time, the high priesthood was transferred from 9 Rather, prophetic vision was not frequent' That Eleazar's family to that of Ithamar. The context shows it was not altogether withdrawn appears from ch. ii. 27. that such promises as this implied the condition that But it had been rare in comparison with the series of those who were to enjoy the blessings should walk before revelations which were now to begin. See ver. 20. God in faith and piety.
10 As the tabernacle had long been at Shiloh, dwellings 5 That is, “power. The Greek, and apparently the for the priests had been erected near it. Chaldee, however, without altering a letter of the text, 11 He did not yet know the way in which God revealed revder the word 'seed,' or posterity.'
| himself to his prophets.
och. 2. 27, 29-31, etc. P Eze. 7. 3; 18, 30.
39. 9: Is. 39.8; Lan. 3. 39.
a Ge. 9. 2, 21, 23.
Samuel, Go, lie down: and it shall be, if he call thee, that thou shalt say, Speak, i
LORD; for thy servant heareth. So Samuel went and lay down in his place. 10 And the LORD came, and stood, and called as at other times, Samuel, Samuel.
Then Samuel answered, Speak; for thy servant heareth. 11 And the LORD said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, mat which *2 Ki. 21. 12; Jer. 12 both the ears of every one that heareth it shall tingle. In that day I will per
form against Eli n all things which I have spoken concerning his house : when I " ch. 2. 30–36. 13 begin, I will also make an end. "For I have told him that I will p judge his
house for ever for the iniquity which he knoweth ; because his sons made them 9 ch.2 12, 17-22. 14 selves vile for, accursed), and he 'restrained them not. And therefore I have eh. 2. 23, 25.
sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be purged • Num. 15. 30, 31; Is.
with sacrifice nor offering for ever. 15 And Samuel lay until the morning, and opened the doors of the house of the 16 LORD. And Samuel feared to show Eli the vision. Then Eli called Samuel, 17 and said, Samuel, my son. And he answered, Here am I. And he said, What is
the thing that the LORD hath said unto thee? 'I pray thee hide it not from Pa. 141. &
me: * God do so to thee, and more also, if thou hide any thing for, word] from see refs. Ru. 1. 17. 18 me of all the things that he said unto thee. And Samuel told him every whit,
and hid nothing from him. And he said, - It is the LORD: " let him do what *Job I. 21; 2. 10; Ps. seemeth him good.
y Jude. 10.15; Is. 39.& 19 And Samuel : grew, and a the LORD was with him, band did let none of his ch. 2. 21. 20 words fall to the ground. And all Israel from Dan even to Beer-sheba knew eh... 21 that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the LORD. And the LORD appeared
e Judg. 20. I. agains in Shiloh: for the LORD revealed himself to Samuel in Shiloh by d the d vers. I, 4 word of the LORD. And the word of Samuel came to all Israel.
Victories of the Philistines ; capture of the ark; death of Eli. NOW Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside 2 · Eben-ezer:+ and the Philistines pitched in Aphek. And the Philistines putch. 1; 7. 12.
themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was s Le. 26. 17; Jos. 7. 5 smitten before the Philistines : and they slew of the army in the field about four
thousand men. 3 And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel said, Wherefore hath the LORD smitten us to-day before the Philistines ?5 Let us fetch
the ark of the covenant of the Lord out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it cometh 4 among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies. So the people sent to
Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the LORD of hosts, s which dwelleth between " the cherubim: and the two sons of Eli, 82 Sam. 6. 2; P. 60. Hophni and Phinehas, were there 'with the ark of the covenant of God.
A EX.25.18-22; Num. 5 And when the ark of the covenant of the LORD came into the camp, all Israel
i Num. 4. 5, 15. o shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again. And when the Philis
tines heard the noise of the shout, they said, What meaneth the noise of this
great shout in the camp of the Hebrews? And they understood that the ark 7 of the LORD was come into the camp. And the Philistines were afraid, for * Ex. 14. 25.
they said, God is come into the camp. And they said, Woe unto us! for there 8 hath not been such a thing heretofore. Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out
of the hand of these mighty Gods ? these are the Gods that smote the Egyptians 9 with all the plagues? in the wilderness. "Be strong, and quit yourselves like 2 Sam. 10. 12; 1 Cor. • men, Oye Philistines, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews, mas they have - Judg. 10.7; 13. 1. • been to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight. 10 And the Philistines fought, and - Israel was smitten, and they fled every man * ver.
2 6 . 17 into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty | 9, 62.
1 ; 99. 1.
1 How impressively does this history teach the import 4 This name was given to the place twenty years later, ance of parental control and discipline! Eli had reproved but before the narrative was written. Aphek is probably his sons (ch. ii. 23-25), but he had not done all in his the same as Aphekah (Josh. xv. 53); but not the same as power to restrain them. Through his want of moral in ch. xxix. 1. These places lay a few miles north and courage, though a good man, he sadly failed in his duty, I west of Jerusalem. both as a father and as high priest: and his weak and 5 They were not prepared to look to their sin as the lax administration not only involved his family in ruin, cause, and to repentance as the remedy of their disasters. but brought the affairs of the nation to the lowest ebb. 6 The exultation of the Israelites and the alarm of the It should ever be remembered that responsibility is com Philistines, when the ark was brought into the camp, mensurate with authority and influence.
indicate gross and unworthy conceptions of the Divine An appropriate punishment to those who had caused Being in the minds of both nations. They superstitiously the Lord's offering to be abhorred.'
imagined that the outward symbol insured the actual 3 That is, perhaps, He manifested his glory by the presence and help of the Almighty. See, in contrast with oracular voice in the sanctuary from between the cheru this, David's intelligent faith, 2 Sam. xv. 25, 26. bim; Jehovah having probably ceased thus to appear, on 7 After the word 'plagues,' some versions read, and account of the iniquities of the priests.
| wrought wonders in the wilderness.'