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fluence of the order manifested, notwithstanding the statements of experimental results, that I am disposed to lay the results before the reader in the hope that in this form they may appeal even to those who do not appreciate the value of statements of scientific evidence, and may, perhaps, interest those who do not need such an illustrated argument. From several examples at hand one has been selected which shows two composites made from three negatives exposed in different orders, all other conditions remaining the same. These engravings, like all the others in this paper, were made by a photographic process and are hence exact reproductions of the original transparencies. In the two views in the lower right hand corner of page 123 the individual faces were selected for their distinct diversity. One was spectacled, one adorned by a mustache, the third smooth and quite unlike the others. In making one composite the spectacles came first, the mustache last; in the other, the mustache first, the spectacles last. Any influence of the "order" would certainly have made itself apparent under these circumstances.

Some successful composites have been made with an ordinary camera, and one by Mr.

*The McLean Asylum Training School was brought into successful operation through the energy of Dr. Edward Cowles, Superintendent of the McLean Asylum at Somerville, Mass. It was decided upon in 1879, and after due preparation formally organized in 1882. Its work has been developed slowly for the sake of soundness, and the first class of sixteen nurses (fifteen of whom form the composite) was graduated in 1886.



Rockwood of New York City † was made directly from the sitters instead of from negatives. These methods are of course possible; but the use of the special camera with a mirror for aid in focusing and adjustment will be found much more convenient and satisfactory, while there is a grave objection to the plan of working from the sitters. This lies in the fact that it is difficult to control the illumination by daylight in this case, and almost impossible to make proper allowance for the different photograhic effect of various tints of coloring. Indeed, Mr. Rockwood recognizes this by saying:

"I can readily see how one of the young ladies with round smooth face, blonde complexion and flaxen hair, could, if not guarded against, have neutralized the impression of all the rest, if they were of a darker style.”

But he does not seem to realize that this difficulty is one which is inherent in the method he used and which cannot be guarded against without very unusual judgment and knowledge of the photographic action of different tints; while when negatives are employed, there is no variety of colors - one has to deal only with the comparatively simple problem of securing equal intensity of illumination by means of artificial light.

John T. Stoddard.

This school is the first organized in this country for the training of nurses for the insane. The second class has now been graduated and the school is well established with full classes. See Dr. Cowles's article on "Nursing-Reform for the Insane," in the October number of the "American Journal of Insanity."

+ See the "Art Amateur " for June, 1887.

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T 9 o'clock in the morning of the 29th of

cers of his staff bid good-bye to President Lincoln and started by special train from City Point to the front.

The military railroad connecting headquarters with the camps south of Petersburg was a surface road, built up hill and down dale, and its undulations were so emphasized, that a train moving along it looked in the distance like a fly crawling over a corrugated washboard. The general sat down near the end of the car, drew from his pocket the flint and slow match that he always carried, which unlike a match never missed fire in a gale of wind, and was soon wreathed in the smoke of the inevitable cigar. I took a seat near him with several other officers of the staff, and he at once began to talk over his plans in detail. They had been discussed in general terms before starting out from City Point.

For a month or more, General Grant's chief apprehension had been that Lee might suddenly pull out from his intrenchments, and fall back into the interior, where he might unite with General Joe Johnston against Sherman and force our army to follow him to a great distance from its present base. General Grant had been sleeping with one eye open and one

The reader is referred to the September CENTURY for articles on the siege of Petersburg, the last event described there being the Confederate sortie and repulse at Fort Stedman on March 25th. In order to bring the first half of General Horace Porter's paper within the limits of the present magazine article, many interesting details, including those of the fighting at

foot out of bed for many weeks, in the fear that Lee would thus give him the slip. Each army, in fact, had been making preparations for either a fight or a foot-race, or both, and the starting time had now arrived, for the roads were getting in good condition for the movement of troops, that is, as good as could be expected, through a section of country in which the dust in summer was generally so thick that the army could not see where to move, and the mud in winter was so deep that it could not move anywhere. On the train General Grant said: "The President is one of the few visitors I have had who has not attempted to extract from me a knowledge of my plans. He not only never asks them, but says it is better he should not know them, and then he can be certain to keep the secret."

When we reached the end of the railway, we rode down the Vaughn road, and went into camp for the night in a field just south of that road, close to Gravelly Run (see map, page 128). That night (March 29th), the army was disposed in the following order from right to left: Weitzel in front of Richmond, with a portion of the Army of the James, Parke and Wright holding our works in front of Petersburg, Ord extending to the intersection of Hatcher's Run and the Vaughn road, Humphreys stretching beyond Dabney's Mill, Warren on the extreme left reaching as far as the junction of the Vaughn road and the Boydton Five Forks, have been necessarily omitted. The paper will be given entire in "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War," a work now being published by subscription, by the Century Co., in thirty-two parts-or four volumes-containing THE CENTURY war series in permanent and greatly extended and embellished form.

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