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Ieb. 21. 2.

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4 And the king commanded · Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second

order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host ch. , 3, 7.

of heaven: and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and 5 carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el.3 And he put down the idolatrous priests, 4 Hon 10 5: fereted, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned

incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets 5 [or, constella6 tions), and to "all the host of heaven. And he brought out the 'grove from the ch..

house of the LORD, without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burned it at

the brook Kidron, and stamped it small to powder, and cast the powder thereof 7 upon " the graves of the children of the people. And he brake down the houses

* of the sodomites, that were by the house of the LORD, where the women wove

hangingg6 for the grove. 8 And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high

places where the priests had burned incense, from : Geba to Beer-sheba, and brake *1 KL. 15. 2 down the high places of the gates that were in the entering in of the gate of

Joshua the governor of the city, which were on a man's left hand at the gate of 9 the city. Nevertheless the priests of the high places? came not up to the altar se Ez. 44. 10-16

of the Lord in Jerusalem, but they did eat of the unleavened bread among their * 1 Sam. 28

brethren. 10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom,

l i ser that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to 11 Molech. And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to ch. 16. 3: Le RS;

Sthe sun, at the entering in of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan

melech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, and burned the chariots of the 12 sun with fire. And the altars that were s on the top 10 of the upper chamber of

Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had A eh. IL S made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, did the king beat down, and

brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron. i ver. 6 13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of

the motint of corruption, which * Solomon the king of Israel had builded for . Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination

Num. 91. 3 of the Moabites, and for · Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, dia 14 the king defile. And he brake in pieces the images, and cut down the groves,

• E1. 2. X; Des : and filled their places with the bones of men. 15 Moreover the altar that was at Beth-el,11 and the high place which Jeroboam PIKI, 12

the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, both that altar and the high

place he brake down, and burned the high place, and stamped it small to powder, 16 and burned the grove. And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the sepulchres

that were there in the mount, and sent and took the bones out of the sepulchres,

and burned them upon the altar, and polluted it, according to the word of the 17 LORD which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words. Then he

said, What title 12 is that that I see? And the men of the city told him, It is "the "I KL 13. I, 4, 2, sepulchre of the man of God, which came from Judah, and proclaimed these

d Jos. 15 &


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Ter. 5; Eze. & 16

& see Jer.19. 13; 2


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A Zeph. 1.


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1 This purification appears, from 2 Chron. xxxiv., to slain (ver. 20), as the law required (Exod. xxii. 20). have been begun before the finding and public reading of 8 Sometimes called “Gei Hinnom,' whence the Greek the law; but it was probably not completed till afterwards, Gehenna. This place having been the scene of the cruel and therefore the whole is recorded together here. worship of Moloch, Josiah caused it to be polluted by 2 The inferior priests.

throwing into it the dead bodies of animals and the otfal 3 Sending the impure to an impure place, which had of the city. This practice being continued afterwards, long ago been polluted by the calf-worship.

fires were lighted in the valley to consume the carcases, 4 Heb., 'Chemarim.' 'See Zeph. i. 4. The analogous and thus prevent the noxious effects which might other. Syriac word means a priest ; and seems to have been pro wise have arisen. Hence the place was called the Geperly used for the priests of Syrian idols.

henna of fire; and represented to the Jews the place of 5 The Hebrew words "Mazzaloth' and 'Mazzaroth' are punishment for the wicked, where it is emphatically said supposed to mean the resting-places of the sun, i.e. the by our Lord, quoting from Isaiah, their worm dieth not, twelve signs of the Zodiac. See Job xxxviii. 32.

and the fire is not quenched' (Isa. lxvi. 24; Mark ix. 44). fi That is, either drapery to adorn or protect the image 9 The ancient Persians, who were sun-worshippers, of Asherah, or the tent in which the idol was placed. dedicated to that luminary white horses and chariots,

7 These appear to have been descendants of Aaron, who which were paraded on solemn occasions. had officiated at the high places in the kingdom of Judah, | 10 That is, the roof. professedly worshipping the true God, but in an unlawful 11 Josiah's power appears to have extended beyond the manner. That they might not continue to do mischief limits of Judah. It is probable that, as a faithful tribuin the country, they were brought to Jerusalem to reside tary to the king of Assyria, he was allowed to govern among their brethren; but they were not suffered to some of the northern towns, as the Assyrian colonists did exercise priestly functions, although maintained at the not fully people the country. See 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6. charge of the sanctuary, according to the law in Lev. 12 Rather, stone' or 'pillar,' marking the place of a xxi. 17-23. The idolatrous priests of Samaria were all | sepulchre.

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+1 Kl. 13. 2. Vch, 11. 18: Ex. 22

20: 1 Ki. 18. 40.
* 2 Chr. 31 6.
* 2 Chr. 35. I.
6 E. 12. 3; Le X 5;

Num. 9. 2; Deu.
16. 2
2 Chur. 36. 18, 19.

Deu. 18. 11.

ch. 18. &

18 things that thou hast done against the altar of Beth-el. And he said, Let him

alone; let no man move his bones. So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet that came out of Samaria.

I KL. 13. 31. 19 And all the houses also f the high places that were * in the cities of Samaria, 1 ch. 17. 9.

* see 2 Chr. 34. 6,7. which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the LORD to anger, Josiah took

away, and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Beth-el. 20 And he v slew all the priests of the high places that were there upon the altars,

and burned men's bones upon them, and returned to Jerusalem. 21 And the king commanded all the people, saying, . Keep the passover unto the 2.2 LORD your God, as it is written in the book of this covenant. Surely there

was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, 23 nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah ; but in the

eighteenth year of king Josiah, wherein this passover was holden to the Lord in

Jerusalem. 24 Moreover the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images 28 ch. 21.6 for, teraphim ), and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the

Ge. 31. 19. land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the

words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found Le. 19. 31; 20. 27; 25 in the house of the LORD. ' * And like unto him was there no king before him, that 6 ch. 22. & 13.

turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might,

according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him. 26 Notwithstanding the LORD turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath,

wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations ch. 21, 11-13; 24 27 that Manasseh had provoked him withal. And the LORD said, I will remove Judah

also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel, and will cast off this city Jerusalem

which I have chosen, and the house of which I said, 'My name shall be there. 28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did, are they not written in

the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah ? 29 In his days Pharaoh-nechoh5 king of Egypt went up against the king of

see parallel, 2 Chr. Assyria to the river Euphrates : and king Josiah went against him;6 and he slew 30 him at • Megiddo, when he p had seen him. And his servants carried him in a .ch. 9. 27: Judg. 4.

chariot dead 7 from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in 19: Zeeh. 12. 11. his own sepulchre. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz8 the son of Josiah, 99 Chr. 35. 94. and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead.

ch. 21. 24. Reign of Jehoahaz. 31 JEHOAHAZ was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he called Shallum, 1

reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was 'Hamutal, the 11.. 32 daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. And he did that which was evil in the sight of

eh. 94 18. 33 the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done. And Pharaoh-nechoh put

him in bands * at Riblah in the land of Hamath, 10 that he might not reign inch. 28 6; Jer: 52.27.

Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hundred talents of silver, and a 34 talent of gold. And Pharaoh-nechoh made Eliakim ll the son of Josiah king 12 in 9 Chr. 86 4.

the room of Josiah his father, and s turned his name to y Jehoiakim, and took I see ch. 24. 17; Dan. 35 Jehoahaz away : : and he came to Egypt, and died there. And Jehoiakim gave me 1. 11, called

*the silver and the gold to Pharaoh : but he taxed the land to give the money Jer. 22. 11, 19; Eze. according to the commandment of Pharaoh : he exacted the silver and the gold of her the people of the land, of every one according to his taxation, to give it unto

b ch. 16 19, 20 Pharaoh-nechoh.

4; Jer. 1& 4.

eh. 17. 18-20; 18.
11, 21. 13.
eh. 21. 4,7; 1 KL. 8.
29; 9. 3
see parallel, 2 Chr.
35. % 27:

14, 15. comp. with 5.

Peb, 14. &

see parallel, ? Chr. 36 1-4; see also

Chr. 3. 15; Jer. 22.

1 There was a great passover in Hezekiah's time; but 7 This may be more correctly rendered dying;' i. e. the total number of animals offered on this occasion was mortally wounded. It appears from 2 Chron. xxxv. 24, more than double.

that, when Josiah had been wounded at Megiddo, his 2 The Hebrew is "Teraphim,' family idols (such as the servants put him into another chariot, and brought him forefathers of the Israelites are supposed to have brought to Jerusalem, where he died. from Mesopotamia), which many had privately used, in 8 Jehoahaz is called 'Shallum' by Jeremiah (ch. xxii. connection with the worship of Jehovah. See 1 Sam. xix. 13. 11). He appears to have been more popular than his 3 See note on ch. xviii. 5.

elder brother Jehoiakim. 4 The frequent interchange of relapse and reformation, 9 Not his own father Josiah, but his more remote according to the will of the sovereign for the time being, ancestors; and so in ver. 37. shows that the habits of the people had become thoroughly 10 On the northern boundary of Palestine. depraved; and that idolatry, whether with or without 11 He was Josiah's second son (1 Chron. iii. 15). The royal patronage, was deeply rooted in the public mind. eldest, Johanan, was perhaps dead.

5 Herodotus (ij. 159) mentions this expedition of Necog 12 After the defeat of Josiah's army, Necho took Car(Pharaoh-nechoh), and says that he defeated the Syrians chemish; and on his return, treating Judea as a con

Jews) at Magdolus (Megiddo), and took a large city quered and tributary province, he exercised his supremacy Cadytis (Chald. Kadutha, the holy,' i.e. Jerusalem).. by appointing Jehoiakim as his deputy, and changed his

6"Josiah probably felt himself bound, as a tributary to name to mark him as his vassal. The same was done by the king of Assyria, to oppose the progress of the Egyp Nebuchadnezzar (ch. xxiv, 17). Jehoiakim's character is tian army.

| portrayed by Jeremiah, ch. xxii, 13–19.


18, 19; 36

Wicked reign of Jehoiakim; first invasion of the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar. 36 JEHOIAKIM was twenty and five years old when he began to reign; and he se parallel ? C.

reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Zebudah, the 37 daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. And he did that which was evil in the sight of

the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done. 24 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became parallels : Chr 2 his servant three years : then he turned and rebelled against him. And the 'Deum, He

LORD sent against him bands of the Chaldees, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of the Moabites, and bands of the children of Ammon, and sent them

against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the LORD, which he spake sh. L. 3 by his servants the prophets. Surely 8 at the commandment of the LORD came s

this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight, * for the sins of Manasseh, CA. 2-11; 2 % 4 according to all that he did ; i and also for the innocent blood that he shed : for lih. SL. 16.

he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood ; which the LORD would not pardon. 5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not sre parallel, a Chr. 6 written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? So Jehoiakim 12 Chr. *68. ja

slept with his fathers : and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead, 7 And m the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land : for * the see Jer.. .

king of Babylon had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all
that pertained to the king of Egypt.
Reign of Jehoiachin ; second invasion by the Chaldeans ; the first general transportation

to Babylon. 8 •JEHOIACHIN? was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he me parallel, 2. Chat

reigned in Jerusalem three months. And his mother's name was Nehushta, the 9 daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. And he did that which was evil in the sight

of the Lord, according to all that his father had done. 10 PAt that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up Dan. I.L 11 against Jerusalem, and the city was besieged. And Nebuchadnezzar king of 12 Babylon came against the city, and his servants did besiege it. And Jet. 8.1; 3 1,!

Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, and his

mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers : and the king of 13 Babylon " took him in the eighth year of his reign. 'And he carried out thence : rech.

all the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house, 1 ch. at 17: lasa.

and "cut in pieces all the vessels of gold " which Solomon king of Israel had 14 made in the temple of the LORD, *as the Lord had said. And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten

* see Jer. 23: B thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths : none remained, save the 11,2

poorest sort of the people of the land. 15 And he carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon, and the king's mother, and the r ; Este

king's wives, and his officers, and the mighty of the land, those carried he into 16 captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon. And all the men of might, 4 even seven

thousand, and craftsmen and smiths a thousand, all that were strong and apt for
17 war, even them the king of Babylon brought captive to Babylon. And the king • Jer. 37.L

of Babylon made Mattaniah Shis father's brother king in his stead, and changed
his name to Zedekiah.
Reign of Zedekiah ; second siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar; destruction of the city

and temple; and second transportation of the Jews to Babylon. 18 ZEDEKIAH was twenty and one years old when he began to reign, and he 1-3 bed

reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was "Hamutal, the ai.

Corik i Chr. 1 16: Jer. 841; and Co miah, Jer. 2. %.

• see Jer,

1 KL 7.6-52 * Jer. 25

Jer. 24 1

e so I Sam. 12. 1942

ch. 2. 19; Jer.

26; Jer. 2 A

1 Chr. & 15:

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1 Nebuchadnezzar is called 'king,' because his father | being restored, the rest should follow, as they did (ee Nabopolassar had associated him with himself in the ch. xxv. 13-17). Nebuchadnezzar spoiled the temple kingdom. His first invasion of Judah was in the third three times : 1, when he took Jerusalem under Jehoiakin year of Jehoiakim's reign (Dan. i. 1); and from this (see Dan. i. 2); 2, when he came the second time against date the seventy years of the Babylonish captivity (Jer. it under Jeconiah ; and, 3, when he captured it under XXV. 11) are reckoned by many, although there was a | Zedekiah (ch. xxv. 13). miserable semblance of kingly power kept up for nineteen 4 This means wealthy men, as distinguished from years afterwards.

"mighty men of valour' (ver. 14). This enumeration is 2 In 1 Chron. iii. 16 he is called 'Jeconiah,' and in evidently supplementary to that in ver. 14. Combining Jer. xxii. 24 Coniah.' As he reigned only three months the two, the total number of persons now transported as a mere vassal of the king of Babylon, his reign is may be thus summed up: princes, or chiefs and warriors scarcely reckoned; and therefore it was said of Jehoiakim 10,000; persons of property 7,000; craftsmen and smiths (Jer. xxxvi. 30), he shall have none to sit upon the 1,000; making a total of 18,000. throne of David.

5 This is reckoned, by both Usher and Hales, to have 3 The people were assured by the false prophets that been the commencement of the seventy years' captivity, these vessels should be brought back; but God told them as predicted by Jeremiah. by his prophet (Jer. xxvii. 16--22) that, instead of these 6 He was son of Josiah, and brother of Jehoiakim.

*2 Chr. 36. 13; Jer.

17. 12-15; Exe. 17.

see parallel, Jer. 29.
1-10; and 52.4-
20; we also ? Chr.
31. 17; Jer. 34. 2;

• Jer. 29. 2; 52. 6.
Psee ref. L. 26. 26
9 Jer. 38. 2, 3; 52. 7,

Jer. 21. 7; 31. 21: | Lam, Á 190

ch. 23.33; Jer. 52. 9.

Jer. 39. 9-14.

19 daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. "And he did that which was evil? in the sight |* 2 Chr. 36 12. 20 of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done, 'For through the anger eh. 22. 17.

of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, until he had cast them out

from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled? against the king of Babylon. 25 And it came to pass " in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the is-m

tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he, and all

his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it; and they built forts, against 2 it round about. And the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king

Eze. 24. 1, 2. 3 Zedekiah. And on the ninth day of the fourth month P the famine prevailed in 4 the city, and there was no bread for the people of the land. And the city was broken up, and all the men of war'fled by night by the way of the gate between Le 26. 17,

two walls, which is by the king's garden : (now the Chaldees were against the 5 city round about :) and the king went the way toward the plain. And the army l ub Jer.

of the Chaldees pursued after the king, and overtook him in the plains of 6 Jericho: and all his army were scattered from him. So they took the king, and

brought him up to the king of Babylon " to Riblah; and they gave judgmento 7 upon him. And they slew the songs of Zedekiah before his eyes, and y put out Jer. 22.02. 07

the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him with fetters of brass, and carried him to

Babylon.? 8 And in the fifth month, 'on the seventh day of the month, which is a these Jer-5.2.129

nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzar-adan, 9 captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem : Cand he ? Chr. 38. 19: P: 74

burnt the house of the LORD, 9 d and the king's house, and all the houses of 10 Jerusalem, and every great man's house burnt he with fire. And all the army of

the Chaldees, that were with the captain of the guard, brake down the walls of Ne. 1. 3; Jer. 52 14. 11 Jerusalem round about. Now the rest of the people that were left in the city, | Jer. 39. 9; 52 15

and the fugitives that fell away to the king of Babylon, with the remnant of the 12 multitude, did Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carry away.10 But the captain of the guard 5 left of the poor of the land 1 to be yinedressers and husbandmen. ch. 24. 14: Jer. 39.

10; 40. 7: 52.16 13 And “the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD, and “the bases, ch. 20.172

19, 22; 12. 17-20; and 'the brasen sea that was in the house of the LORD, did the Chaldees break in L Lam. 1. 10. 14 pieces, and carried the brass of them to Babylon. And » the pots, and the RI: 7.2

shovels, and the snuffers, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith15 they ministered, took they away. And the firepans, and the bowls, * and such i Ki 4. 48–51.

things as were of gold, in gold, and of silver, in silver, the captain of the guard 16 took away. The two pillars, one sea, and the bases which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD; • the brass of all these vessels was without weight.

• 1 Kl. 7. 47. 17 p The height of the one pillár was eighteen cubits, and the chapiter upon it was

PI Ki. 7. 15, 16; Jer.

58. 21-23. brass : and the height of the chapiter three cubits; and the wreathen work, and pomegranates upon the chapiter round about, all of brass : and like unto these

had the second pillar with wreathen work. 18 4 And the captain of the guard took "Seraiah the chief priest, and · Zephaniah ! Jer: 52, 24, etc., 19 the second priest, and the three keepers of the door: and out of the city he took .3.1

an officer that was set over the men of war, and 'five men of them that were in see Jer. 52. 25.

3-7; 73.1: L. 64. 11. d Jer, 39. 8; 12. 13;

Am. 2. 3.

il Ki. 7. 15

11 Ri. 7. 23.
*Ex. 27. 3; 1 KL. 7.

"1 Chr. 6, 14; Ezra

• Jer. 21. 1; 29.25

1 He appears to have been a man of weak character, | the burning of the city lasted several days, it might be and entirely led by his nobles. See Jer. xxxviii. 5, 24. reckoned from either the beginning or the end. Josephus

2 Relying upon the aid of the king of Egypt. See says that it was on the same day of the same month that Jer. xxxvii. 7.

the second temple was burnt by the Romans. From this S Jerusalem was strong by nature, and had been so period to its complete restoration, under Darius Hystaspis, fortified by art that Nebuchadnezzar was compelled to was seventy years. blockade it for eighteen months, and only reduced it by


The ark of the covenant was probably burnt with famine. This of course greatly prolonged and aggravated the temple, for it is never mentioned afterwards; showthe sufferings of the besieged; of which terrible descrip ing how little God cares for the outward ceremonial when tions may be found in Lam. iv. 3–10; Ezek. iv. 16; v. 10. the inward spirit of religion is gone. See Jer. vii. 4, 13 In connection with this narrative 'should also be read -15. The prophet Jeremiah was present, and beheld Jer. xxi., xxiv., xxvii.---xxix., XXX.--xxxiv., xxxvii. the sad accomplishment of his early predictions, in the xxxix., lii.

horrors of the famine and the carnage, and the plunder 4 This was a just retribution on Zedekiah for the and destruction of the city and temple; and has recorded breach of his oath, and his obdurate disregard of the his feelings in his pathetic elegies." See 2 Chron. xxxvi. mereiful counsel of God. See Jer. xxxviii. 17; xxxii. 5; 17-19, and Lamentations. xxxiv. 3, etc.

10 This formed the third stage in the captivity of Judah. 6 And, according to Jer. xxxix. 6, lii. 10, all the It is observable that, at the end of the captivity, there nobles'' or 'princes' of Judah.

were returns of large companies, at different times, nearly 6 The loss of sight was intended not only as a punish corresponding to each of these deportations. Hence the ment, but also to incapacitate him for ever being king difficulty of fixing upon any precise period for the fulfilagain.

ment of the prophecies of their restoration, 7 Thus two apparently inconsistent prophecies (Jer. 11 Poverty is sometimes a protection. The poor, formerly Xxxii. 4; Ezek. xii. 13) were both literally fulfilled. oppressed, have now liberty and peace, while their oppres

8 In Jer. lii. 12, it is the tenth day of the month. If sors are enslaved.

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the king's presencel which were found in the city, and the principal scribe of the

host, which mustered the people of the land, and threescore men of the people of 20 the land that were found in the city: and Nebuzar-adan captain of the guard took 21 these, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Rihlah : and the king of Jer. 52 %, 2.

Babylon smote them, and blew them at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So eh. 1. 20:22;
Judah was carried away out of their land.
Gedaliah is appointed governor, and is killed by Ishmael; the remmant of the people flee

into Egypt. 22 AND as for the people that remained in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchad o parallel, sez.

nezzar king of Babylon had left, even over them he made Gedaliah the son of Jer. 29. 11 Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, ruler..

And when all the captains of the armies, they and their men, heard that the sa. 0.3–9, 11, 12 king of Babylon had made Gedaliah governor, there came to Gedaliah to Mizpah; even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan the son of Careah, and Seraiah

the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of a Maachatbite, Exra2 2: Ne. 7.5 24 they and their men. And Gedaliah sware to them, and to their men, and said Jer. 619, 10

unto them, Fear not to be the servants of the Chaldees: dwell in the land, and

serve the king of Babylon; and it shall be well with you. 25 But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, | Jer. #2 15, 16; 4,1

the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote

Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldees that were with him at 26 Mizpah. And all the people, both small and great, and the captains of the armies, arose, d and came to Egypt:2 for they were afraid of the Chaldees.

Jehoiachin's captivity is relieved by Evil-merodach, 27 AND it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of we parallel, der. 2

Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the seven and twentieth day

of the month, that Eyil-merodach king of Babylon in the year that he began to 28 reign did lift up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah out of prison; and helder .

spake kindly to him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were 29 with him in Babylon; and 8 changed his prison garments : and he did - eat bread S . 30 continually before him all the days of his life. And his allowance was a con

tinual allowance given him of the king, a daily rate for every day, all the days of his life.

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see Ge. 4. 12, 23:

1 That is, his confidential advisers.

| Jeremiah, who witnessed them (see ch. xl.-xls). 2 These events are more fully related by the prophet S This custom is still followed at the Persian court.


The two books of Chronicles were anciently one; andand duties of the priests and Levites, and other public were called Words of Days,' that is, Diaries or Journals, officers, are carefully specified; and those portions of the probably with reference to the ancient annals from history of David and other pious kings which illustrate which they appear to have been chiefly compiled. They their care for the ordinances of religion, and their al were divided into two parts by the Greek translators, who | in promoting reformations, with the happy results of called them Paraleipomena,' i. e, things omitted,' or their exertions, are particularly dwelt upon ; whilst, in supplements; because many things not contained in the contrast with this, the causes of the national calamities preceding histories are here supplied. The name of are very pointedly and impressively declared. See ? Chronicles was first given to them by Jerome. They Chron. xxxvi. 14-21, etc. appear to have been written after the close of the Babylonian captivity (see 1 Chron. üi. 19--24; 2 Chron. xxxvi. On comparing the books of Chronicles with those of 21, 22). The Jews generally ascribe them to Ezra; and Samuel and The Kings, it will be found that, although that tradition is probably correct; though a few additions they have much in common, there is in the present books to the genealogies have been made since his time. Some, | much that is original and peculiar. In the first nine however, think they were altogether of a later date. chapters, which consist chiefly of genealogies, many facts

The author of these books has for the most part had of great interest may be gleaned with respect to the early recourse to the same sources of information as the author periods of the Hebrew history; and the historical part of the books of Kings, though he evidently had others. contains many signal manifestations of the Divine govern

ment, and other important information respecting the One principal object of this portion of the sacred writ affairs of the kingdom of Judah, of which we should ings appears to have been to point out, from the ancient otherwise possess but very brief and general notices. It national records, the descent and location of the different is a general characteristic of the books of the Chronicles, families before the captivity; with the view of enabling as compared with those of Samuel and The Kings, that, the Jews who returned from Babylon to regain their in those portions of the history which are common to former inheritances. It was also designed to assist the both, these books have more of the national and less of restoration of the worship of God according to the Divinely- the personal; more of the ecclesiastical and less of the ordained model. For this purpose, the gonealogies, offices, political; more of the didactic and less of the historiaal:

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