Imágenes de páginas

19, 21 : Der. 31 17:

Rev 7. 6.8. Iso Ruth 4. 11, 1:

Jou 17. 14, ete.

24. 14: L. 22:37


ch. 36 22Deu. 57. 20. I Chr. 5L

1 Pro. uch, 34 2399

Pro 1. 15. 16

Eph. 5


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5-7; 1 Chr. 4.21,32 d ch.23. 3 Den, 347

18.40 seb. 27. 29: 1 Chr.52

17 grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth. And when Joseph saw that his

father · laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he' ver. It

held up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's 18 head. And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father: for this is the first19 born ; put thy right hand upon his head. And his father refused, and said, “I mer, ch. 17. I,

know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be

great : but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall 20 become a multitude of nations. And he blessed them that day, saying, 'In thee | Nom. 1, 1-3:2

shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh : 5 and he set Ephraim before Manasseh.

& Nom. 10. 2, 21 And Israel said unto Joseph, Behold, I die: but “God shall be with you, and eh. 46. 4: 51. 24 22 bring you again unto the land of your fathers. Moreover I have given to thee 1 ch. 1319. des.

3: 1 Chr. 3. 1, 2, one portion above thy brethren, which I took' out of the hand * of the Amorite Jobo 4. 5.

Keh. 15. 16: 34%; with my sword and with my bow.

Jacob prophetically blesses his sons. 49 AND Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I : Deu. 32. 1: Am. 27.

* Deu. 4. 30: Na may 'tell you that which shall befall you " in the last days.'

6; Jer. 23. 20; Dar 2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob;

2 28, 29: Ac. 217;

Heb. 1. 2 And " hearken unto Israel your father.

P. 34. 11.

ach. 29. 32 3 Reuben, thou art 'my firstborn,--my might, Pand the beginning of my strength, Deu. 21. 17; Pu 7R The excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:

91 Chr.41; Jam, I.R. 4 Unstable as water, 9 thou shalt not excel :-* Because thou 'wentest up to thy father's bed;

.ch. 9. 33, 34 Then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.

» PL. 26. 4,3,9; 3; 5 Simeon and Levi are ' brethren:

Pi 16. ; 22 12; "Instruments of cruelty are in their habitations." 6 O my soul, * come not thou into their secret; Unto their assembly, ? mine honour, be not thou united :

© Jos. 19. 1-9: ?L. For in their anger they slew a man

• Jadg. 1. 1, 2; Ps. And in their selfwill they digged down a wall. 7 • Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce ;-and their wrath, for it was cruel: $ Hos 5. 14. Rev. 84 "I will? divide them in Jacob,--and scatter them in Israel.

i Num. 24. 17: Jer.30.

21; Zech. 10. 11. 8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise : 8 Thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies ;)

i Deu. 257

Is. 9. 6; II. 1-5; Thy father's children shall bow down before thee. 10 9 Judah is 8 a lion's whelp :-from the prey, my son, thou art gone up:

25,9: M. I. 21; " He stooped down, he couched as a lion,

Ps. 72. 8. 11:13

2; 11. 10, 11:21 And as an old lion;" who shall rouse him up? 10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor *a lawgiver from between his feet, Ang. 27. 11: m Until Shiloh " come ;-" and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

1:.' 3. Be 15 la 11 • Binding his foal unto the vine,—and his ass's colt unto the choice vine ; 13

Res. 11. 15.

. ? Ki. In 32 1 Though Manassch had more land, Ephraim was al- | Judah. See 1 Chron. v. 2, and note on chap. xlviii. 5. ways the more powerful tribe, ranking next to Judah ; 11 Rather, lioness.' These figures, rising in a beauso that the ten tribes, after their separation from the tiful climax, indicate the warlike character and power kingdom of Judah, were called collectively by the name of the tribe. First, it is compared to a lion's uhelp, of Ephraim. See Hos. viii., ix.

then to a full-grown lion, then to a lioness, which, 2 This is supposed by many to refer to an event other when roused in defence of her cubs, exceeds all in fiercewise unnoticed, in Jacob's life, when he had to regain by ness. force the land he had purchased near Shechem.

12 Some of the most ancient versions give this word 3 Or, hereafter.'This chapter contains prophecies the meaning, “He to whom it (i. e., the sceptre or kingof the future destinies and characters of the tribes, as dom) belongs. But as the text now stands it is better well as references to their founders. It should be com to render it peace,' or 'the peaceful one.' Having pared with Deut. xxxiii.; and with the allotments of the announced the sovereignty of Judah, the patriarch goes different tribes, as recorded in Joshua.

on to declare that it should have no end, until one 4 No judge, prophet, prince, or person of renown is should come bearing the name of 'Shiloh,' whose stay found of this tribe; nor was the tribe itself ever distin both Israel and all mankind should acknowledge. The guished for anything good.

subsequent history presents the fulfilment of this predic5 Or, their swords are weapons of violence;' but per tion. In the journeyings of the Israelites through the haps it is better to read, with the Septuagint and Sa wilderness, and under the theocracy in the promised land, maritan, “They perpetrated wickedness by their schemes.' this tribe took the precedence; after the return from

6 Or, 'houghed oxen ;' or, perhaps, destroyed a prince;' Babylon, it absorbed the others, and gave its name to the i. e. Hamor or Shechem (chap. xxxiv).

whole nation; and even under the dominion of the Ro7 Jacob is said to do that which he predicts. Similar mans it retained a measure of authority. But, on the phraseology is common in prophetical writings.

appearance of Christ, all this quickly passed away to 8 In allusion to the meaning of his name (Praise). make room for the spiritual and universal reign of the 9 Or, 'over all thine enemies thou shalt be victorious.' Prince of Peace.

10 The supremacy and the great promise of Messiah are | 13 On the hills of Judah the vine was extensively culseparated from the rest of the birthright and given to 1 tivated, and numerous flocks were pastured.

A Num. 21. 24: 944

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62 11: Jer. 2.5.6: Eze. 21. 27; Dan 9

21. 9; Lk. I. 39,3

33; 2 30)

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19. 10, 11.

Deu. 31 22 ; Juilg. 13.2, 24, 25, 15. 20,

18 1,2 * Judg. 18. 4.

y Pa. 95. 5; 40.1; 119.

166. 174: Is. 25. 9; Mic. 7. 7.

5. 18-22


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Jos. 17. 14, 17.

He washed his garments in wine,—P and his clothes in the blood of grapes : | P Can. 5. 10–16. 12 His eyes shall be red with wine,-and his teeth white with milk.'

1 Pro. 23. 23. 13 "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea;

Dea. 33. 18, 19; Jos. And he shall be for an haven of ships ;-and his border shall be unto Zidon.' 14 Issachar is a strong ass-couching down between two burdens :3

• Judg. & 16 15 And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; And bowed his shoulder to bear,--and became a servant unto tribute.

6 1 Sam. 10. 9. 16 Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. 17 - Dan shall be a serpent by the way,-an adder in the path,

That biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward. 18 "I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD. 19 :Gad, a troop shall overcome him :—but he shall overcome at the last.

Den. 31 20; 1 Chr. 20 "Out of Asher his bread shall be fat,—and he shall yield royal dainties.? * Deu. 33. 24; Jos. A Naphtali is a hind let loose :-he giveth goodly words.

b Deu. 33. 23. 22 Joseph is "a fruitful bough,-even a fruitful bough by a well;

.eh. 41, 52: 18. 19; Whose branches run over the wall: 99 The archers have d sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him: 24 Bat his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong.

By the hands of the mighty God of Jacob:

(From thence is the shepherd, 'the stone of Israel :) 35. Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee;

And by the Almighty, in who shall bless thee--with blessings of heaven above,

Blessings of the deep that lieth under,--blessings of the breasts, and of the womb: 38 - The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors

Unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills : 10 * They shall be on the head of Joseph,

And on the crown of the head of him ? that was separate from his brethren. 27 Benjamin shall "ravin as a wolf :-in the morning he shall devour the prey,

Judg. 21 21, 25; And at night he shall divide the spoil." 18 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake

unto them, and blessed them; every one according, to his blessing he blessed 29 them. And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my

people: * bury me with my fathers ? in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the ch. 15. 15; 25. B. 30 Hittite, in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the "ch. 17. 30; 2 Sam.

land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite for a ch. 50. 13 31 possession of a burying-place. :There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; v eh. 22. 16.

& there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah. The ch. 23. 19; 25. 9. 32 purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the children of Heth. 1 ch. 31. 23.

deh. 39. 4, 24. 28; 39.

7-90; 12. 21. Ps.
61. 3. II. 13.
Job 29. 20; Ps 28.8;
37. 15.
Ps. 18 32-35; 132

Beh. 45 11; 17. 12;

54. 21. A Ps. 81 1; Is. 40. 11. i Deu. 32. 4: Is. 28

*16: Eph. 2. 20. keh. 28 13 21 : 35. 3;

43. 22 I ch, 17. 1; 35. 11. * Den. 3. 13-16 #eh. 27. 27-29 • Deu, 33. 15; Hab.3.6. P Deu 33 16. 9 ch. 37. 28.

Eze. 22. 231, 27. • Num. 23. 24: Est.

& 11; Eze, 39. 10. Zech. 14. 1, 7.

I The appearance of the people would indicate their ' 7 Partly from his proximity to the commercial Phæhappy lot. These verses (11, 12) describe, in poetical terms, nicians, and partly from the fruitfulness of his own land the peace and plenty of Messiah's reign.

on the western mountain-slopes. * Probably not the city, which lay far to the north, 8 This verse is very obscure; and may be translated, but the territory of the Zidonians : 'the word “haven' as by Bochart, from the Greek, Naphtali is a spreading referring either to the Zidonian ports, or, more probably, (terebinth or oak) tree, producing beautiful branches;' to the coast of Zebulun on the sea of Galilee. Tiberiasor, Naphtali is a free (or, graceful) hind, bringing forth vas in this tribe.

beautiful young ones' (or, occasioning beautiful sayings'). 3 Or, "borders.' In the portion of this tribe lay the 9 Or rather, as the Samaritan and Syriac, by the rich plain of Jezreel, bordered by the range of Carmel name of;' answering to the former part of the parallel, and the hills of Galilee. The patient and laborious ass by the hands of.' This blessing on Joseph, which was sptly represents an orderly, industrious people, who prefer fulfilled in the portions of Ephraim and Manasseh, is the agricultural pursuits to military or commercial enterprize. | fullest and most elaborate of all. “Heaven above, with | The men of Issachar, however, occasionally displayed both its rains and dews,—the deep,' the western sea, the lake · valour and wisdom.' See Judg. v. 15; i Chron. xii. 32. of Tiberias, and the Jordan through much of its course, ! 4 So the name Dan signifies. The stealthy character and the everlasting hills,' mount Ephraim, and mount

of their warfare (resembling that of the Bedouin) is Gilead,--promoted the increase of their families and of illustrated in Judges xviii.; and aptly represented by the their possessions, and made Joseph as a 'fruitful bough attack of the cerastes or horned viper, which lies unper by a well.' See Deut. xxxüi. 13-17. eived in the sand.

'10 Or, “The blessings of thy father exceed the blessings 5 Or, 'I am expecting thy salvation, o Jehovah :' of the eternal mountains, the desirable things of the ever. fossibly referring to some unrecorded revelations of the lasting hills.' Comp. Deut. xxxiii. 15. great redemption.

11 În the first times of Israel, the Benjamites were • The words 'troop' and overcome' are allusions to the noted for their courage and success in war. From them hame Gad, whose tribe was most exposed to predatory sprang Ehud the second judge, and Saul the first king. incursions from the Syrian and Arabian deserts. * At last' They were afterwards united with Judah, returned with maay be rendered, 'in the rear,' or, 'in return.'

it from Babylon, and shared in its privileges.

the ev

ver. 29

d2 KL. 13 14
ever. ; 2 Chr. 16

14: N. 12; ML
IL 8: 16. 1; I.L.X
1; John 1x 719,

2. 13.

Jacob dies in Egypt, and is buried in Canaan. 33 AND when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his

feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people. 50 And Joseph · fell upon his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed him. ch. 16 4. 2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians' to embalm his father : and 3 the physicians embalmed Israel. And forty days were fulfilled for him ; for so

are fulfilled the days of those which are embalmed : and the Egyptians mourned 4 for him threescore and ten days. And when the days of his mourning were past, um 20

Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found grace in & Est. 4. 2 5 your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, "My father made + ch. 17. 29–31. me swear, saying, Lo, I die : in my grave 'which I have digged for me in the Chris e n la

land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me. Now therefore let me go up, I pray 6 thee, and bury my father, and I will come again. And Pharaoh said, Go up, and

bury thy father, according as he made thee swear. 7 And Joseph went up to bury his father: and with him went up all’the servants of 8 Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, and all the

house of Joseph, and his brethren, and his father's house: only their little ones, and 9 their flocks, and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen. And there went up 10 with him both chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great company. And they

came to the threshingfloor of Atad, which is beyond'Jordan, and there they mourned * Sam. L. 17; Ac&

with a great and very sore lamentation: 'and he made a mourning for his father seven '! Sam. 31. 13; Job 11 days. And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in

the floor of Atad, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians : where

fore the name of it was called Abel-Mizraim, [i.e. the mourning of the Egyptians,] 12 which is beyond Jordan. And his sons did unto him according as he commanded 13 them: for 'n his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the ch. 10. 29, 20; Ac

cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham " bought with the field for a 16. 14 possession of a burying-place of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre. And Joseph

returned into Egypt, he, and his brethren, and all that went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.

Joseph's assurance to his brethren ; his old age, and dying charge. 15 AND when Joseph's brethren saw that their father was dead, they said, • Joh 15. 21, 2; Ra

Joseph will peradventure hate us, and will certainly requite us all the evil 16 which we did unto him. And they sent a messenger unto Joseph, saying, Thy 17 father did command before he died, saying, So shall ye say unto Joseph, Forgive,

I pray thee now, the trespass of thy brethren, and their sin ; p for they did unto P Pra. 2 13

thee evil: and now, we pray thee, forgive the trespass of the servants of " the God ch. 19. % 18 of thy father. And Joseph wept when they spake unto him. And his brethren

also went and fell down before his face; and they said, Behold, we be thych. 37.7–11. 19 servants. And Joseph said unto them, Fear not: 'for am I in the place of God? : e. 454 20 “but as for you, ye thought evil against me; but * God meant it unto good, to 21 bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive. Now therefore fear ye

not: I will nourish you, and your little ones. And he comforted them, and

spake kindly unto them. 22 “And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house : and Joseph lived an 23 hundred and ten years. And Joseph saw Ephraim's children :of the third

generation : « the children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were brought up Nem. Je

upon Joseph's knees. 24 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I die : and God will surely visit you, and

bring you out of this land unto the land d which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, L. Heb. 11.02. 25 and to Jacob. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God 26 will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence. So Joseph ; c..16

died, being an hundred and ten years old : and they embalmed him, and he was , ver. 2. put in a coffin in Egypt.

2 15

Den 32 33 : : KL 5 7 ; Job 34. 9, ko. 12. 19; Hed

10. 3L * P... 5; Is. 167. seh 458; P 10

16, 17; Ac. 13-15 y cht. 510,11; 07. 12.

Mr. #; Re. 12

20. 21. * Job 12. 16

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Iech, 15.1416: 164

48. 21; Ex. & 16, 17:

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1 Persons of high rank in Egypt had a number of or it may be rendered, near the passage of Jordan.' family physicians, each devoting himself to one class of This was probably the greatest funeral procession that diseases. In later times, the embalmers formed a dis- was ever known. The journey was about 300 miles. tinct c lass. This art was

to su

4 In the seventy-first year after his family came to Egyptians, that their mummies remain to the present day, Egypt. Comp. chap. xli. 46, 47, with chap. xlv. 11. after a lapse of more than 2000 years. It afforded facili 5 Neither his own alliance and prosperity in Egypt, ties for their pompous and lengthened funeral ceremonies, | nor the length of time which had elapsed since the proof which representations are seen in their tombs.

mise was given, had impaired his faith. 2 That is a great number. See note on chap. vii. 19. 6 That his remains might be ready for removal at the

3 The west of Jordan; beyond the river to a person on proper time; which would serve to keep up among the the east of it, where Moses probably finished his books: 1 Israelites the expectation of a return to Canaan.

NOTE ON THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE BOOK OF GENESIS. THERE is great difference of opinion as to the chronology | 2. The length of time assigned by the Septuagint, the of the earlier portion of Genesis, arising from variations Samaritan text, and Josephus, to the period between the between the Hebrew and Samaritan texts, the Greek deluge and the birth of Abraham (about 1000 years), is version of the Seventy, and the statements of Josephus, deemed more consistent with historical facts than the shorter Theophilus, and others, who profess to follow the Scrip- | time assigned by the Hebrew (about 350 years), which apture as it existed in their time. These authorities pears insufficient for the great multiplication and extended generally agree as to the ages of the patriarchs, but dispersion of Noah's descendants over immense tracts assign the births of several to different periods in the of country, extending from India and Assyria to Ethiopia, lives of their fathers. Thus there is a difference of 100 Egypt, and Greece; and for the establishment of the years between the Hebrew and the Septuagint in the organized and powerful monarchies of Babylon, Nineveh, instances of six of the patriarchs before the flood -- and Egypt; besides the lesser chieftaincies of Canaan, namely, Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, and which seem to have been founded by descendants of Ham, Enoch; making a total of 600 years :-while, after the after the expulsion of some other tribes who had settled food, the name of Cainan, which is not in the Hebrew, in the country. is found in the Septuagint (and in Luke iii. 37), thus 3. The longer chronology appears to bring the duraadding 130 years, and there is an addition of 100 years, tion of the successive generations into better proportion as before, in every instance from Arphaxad to Serug, and to the gradually diminished length of human life, at the of 50 years in the case of Nahor; making together 650 several stages of the history. (or sith Cainan 780) years after the flood. This amounts alto ether to a difference of 1250 (or 1380) vears down to the Those who adhere to the shorter computation urge time of Terah, who was 130 years old at Abraham's birth. principally the following considerations :

Upon these conflicting data two systems of chronology 1. The authority and accuracy of the original Hebrew bare been constructed, which are commonly known in text, which has been supposed to have been preserved by this country by the names of their chief supporters, the Jews with such jealous care as to exclude all possibility Usker and Hales: the former of whom follows the pre of error. It must, however, be remembered, that the exsent Hebrew text, adopting the shorter computation; tended researches of modern times have brought to light whilst the latter generally prefers the longer reckoning numerous verbal discrepancies, which, though not affectof the Septuagint and Josephus, which is in part sus. ing a single truth of Scripture, weaken the force of this tained by the Samaritan text. The table at the end of argument, especially when applied to dates and numbers. this note exhibits some of the leading epochs of this 2. The facilities afforded by the shorter genealogy for period, according to both schemes. The longer chrono the safe and rapid transmission of revealed truth in the legy adopted by Hales is by many considered to be the best carliest ages ; Lamech being contemporary both with entitled to confidence, and among other reasons for the Adam and with Shem, whilst Shem was contemporary following:

with Abraham. This is, however, of little moment, if we 1. The Hebrew is deemed the more likely to have been suppose more numerous revelations of the Divine will. altered, inasmuch as, for some time after the Christian 3. The coincidence (at least, within a few years) of the erz, its use was almost entirely confined to the Jews (and date fixed for the creation with a remarkable astronomical ehiefly to the more learned amongst them), who had a epoch, when the major axis of the earth's orbit coincided totive for shortening the period between the creation with the line of the equinoxes. But there is no necessity and the birth of Jesus, in order to make it appear that for supposing the creation to have taken place at this the epoch in the world's history which their expositors rather than at some other period. had always fixed for the appearance of the Messiah had 4. The objection drawn from the shortness of the innot yet arrived :-whilst, on the other hand, no motive terval between the deluge and the birth of Abraham is for lengthening the chronology can be supposed to have met by adducing the rapid increase of mankind in some eristed on the part of the Jewish translators of the Sep newly-peopled districts, such as the United States of tuagint: nor could there have been an opportunity to alter | America, where the population has doubled itself in fifteen the Greek text afterwards; for it was in extensive circu years. This, however, is clearly owing, in the case adlation, and in constant public use, both among Jews duced, to extensive immigration and the absence of war. und Christians. And there is good reason to believe that, Upon the whole, the evidence preponderates in favour from the year 280 B.C., when the Greek version was made, of the longer period after the deluge; it is more nearly to the end of the first century of the Christian era, the balanced in the antediluvian period, the chronology of numbers in the Hebrew and Greek texts were identical. " which is of less importance.



Yaar of Bar

Year of

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1 Year of Before Christ. World. 2888 2523 2805 2606 2754 2657

130 235


| Year of
Before the

Christ. World. Christ, World.

2281 1723 Birth of Heber ..
5181 230

Death of Noah
4976 435 2247 1757 Birth of Peleg
4786 625 2233 1771 Dispersion:
4616 795 2217 1787 Birth of Reu ........
4481 930

Dispersion ...........

2185 1819 Birth of Serug .......
4289 1122 2165 1849 Birth of Nahor ......
4124 1287 2126 1878 Birth of Terah .....,
3937 1474 1998 2006 | Death of Noah.

1996 2008 Birth of Abram.
3914 1487 1921 2083 | Abram arrives in Canaan
3765 1656 1896 2108 Birth of Isaac ....
3155 2256 1836 2168 Birth of Jacob and Esau
3153 2258 1728 2276 | Joseph goes to Egypt ..
3018 2393 || 1635 | 2369 | Death of Joseph........


The Creation ......
Birth of Seth ..
Birth of Enos.........
Birth of Cainan .....
Birth of Mahalaleel ..
Death of Adam ........
Birth of Jared
Birth of Enoch .........
Birth of Methuselah....
Birth of Lamech ......
Death of Adam.
Translation of Enoch.
Birth of Noah ......
Birth of Arphaxad.
Birth of Salah ......

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The title 'EXODUS,' signifying going out,' was given to ! In the moral laws, 80 clearly enjoined, God shows this book by the Greek translators, because the departure his claims are not affected by man's fall; and cony I. of the Israelites from Egypt is here related.

the sinner of his guilt and misery, and consequent By the call of Abraham, and the covenant of circum of a Saviour; whilst he supplies his people with a ni cision, the people from whom the promised Saviour was to | life, showing them the path in which they must wa come, and who were to be made the depository of revealed their way to heaven. The ceremonial institutions truth, had been in some measure distinguished from the expressive of great truths and principles, presented rest of the world. But, whilst they remained mixed with simple and palpable form, adapted to the comparar other nations who had degenerated into idolatry, and childhood of the church; and they were, at the especially when settled in Egypt, they were in danger of time, types and figures of Christian blessings and ge losing their knowledge of the true religion. God there privileges. In particular. the Passover was a stri fore now proceeds to separate them entirely from all other emblem of the sacrifice of Christ, the Lamb of God, people. To this end, he allows them to be subjected to taketh away the sin of the world.' cruel servitude and oppression, consequent upon the altered policy of the Egyptians-changing their home of plenty This book embraces a period of 145 years; and mas into a house of bondage, and causing them to desire divided into two principal parts :deliverance (ch. i.) He prepares for them a deliverer,

I. THE DELIVERANCE OF THE ISRAELITES FI:. Moses, who undertook the mission, not by choice and self-will, but in obedience to an immediate call from Je

EGYPT: including their oppressed state after the de

of Joseph, and their wonderful increase (ch. i.): hovah, who revealed himself by his covenant name (ch. ii.-iv.) He shows forth his glory in Israel, by re

birth, preservation, and history of Moses; and his preleasing them from their bondage; and in Pharaoh, by

ration for his great office (ii.-vi.): the deliverance punishing his opposition to himself and his people (ch.

the Israelites, and the destruction of their enemies (vü vi.---XV.) Then taking the Israelites under his special

xv. 1—21). guidance, he manifests himself to them with that material | II. THE MANIFESTATION OF GOD IN THE MIDST splendour most suited to their low spiritual state; and, ISRAEL, AND THE GIVING OF THE LAW: comprising t., amidst thunder, lightning, and earthquake, promulgates entrance of the Israelites into the wilderness, and t his law, renews his promises, and solemnly avouches them miraculous provision made for their guidance and su to be his people; while they avouch him to be their port (xv. 22-27-xvii.): their national covenant wi God (ch. xvi.-xx.) And, as their Divine King, he further God, made, broken, and'renewed; together with judici developes the regulations of his government and forms of laws, and directions respecting the sanctuary, priesthoo -; his worship, appoints his ministers, and directs the con- and 'ritual (xix. xxxiv.): the tabernacle built, a struction of his dwelling-place among them (ch. xxi.—xl.) | solemnly occupied by God (XXXV.—xl.)

Increase and oppression of the Israelites. 1 NOW « these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; - Ge. 46. 8; eh. & 1 2 every man and his household came with Jacob. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and 3 Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls : for Ge. 46. %5, 27; * 6 Joseph was in Egypt already. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all de 50*: de 7.1 7 that generation. And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abun- GC. 1316: 155

dantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled

with them. 8 Now there 'arose up a new 1 king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. And Ae. 7. IR

9 he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and ? Ps. 105 24, 25. 10 mightier than we:28 come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, XP: 10 ;6.3, 4

and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our 11 enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land. Therefore they

did set over them taskmasters 'to afflict them with their * burdens. And they en 3 7: Ge. I8 18: 12 built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom 'and Raamses. But the more they eh... 11; & 4, 5;

afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved I Ge . II. 13 because of the children of Israel. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel 14 to serve " with rigour: and they " made their lives bitter with hard bondage, incha

mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field : all their service, 1.22 15: Ac. 7. 13, 34

wherein they made them serve, was with rigour. . 15 And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of 16 the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah : and he said, When ye do

the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it

be a son, then ye shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live. 17 But the midwives P feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded Pro. 16 6 , 18 them, but saved the men children alive. And the king of Egypt called for the

midwives, and said unto them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved 19 the men children alive? And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the l' sam. 17. 19, 21

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A Joh & 13: P. 195

25; Pro. 16. 25; 9L. 30; Ac. 7. 19.

Ps 81. 6

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9 Dan. & 16, 18:6 13; 1 Ac. 59.

see Jos. %

4, ete.

1 Probably of a new dynasty ; perhaps from Thebes. 2 The dominant party of the new king.

3 Josephus says they also constructed pyramids and dykes, and dug canals.

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