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than this of one way in which revolutionary designate the criminal class or grade to which impulses in Russia are excited and kept alive. such prisoners belong, rather than the particThe agencies which transformed these inno- ular part of the fortress in which they are cent young people into revolutionists were confined. The material environment of the unwarranted arrest, denial for an unreasonable “condemned” differs little from that of the length of time of the right to be heard in their “accused.” They are shut up in the same own defense, and prolonged imprisonment spacious but damp and gloomy casemates, under conditions that threatened to deprive with the same high grated windows looking them of health, sanity, or life. Three years out upon a blank wall, with the same“ Judas two years - or even one year of solitary con- pierced doors through which they are constantly finement in a casemate of the Trubetskoi bas- watched, and in the same tremorless atmostion is quite enough to embitter and exasper- phere of eternal silence. The difference beate to the last degree a consciously innocent tween their life and the life of the “accused” man; and if to such unjust imprisonment be is mainly a difference of treatment. added the loss of a brother, sister, wife, or friend in prison before trial, the transformation of the

DEPRIVATION OF ALL CIVIL RIGHTS. surviving sufferer into a revolutionist becomes at least an understandable phenomenon. When a criminal in Russia is judicially con

demned to a term of penal servitude, or

“katorga,” the sentence of the court carries CONDEMNED." FATE OF THE

with it deprivation of all civil rights. The This, however, is by no means a complete political offender who incurs this penalty presentation of that part of the revolutionist's ceases to be a citizen, and loses at once not case which relates to the fortress of Petropav- only all the privileges and immunities that aplovsk. Political suspects awaiting trial are pertain to his rank or social station, but also not the only persons therein confined, nor are all control over his property, his family, and the casemates of the Trubetskoi bastion the his own person, and all right to claim the proonly cells in that vast state prison. The for- tection of the laws, even when his life is tress is a place of punishment as well as a place imperiled by the treatment to which he is subof preliminary detention, and its gloomy walls jected. He is virtually outside the pale of the hold the “condemned” as well as the “ac- law, and may be dealt with by the officers cused.” When a burglar, murderer, or other of the state as if he were a slave. The fact common Russian felon has been tried, found that the term of penal servitude to which he guilty, and sentenced to penal servitude, he is, has been condemned is a short one does not as a rule, released from the solitary confine lessen the force of this secular excommunicament in which he has been held pending trial, tion. A hard-labor sentence of four years diis allowed to mingle with other prisoners of vests the criminal of all his civil and political the same penal grade, and is forwarded with- rights as completely as a sentence to penal out unnecessary delay to Siberia. When, how- servitude for life. The property which was his ever, a political offender has been tried, found before his condemnation descends to his legal guilty, and sentenced to penal servitude under heirs as if he were dead, or is sequestered by the same code of laws, he is not released from the state. The family of which he was the solitary confinement, nor sent with reasonable head ceases to belong to him, and the state promptness to Siberia, as he would be if he may assume the custody of his children. The had merely killed his mother with an ax, but exemption from liability to corporal punishis thrown into a bomb-proof casemate in what ment which he has previously enjoyed is taken is known as the “ penal servitude section” of away from him, and he may be flogged with the Petropavlovsk fortress, or into one of the the" rods" or the cat. Finally, during what is smaller cells of a “Central Convict Prison," officially known as the "period of probation,” and there lies in solitude and wretchedness which lasts from a year and a half to eight for one, two, three, or even five years before years, he is not allowed to have either bed, he finally goes insane or is sent to the convict pillow, blanket, money, books, writing matemines of Kara.* In what part of the fortress rials, or communication with relatives ; his the “penal servitude section” is situated, the head is kept half shaved longitudinally from exiles whom I met in Siberia did not know. the forehead to the nape of the neck; he It is probable, however, that "condemned" must wear the coarse gray convict dress, must politicals are distributed among various bas- live on the convict rations, and must wear tions and ravelins in that extensive fortification, a chain and leg-fetters weighing five pounds. and that the words "penal servitude section" For violent insubordination, even when it is

There are, of course, exceptions to this rule, and held in solitary confinement after sentence only in the Russian officials assert that political offenders are now castle of Schlüsselburg.


the result of delirium or partial insanity, he control, I summoned the fortress surgeon, or the “ feldmay be handcuffed, flogged, confined in a sher," who merely gave me a dose of bromide of potasstrait-jacket, fettered to the wall of his cell, or that nothing serious had happened; that two or three

sium and told me that I must not excite myself so; chained to a wheel-barrow.*

of the prisoners were sick and delirious; but that there

was nothing to be alarmed about. As the fortress conPENAL SERVITUDE SECTION."

tained no hospital, insane and delirious patients were It is hardly nece cessary to point out the differ- treated in their cells, and were rarely removed to

an asylum unless they were manifestly incurable, or ence which this treatment makes between the the care of them became burdensome. The effect of the life of the “condemned" and the life of the eternal stillness, solitude, and lack of occupation on the “accused,” even although both may be im- mind was greatly heightened by the want of proper

“ Accused” prisoned in the same fortress. For the “ ac- prisoners

awaiting trial in the Trubetskoi bastion were cused” there is always the hope of ultimate allowed to have money in the hands of the "smatritel,” trial and release; for the “condemned” there or warden, and could direct its expenditure for white is only the prospect of slow mental and physi- bread, vegetables, tea, sugar, etc., to make up the decal decay in the solitude and gloom of a bomb- ficiencies, of the prison ration; but we, the “con

demned,” had to live upon black rye-bread, soup which proof casemate, and finally death, insanity, or it was often impossible to eat on account of the spoiled the mines of the Trans-Baikal.

condition of the meat from which it had been made,

and a small quantity of “kasha,” or barley, boiled with You cannot imagine, Mr. Kennan (said a condemned a little fat and served without seasoning, and sometimes revolutionist to me in Siberia), the misery of prolonged only half cooked. Such food, in connection with the confinement in a casemate of the fortress under what damp, heavy air of the casemate and the lack of proper are known as dungeon conditions [kartsernoi poloz- exercise, caused derangement of the digestive organs, henie]. My casemate was sometimes cold, generally and this was soon followed by more or less pronounced damp, and always gloomy. Day after day, week after symptoms of scurvy. Madame Lebedeva, who was in week, and month after month, I lay there in solitude, the penal servitude section with me, suffered from hearing no sound save that of the high-pitched, melan- scurvy to such an extent that her teeth became loose choly bells of the fortress cathedral, which slowly and her gums greatly swollen, and she could not maschimed the quarter hours, and which always seemed to ticate the prison bread without first soaking it in warm me to half articulate the words, “Tee zdais seedeesh-water. Scurvy, even in an incipient form, intensified, ee seedee tee” (Here thou liest — lie here still]. I had of course, the mental depression due primarily to other absolutely nothing to do except to pace my cell from causes and made it almost insupportable. I never sericorner to corner and think. For a long time I used to ously meditated suicide,- it always seemed to me a cowtalk to myself in a whisper; to repeat softly everything ardly thing to escape from suffering by taking one's own in the shape of literature that I could remember, and life, but I did speculate upon the possibility of suito compose speeches, which, under certain imagined cide, and wondered how I could kill myself in a caseconditions, I would deliver; but I finally ceased to have mate where there was absolutely nothing that could energy enough to do even this, and used to sit for hours be used as an implement of self-destruction. Once I in a sort of stupor, in which, so far as I can now re- went so far as to see if I could hang myself from the member, I was not conscious of thinking at all. Before small cylindrical hot-air pipe which projected two or the end of the first year I grew so weak mentally and three inches into my cell from the face of the brick oven. physically that I began to forget words. I knew what I did not really intend to take my life, but I felt a morideas I desired to express, but some of the words that bid curiosity to know whether or not I could do it in I needed had gone from me and it was with the great, that way. As soon as I threw my weight on the pipe, est difficulty that I could recover them. It seemed it pulled out of the masonry, making, as it fell to the sometimes as if my own language were a strange one floor, a noise which attracted the attention of the guard to me, or one which, from long disuse, I had forgotten. in the corridor. I was forthwith removed to another I greatly feared insanity, and my apprehension was in- cell, and I never again tried a similar experiment. They creased by the fact that two or three of my comrades say that poor Goldenberg succeeded in committing suiin cells on the same corridor were either insane or sub- cide in the fortress, but I cannot imagine how he acject to hallucinations; and I was often roused at night complished it. I became satisfied that I could not kill and thrown into a violent chill of nervous excitement myself in my casemate in any other way than by biting by their hysterical weeping, their cries to the guard to into an artery or dashing my head against the wall, and come and take away somebody, or something which they I ultimately became so weak that I doubt very much imagined they saw, or their groans and entreaties when, whether I could have fractured my skull by the latter in cases of violent delirium, they were strapped to their method. beds by the gendarmes. My inability to see what was

ARE FORTRESS PRISONERS FLOGGED AND happening in the cells from which these groans, cries, and sounds of violence came gave full play, of course,

TORTURED ? to my imagination, and thus increased my nervous ex. citement, until I was on the verge of hysterics myself.

It is not my intention to create prejuSeveral times, when I feared that I was losing all self- dice against the Russian government, nor to

Russian Penal Code [Ulozhenie o Nakazaniakh], perfect stillness which is regarded as an essential part Official Edition, sections 22 to 25, inclusive, and sec- of prison discipline. The rule that there shall be no tions 27 and 28: Government Printing Office, St. communication between the “condemned" and their Petersburg, 1885. See also the rules for the treatment relatives is sometimes so strictly enforced that a mother of convicts which are contained in the XIVth volume cannot even learn whether her son is living or dead. I of the Russian Collection of Laws (Svod Zakonof], and met in Russia relatives and near friends of Muishkin, particularly the Statutes Relating to Exiles [ Ustav o Nechaief, Gellis, and Madame Vera Phillipova, who Sylnikh), Part II. An exception is made in the fortress told me that they had been unable to ascertain whether to the rule that convicts shall wear leg-fetters, for the those unfortunate prisoners were in the castle of reason that the clanking of chains would facilitate Schlüsselburg or in their graves. communication between cells, and would break the

excite sympathy for the Russian revolutionists, taken.* Several of the prison guard revolted even at by exaggerating the sufferings of condemned that, and one of them refused to assist in holding the politicals in the penal servitude section of the “palach » [hangman], and that it was not a part of

struggling prisoners, declaring that he was not a Petropavlovsk fortress. I desire to state only his duty to poison people. those things which I have the very strongest reason to believe are true. Stepniak and

EFFECTS OF SOLITARY CONFINEMENT IN Prince Krapotkin have painted the life of

FORTRESS CASEMATES. condemned politicals in somewhat darker colors than my information would justify me In the main, however, the descriptions of in using. Of the fifty or more fortress prison- fortress life given by Stepniak and Prince ers whose acquaintance I made in Siberia, Krapotkin are much more nearly in accord not one had ever heard of cells situated be- with the results of my investigations than are low the level of the Neva River; nor of the those published by the Rev. Henry Lansdell famous letter written by Nechaief in his own and one or two other English travelers who blood; nor of dungeons infested by rats; nor visited and superficially inspected the Trubetof the flogging of political prisoners with skoi bastion some years ago. There can, I whips; nor of a single case of torture. I am think, be no doubt - and in my own mind not prepared to assert that the statements there is not even the shadow of a doubt of Stepniak and Prince Krapotkin upon these that prolonged solitary confinement in one of points are inaccurate, or without foundation; the casemates of a Russian fortress, without but I must, in fairness, say that they are not books, writing materials, bedding, proper food, sustained by the results of my investigations. or communication of any kind with the outThere are cells in the fortress whose atmos- side world, is a much more terrible punishphere is so damp that salt and sugar melt or ment than death. Madame Vera Phillipova, liquefy in it after a few hours' exposure, and a well-known revolutionist and a beautiful such cells are sometimes occupied by political and accomplished woman, who was tried and offenders; but they are not situated below the condemned at St. Petersburg in 1884, asked level of the Neva. Nechaief was chained to as a last favor that she might be hanged inthe wall of his cell as a disciplinary punish- stead of being sent to the castle of Schlüsselment for striking the gendarme officer Pota- burg, but her request was denied. Suicides poff; but previous to that time he had been and attempts at suicide in fortress casements treated fairly well, and if he was ever flogged, are comparatively common, and condemned or ever wrote a letter in his own blood to political prisoners frequently strike some offiAlexander III., or to any other person, the cer of their guard with the hope of being tried exiles in Siberia are ignorant of the fact. by court-martial and shot. The presiding judge Condemned political prisoners in the fortress of a Russian circuit court, whose acquainthave frequently been beaten with the butts of ance I made in Moscow on my way home guns and with the fists of the guard, but I have from Siberia, told me, in reply to an inquiry, not been able to authenticate a single report that the revolutionist Muishkin was shot in the of actual flogging with a whip, although the castle of Schlüsselburg in the summer of 1885 latter punishment is authorized by law. As for striking the fortress surgeon. The desperate for torture,- that is, the infliction of pain prisoner had resolved to escape from a life of by means of artificial appliances,- I do not hopeless misery by starving himself to death, believe that it has recently been practiced, and the prison surgeon had been sent to his either in the fortress or in any other prison cell to feed him by force. The high judicial of European Russia. A distinguished revolu- officer who gave me this information was not tionist, who is well known to Stepniak and a revolutionist, nor a sympathizer with revowhose biography the latter has written, said lution; he made the statement dryly, without to me in Siberia:

comment and without manifestation of feeling, I assure you, Mr. Kennan, that torture in the for. and there is, so far as I am aware, no reason tress, in our time, has not so much as been heard of. for doubting its truth. The nearest approach to torture of which I had knowledge during my threeyears' confinement there was condemned political prisoners are subjected

The inhumanity of the treatment to which the forcible administration of chloroform to Oboleshef and Madame Vitanieva, for the purpose of rendering in the penal servitude section of the Petrothem unconscious while their photographs were being pavlovsk fortress is clearly shown by the phys

Oboleshef and Madame Vitanieva were thrown cited Oboleshef, and made him so delirious and violent into the fortress upon a charge of participation in the that the attempt to photograph him was finally abanplot to assassinate General Mezzentsef. They refused doned. There were present on this occasion Major to allow their photographs to be taken, and were there. Nikolski, an officer of gendarmes, Doctor Vilms, the upon chloroformed by force. Madame Vitanieva be- fortress surgeon, and a number of “nadziratels," or came unconscious and quiet; but the chloroform ex. prison overseers.

ical condition of such prisoners when finally guard or upon stretchers.f In the House of released. In April, 1883, the Department of Preliminary Detention these wrecks of human Imperial Police sent an order to the com- beings received medical care and were fed mandant of the fortress to make up a large with nourishing food and stimulants for about party of condemned politicals for deportation three months, at the expiration of which time to the East Siberian mines. The comman- all except Fridenson and Emelianoff were dant, after consultation with the fortress sur- reported convalescent. Orloff and Madame geon and with the officer appointed to take Lebedeva were still suffering from scurvy, and charge of the convoy, reported that most of the others were mere shadows of their former the political prisoners named in the order selves; but they were officially regarded as were so weak that they probably could not strong enough to begin their toilsome journey endure three days' travel, that more than half of nearly five thousand miles to the mines of of them were unable to stand on their feet the Trans-Baikal. without support, and that the convoy officer declined to take charge of prisoners who were

THE DEPARTURE FOR SIBERIA. in such physical condition unless he could be freed from all responsibility for deaths that I SHALL never forget, while I live [said to me an might occur on the road. In view of this state exile who went with these condemned prisoners to of affairs the commandant recommended that Detention before our departure. It was the night of

Siberia), the last night in the House of Preliminary the condemned politicals who had been se- July 24-25, 1883. A rumor was current among the lected for deportation be removed to the political prisoners that a large party would start for House of Preliminary Detention, and be held Siberia on the following morning, but no one knew there under more favorable conditions until did not notice any unusual sounds until shortly after

who was to go, and all were awake and watchful. I they should recover strength enough to ren- midnight, when a cell near mine was thrown open, and der their transportation to Siberia practicable. I heard, passing my door, the once familiar footsteps Acting upon this suggestion, the Director of of a dear friend and comrade, who had been long in the Imperial Police ordered the removal of prison, and whom I had not seen since the years of our

early manhood, when we breathed together the air of twenty-two prisoners, including six women, freedom and worked hand in hand for the realization from the casemates of the fortress to compar- of our ideals. The convict party was evidently being atively light and airy cells in one of the

upper of the Trans-Baikal. In ten or fifteen minutes I heard stories of the House of Detention.* Of the his footsteps returning, but they were not so rapid and prisoners so removed six were already in an assured as before and were accompanied by the sharp advanced stage of consumption, and twelve metallic clink and rattle of chains. He had been put were so feeble that they could not walk nor into leg-fetters. I knew, of course, that this was inevi.

table, and yet the first sound of the chains chilled me stand, and were carried from their casemates with a vague sense of horror. It seemed unnatural to carriages, either in the arms of the prison and incredible that he — the man whom I loved like a

* The names of these prisoners, with their ages, sta- 4. Fomin; age 25; army officer; penal servitude tions in life, and terms of penal servitude, are as follows: for life.

5. Yevseief; age 26; peasant; penal servitude for WOMEN. ·

life. 1. Anna Pavlovna Korba ; age 32 ; school teacher,

6. Zlatapolski; age 35; technologist; 20 years' penal and afterward, during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–

servitude. 78, a Red Cross nurse in a field hospital at the front;

7. Pribuiloff; age 25; physician; 15 years' penal

servitude. 20 years' penal servitude. 2. Anna Yakimova; age 27; school-teacher; penal

8. Kaluzhni; age 26; student; 15 years' penal sery.

itude. servitude for life. 3. Praskovia Ivanofskaya; age 30; school-teacher;

9. Orloff; age 27; student; 13 years' penal serv.

itude. penal servitude for life. 4. Tatiana Lebedeva; age 31; school-teacher ; penal

10. Novitski ; age 29; student; 12 years' penal serv

itude. servitude for lite. 5. Nadezhda Smirnitskaya; age 31; student in wo

II. Hekker; age 19; 10 years' penal servitude. men's college [ Vwyshi Zhenski Kursi]; 15 years' penal

12. Stephanovich ; age 30; student; 8 years' penal servitude.

servitude. 6. Antonina Lisofskaya ; age 26; student in women's servitude. [{ 'saw Liustig in the Irkutsk prison in Sep

13. Liustig; age 27; army officer ; 4 years' penal college; 4 years' penal servitude. [She died of consumption at the mines of Kara a few weeks previous tember, 1885, but had no opportunity to talk with him to my arrival there.-G. K.]

alone.-G. K.]

14. Kuziumkin; age 21; peasant; 4 years' penal servitude.

15. Emelianoff. 1. Mirski; age 26; student; penal servitude for life. 16. Fridenson. [He had lain four years in a casemate of the Alexei + The twelve prisoners carried out of the fortress ravelin.-G. K.)

were Mesdames Yakimova, Smirnitskaya, and Korba; 2. Voloshenko; age 31 ; student; penal servitude and Messrs. Zlatapolski, Liustig, Voloshenko, Nafor life.

gorni, Kaluzhni, Mirski, Hekker, Fridenson, and 3. Nagorni; age 25; student; penal servitude for life. Emelianoff.


brother; the man whom I regarded as the embodi. them sat a pale, thin woman about twenty-seven years ment of everything good, brave, and generous — had of age, who held in her arms a sickly baby born in a already been fettered like a common highway robber, casemate of the fortress, and who looked anxiously at and was about to go into penal servitude. For a time the door every time it opened with the hope of seeing I paced my cell in uncontrollable nervous agitation, her husband brought in to join the party. Most of us and at last, as prisoner after prisoner was taken from knew that her husband was dead, but no one dared to my corridor to the prison work-shop and came back in tell her that she watched the door in vain. clanking fetters, I could endure it no longer, and throw- Nothing could have been more dramatic than the ing myself on the bed I covered my head with pillows scene in that gloomy hall at half-past 4 o'clock in the and bed-clothing in order to shut out, if possible, the morning, when the last of the condemned prisoners had hateful sound of the chains.

been brought in. The strange and unnatural stillness About 3 o'clock in the morning an overseer un- in a room filled with people; the contrast between the locked and opened the door of my cell and said to me, blue and silver uniforms of the gendarmes and the coarse “Come!” i followed him to the office of the prison, gray overcoats, chains, and leg-fetters of the prisoners; where the commander of the convoy made a careful ex- the furtive whisperings of the detective police; and the amination of my person, noted my features and physi- silence and assumed stolidity of the pale, emaciated, cal characteristics as set forth in a description which shaven-headed convicts would have made the scene he held in his hand, compared my face with that of a striking and impressive even to a chance spectator. photograph taken soon after my arrest, and at last, To one, however, who could look beneath the surface being apparently satisfied as to my identity, received of things; who could appreciate the tragic significance me formally from the prison authorities. I was then taken of the situation; and who could see with spiritual in. down a flight of stairs to the corps de garde, a large sight the hot tides of hatred, agony, sympathy, and room on the ground floor, at the door of which stood pity which surged under those gray overcoats, the an armed sentry. The spacious but low and gloomy scene was not merely striking and impressive, but terhall was dimly lighted by a few flaring lamps and can- rible and heart-rending. dles, and in the middle of it, at two long bare tables, sat At 5 o'clock we were taken in closed carriages to ten or fifteen men and women, in coarse gray convict the station of the St. Petersburg and Moscow railway, overcoats, drinking tea. The heads of the men were were put into convict cars with grated windows, and half shaven, they all wore chains and leg-letters, and began our long and eventful journey to Siberia. I on the back of every prisoner, between the shoulders, could not describe, if I would, the scenes that I witappeared the two black diamonds which signify that nessed in that train, when we were at last freed from the criminal so marked is a hard-labor convict. Near the espionage of the gendarmes; when we could greet the door, in a little group, stood six or eight uniformed and embrace one another openly without fear; and gendarmes and officers of the detective police, who could relate to one another the histories of our lives watched the prisoners intently, whispering now and during the long years of our enforced separation. The then among themselves as if communicating to one experiences of all were essentially alike, and the another the results of their observations. The stillness stories were an endless epopee of suffering: We of the room was unbroken save by the faint hissing of talked all day, and should perhaps have talked all two or three brass samovars on the tables, and an oc- night had not the over-strained nerves of the weaker casional jingle of chains as one of the convicts moved members of the party given way at last under the his feet. There was no conversation, and a chance ob- tension of excitement and the sudden in-rush of server would never have imagined that the gray-coated a flood of new sensations and new emotions. To figures sitting silently side by side at the tables were a prisoner who had lived for years in the silence near friends, and in some cases relatives, who had long and solitude of a bomb-proof 'casemate the noise been buried in the casemates of the fortress, and who and rush of the train, the unfamiliar sight of God's were looking into one another's faces for the first time green world, and the faces and voices of friends who

seemed to have been raised suddenly from the dead, As I entered the room, one of the prisoners, whose were at first intensely exciting; but the excitement face I did not at first recognize but who proved to be was soon followed by complete prostration. Early in an old friend, rushed forward to meet me, and as he the evening one of my comrades, without the least threw his arms around me whispered in my ear, "Don't warning, suddenly became hysterical, and in less than recognize anybody but me — the gendarmes are watch- ten minutes seven men in our car were either delirious ing us." I understood the warning. The police really or lying on the floor in a state of unconsciousness. knew very little about the history and the revolution- Some of them raved and cried, some went from one ary records of some of the political convicts who were long faint into another, and some lay motionless and present, and it was important that they should not be breathless in a profound swoon until we almost gave able to get a clew to any one's identity or past history them up for dead. The surgeon who accompanied the by noting recognitions as prisoner after prisoner was convoy was summoned, stimulants were administered, brought in. The incautious manifestation of emotion water was dashed into the white, ghastly faces, and by one convict as he met another might result in the everything was done that could be done to restore the return of both to the casemates of the fortress and their sufferers to a normal condition; but all night the car detention there until their mutual relations could be was filled with moans and hysterical weeping, and the investigated. This was the reason for the silence which women of the party — particularly Anna Pavlovna prevailed throughout the gloomy hall and for the Korba, who was stronger and more self-possessed seeming indifference with which the prisoners regarded than any of the men - went from one fainting or hysone another. They were apparently strangers, but in terical patient to another with restoratives, stimulants, reality they were bound together by innumerable ties and soothing ministrations. When we arrived in Mos: of friendship and memories of the past; and as they cow nearly half of the party had to be carried out of looked into one another's faces, and noted the changes the car in the arms of the guard, and our journey was that time and suffering had wrought, they maintained temporarily suspended in order that they might retheir composure only by the most heroic effort. On ceive medical treatment. one side of the table sat an old comrade of whom we had heard nothing in years and whom we had all sup- It may perhaps seem to the reader that the posed to be dead. On the other side were a young above description, which was first given to each other, and who, when thus reunited under theme orally by a member of the party, and which eyes of the gendarmes, did: not dare to speak. Near afterward, at my request, was written out in

in years.

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