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the two disciples were acquainted with that report of Mary Magdalene, and the rest of the women, before they set out for Emmaus.
St. Luke says, ch. xxiv. 33-36, " And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them. Saying, the Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon. And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread. And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them: Peace be unto you."
We should now observe the time, when these two disciples arrived at Jerusalem, and returned to the company of the disciples, whom they had left to go to Emmaus.
When they arrived at that village, and entreated Jesus "to abide with them, they said: It is toward evening, and the day is far spent," or has already begun to decline;" or προς έσπεραν εστι, και κεκλικεν ἡμέρα, ver. 29. It was past noon, and might be near our three, afternoon. As they were sitting down to eat, looking more directly at Jesus, than they had yet done, they knew him. Our Lord thereupon retired, and they hastened to Jerusalem. Emmaus was about a two-hours' walk from Jerusalem. They might get thither about five, afternoon, more than an hour before sun-set; and, probably, did so. Soon after, our Lord came in. He might have been there before them. But he was willing that the disciples, and they that were with them, should be prepared for his appearing among them, by the testimony of these two, added to the testimonies of Peter, and the women, who had already seen him.
We proceed in Luke xxiv. 36, " And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst, and saith: Peace be unto you." Ver. 37, "But they were terrified, and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit." [Which shows, that there were still several, who did not believe him to be risen from the dead.] Ver. 38, " And he said unto them: Why are ye troubled? And why do thoughts arise in your hearts?" Ver. 29, "Behold my hands, and my feet, that it is I myself. Handle me, and see. For a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have." Ver. 40, "And when he had thus spoken, he showed them his hands and his feet." Ver. 41," And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered; he said unto them: Have ye here any meat?" Ver. 42, "And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.". Ver. 43, " And he took it, and did eat before them."
The words, last quoted, "Have ye here any meat," &c. deserve notice. They should be compared with Mark xvi. 14," Afterwards he appeared to the eleven, as they sat at meat, Ύστερον, ανακειμένοις αυτοις τοις ενδεκα εφανερώθη. The eleven were yet at table, or were not yet risen up from their places. There is no improbability in this, considering the transactions of the day, and the great concern they had been in for their Lord, and their apprehensions from the Jews. It might well happen, that they had not dined before five, afternoon. Coming in, then, at that time, when their repast was just over, and finished, he might well put that question: "Have ye here any meat? And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honey comb."
Upon this you say, p. 654, He tarried so long with them, that they had time to make ready some fish for supper, which he took a share of. But the other way of accounting for that question, appears to me preferable. "Have ye here any meat ?” Εχετε τι βρώσιμον ενθαδε is properly said to persons now risen, or just rising from table. And they gave it him presently. He does not desire them to prepare, or make ready for him. But he asks, if they had any meat at hand, or any thing left. Beza disputes this interpretation of the word. But he acknowledgeth that it is the rendering both of the Vulgate, and of Erasmus. To me it appears very right. And Beza's objections against it are frivolous and ill grounded.
We proceed, Luke xxiv. 44, " And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was with you, that all things must be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me." Ver. 45, " Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures.' Ver. 46," And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day." Ver. 47," And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem." Ver. 48, " And ye are witnesses of these things." Ver. 49, " And behold I send the promise of my Father upon you. But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, till ye be endowed with power from on high."
Of this appearance of our Lord to the disciples, St. John writes to this purpose, ch. xx. 19-23, "Then the same day, at evening, being the first day of the week, when the
Postremo vero unâ sedentibus ipsis undecim.' [Recumbentibus ipsis undecim. Vulg.] Id est, cum unâ domi essent. Vulg. et Erasmus de accubitu interpretantur, &c. Bez. ad Marc. xvi. 14.
doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. And when he had so said, he showed them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord. Then said Jesus unto them again, Peace be unto you. As my Father hath sent me, so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed upon them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained."
Thus concluded the first day of the week, the day on which Jesus rose from the dead. Says St. John, Then, the same day at evening, before the first day of the weekcame Jesus, and stood in the midst." The first evening, according to Jewish computation, began at three afternoon, and ended at six afternoon, or sun-setting. Of this use of the word, we have divers examples in the New Testament. In the history of the miracle of the five thousand fed with five loaves, St. Matthew says, ch. xiv. 15, " And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past." It was then about three afternoon. So likewise, Matt. xxvii. 57, "When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, who also himself was a disciple." Every one knows that Jesus expired at three afternoon. At that time, called here the evening, came Joseph to take care of the body of Jesus. And when St. John in this text says, "the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, came Jesus:" he must be understood to say that Jesus came to the disciples, in that space of time, between three afternoon, and sun-setting, or six afternoon. And from the history of the two disciples who had been at Emmaus, [as related, Luke xxiv.] who had arrived just before Jesus came in, we have argued, that Jesus came in at five afternoon, or possibly somewhat sooner, when there was yet an hour's daylight. And I believe, that upon due consideration, it will be thought to be a strange conceit, which has been admitted by some christian cominentators, that Jesus did not now appear to the disciples till after sun-setting, when it was night, and even late in the night: which is, really, to expose this history to the scoffs of infidels. St. John says, "the doors were shut," but he does not say that they were shut because it was dark but for "fear of the Jews:" which they may have been all that day.'
• What is above said, is very similar to some observations of the author of VOL. X. 2 c
I have still one observation more to mention; which is intended farther to confirm the supposition, that the two did not leave the other disciples, nor set out for Emmaus, till after the report made by Mary Magdalene, and the other women with her," that they had seen the Lord:" and also to explain more distinctly those words of the two disciples to Jesus. Luke xxiv. 22, 23, Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre. And when they found not his body, they came, saying, That they had also seen a vision of angels, which said, that he was alive.”
I think that these words refer to, and include, the second report of Mary Magdalene, and the women with her, which is recorded in John, xx. 18, " Mary Magdalene, came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her."
What I would now propose to consideration, is this: neither Mary Magdalene, nor any other of the women, saw any angel when they first went up to the sepulchre. They did not see any angel till some time afterwards, that is, not till after they had been down with the apostles, and returned back to the sepulchre. Nor did John and Peter see any angel when they went up to verify the truth of what the women had said to them. The appearance of the angels was not till after Mary Magdalene was returned to the sepulchre from the apostles: therefore the two disciples, in the words above quoted from Luke, xxiv. 22, 23, refer to the second report or testimony of Mary Magdalene, and the women with her.
Let us observe the history, as it lies in St. John's gospel, xx. 1, 2, "The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them: They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him." She says not a word of the appearance of angels, or any information received from them. Therefore no such thing had happened.
It follows, ver. 3-10," Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. So they ran both together, and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying. Yet went he the Remarks upon Dr. Ward's Dissertations, p. 286, &c. to whom therefore I refer you: for there the same point is handled more at large.
not in. Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed, [that is, finding nothing in the sepulchre but the clothes, he believed that the body was taken away as Mary Magdalene had said:] For as yet they knew not the scripture: That he must rise again from the dead. Then the disciples went away again to their own home." Therefore neither did these apostles see any angels at the sepulchre, or near it. For no such thing is here mentioned or hinted. It is also confirmed by St. Luke's account of the same visit or journey to the sepulchre, ch. xxiv. 12, "Then arose Peter, and came unto the sepulchre, and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass. He seeth not any angels; nor does he receive any information from angels. He only sees, and views the sepulchre, and observes, that the body was gone, and the clothes were left lying by themselves. Nor could he forbear to wonder greatly.
We are next to attend to what follows the quotation before made from John xx. where at ver. 11, 12," But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping. And as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, and seeth two angels in white, sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain."
When the two disciples, John and Peter, returned to their home in Jerusalem, Mary still stayed behind. "But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping." And well she might, considering how ignominiously her Lord had been put to death a few days ago; and now the body was missing and gone; and, as she thought, removed and carried away, but whither, and by whom, she could not tell. In this distress, and now first upon this occasion, there is an appearance of angels.
"But Mary stood without weeping. And as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre; and seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain." No such beings had been seen before by any of the women, or the disciples, who had looked into the sepulchre, and been in it, and searched it, once and again." And they say unto her: Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them,