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such a serious nature that it might interfere with the further passage of the vessel, or be liable to block the Canal, the vessel shall stop and, if practicable, be anchored or moored at the first available place. A full report shall immediately be made to the Superintendent of Transportation, through the Captain of the Port, stating fully the cause and nature of the trouble, probable delay, and request for assistance if it be necessary.

53. Under any and all circumstances, whenever a vessel is liable to become unmanageable from any weakness, or damage to her machinery, steering gear, or for any other reason, she shall immediately, through the pilot, request the assistance of a tug.


54. No firearms of any kind shall be discharged while in transit through the Canal or in Canal waters, and every precaution will be taken to prevent this.

Subsistence of Pilots 55. Pilots and other authorized persons on duty, belonging to the Canal service, shall be subsisted without charge while on board vessels in transit through the Canal.

Maintenance of Tugs and Other Floating Equipment

56. No vessel, company, nor individual will be authorized to maintain or operate permanently any tugs, launches, lighters, or floating equipment of any kind within the Canal waters without permission from the Governor; nor shall any small craft or boat of any kind be operated without the proper authority from him.


57. All claims for damages arising from injury to vessels, cargo, or passengers from the passing of vessels through the locks under the control of those operating them in accordance with the rules and regulations governing the operation of the Panama Canal, shall be adjusted by mutual agreement when practicable, between the Panama Canal and the passengers, owners, agents or underwriters of the vessel, or owners, agents or underwriters of the cargo of the vessel, as the respective interests may appear.

58. To facilitate the adjustment of such claims the Board of Local Inspectors, together with an officer or employee detailed from the Accounting Department to assist the Board, shall immediately proceed to investigate and report upon all accidents to vessels in the locks, which may result in claims for damages against the Panama Canal under the provisions of Section 5 of the Panama Canal Act.

59. The Board of Local Inspectors or any member thereof, acting for the Board, shall have authority to summon witnesses and administer oaths to such witnesses at any hearing held by such Board, and the attendance of witnesses may be compelled by process of court on application of the Board to the District Judge.

60. The findings of the Board shall be expressed in writing and reported to the Governor and a certified copy thereof immediately sent to the Auditor. If the finding of the Board is against the Panama Canal,

. the Auditor may proceed at once to effect a settlement with the claimants, if practicable, but such settlement shall be subject to the approval of the Governor. When the settlement is effected immediate payment of the claim shall be made, if there is an appropriation available for such purpose. In case of disagreement suit may be brought by the claimant in the District Court of the Canal Zone, against the Governor of the Panama Canal, in conformity with Section 5 of the Panama Canal Act.

61. The Governor of the Panama Canal is authorized to issue such detailed rules, not inconsistent with this order, governing the duties of the Board and the adjustment of claims.

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Measurement of Vessels 62. The rules for the measurement of vessels, to determine their tonnage, will be found in the proclamation of the President dated November 21, 1913.2

Aids to Navigation 63. In general, the channels of the Canal, except Culebra Cut, are marked by double ranges, which are set a little to the starboard side of the channel, so that no matter in which direction a vessel may be going, there will be a range available ahead.

64. The sides of the channels are marked by red and black buoys, in accordance with the system in vogue in the United States, with the red buoys on the starboard hand on entering from seaward, and the black

2 Printed in SUPPLEMENT to this JOURNAL for January, 1914, p. 56.

buoys on the port. The lock at Pedro Miguel is the dividing line between the Atlantic and Pacific systems; that is to say, that after passing through the locks, red and black buoys will be found on the opposite sides of the channels to those on which they were before reaching the locks.

65. All lighted ranges show flashing or intermittent white lights; the red lighted buoys show flashing or intermittent red lights; the black lighted buoys show flashing or intermittent white lights; beacons show red or white flashing or intermittent lights, depending upon the side of the channel upon which they are situated. Further information in regard to the navigation of the Canal can be obtained upon application to the Superintendent of Transportation or the Captains of the Ports.

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Rules of the Road, Whistle and other Signals, and Speed Regulations relating

to the Navigation of the Canal and Approaches thereto 66. In the following rules every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam, is considered a sailing vessel; and every vessel under her own motive power, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a steam vessel.

67. The words “steam vessel” and “steamer" shall include every vessel propelled by machinery.

68. A vessel is under way, within the meaning of these rules, when she is not at anchor, moored, or aground.

69. Risk of collision can, when circumstances permit, be determined by carefully watching the bearings of an approaching vessel by compass, or otherwise; if the courses be converging and the bearing does not appreciably change, such risk should be deemed to exist.

70. A steam vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle or siren, sounded by steam or some substitute for steam, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstruction, and a sailing vessel with an efficient fog horn; both shall be supplied with an efficient bell.

71. A sailing vessel of twenty tons gross tonnage or upward shall be provided with a similar fog horn and bell.

72. Motor boats shall be divided into classes as follows, according to the length, which shall be measured from end to end:

Class I Less than 26 feet.
Class II 26 feet or over, but less than 40 feet.
Class III 40 feet or over, but less than 65 feet.

73. All motor boats shall be provided with a whistle or other mechanical sound-producing device, capable of making a blast of at least two seconds' duration, and in addition, classes II and III shall be provided with an efficient fog horn and fog bell, the latter to be at least eight inches across the mouth.

74. A short blast of the whistle shall mean a blast of about one second's duration, and a prolonged blast of the whistle shall mean a blast of from four to six seconds' duration.

75. One short blast of the whistle signifies intention of or assent to steamer first giving the signal to direct course to her own starboard, except when two steamers are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely, when it signifies intention of steamer which is to starboard of the other to hold course and speed.

76. Two short blasts of the whistle signify intention of or assent to steamer first giving the signal to direct course to her own port, except when steamers are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely, when the signal signifies desire of or assent to steamer which is to the port of the other to cross the bow of the steamer to starboard.

77. Three short blasts of the whistle shall mean: “My engines are going at full speed astern."

78. When vessels are in sight of one another a steam vessel under way whose engines are going at full speed astern shall indicate that fact by three short blasts of the whistle.

79. If, when vessels are approaching each other, either vessel fails to understand the course or intention of the other, from any cause, the vessel so in doubt shall immediately signify the same by making the danger signal, namely: several short and rapid blasts, not less than four, on the steam whistle.

80. Whenever the danger signal is given, the engines of both steamers shall be stopped and backed until the headway of the steamers has been fully checked; nor shall the engines of either steamer be again started ahead until the steamers can safely pass each other, and the proper signals for passing have been given, answered, and understood.

81. Steam vessels are forbidden to use what has become technically known among pilots as "cross signals,” that is, answering one whistle with two, and answering two whistles with one. In all cases, and under

. all circumstances, a pilot receiving either of the whistle signals provided in these rules, which for any reason he deems injudicious to comply with, instead of answering it with a cross signal, shall at once sound the danger signal and observe the rule applying thereto.

82. The signals for passing, by blowing the whistle, shall be given and answered by vessels, in compliance with these rules, not only when meeting head on, or nearly so, but at all times when the vessels are in sight of each other, when passing or meeting at a distance within a half mile of each other, and whether passing to starboard or port.

83. The whistle signals provided in the rules for steam vessels meeting, passing, or overtaking, are never to be used except when steamers are in sight of each other, and the course and position of each can be determined in the daytime by a sight of the vessel itself, or at night by seeing its signal lights, except in cases hereafter mentioned, where vessels are approaching a turn in the Canal. In fog, mist, or heavy rainstorms, when vessels cannot see each other, fog signals only must be given.

84. When steam vessels are approaching each other head on, or nearly so, it shall be the duty of each to pass on the port side of the other; and either vessel shall give, as a signal of her intention, one short and distinct blast of her whistle, and thereupon they shall pass upon the port side of each other. But if their courses be so far to starboard of each other as not to be considered as meeting head on, either vessel shall immediately give two short, distinct blasts of her whistle, which the other vessel shall answer promptly with two similar blasts, and they shall pass to starboard of each other; but vessels going in opposite directions, in transit through the Canal, shall make it an invariable rule to pass to port of each other, unless there be some special reason to the contrary.

85. When they sight each other in the straight reaches of the Canal, going in opposite directions, they shall, when within a mile of each other, be slowed down and each placed upon its respective range, which is marked by the two light towers to the starboard side of the middle line, and should not be allowed to approach closer than this to the center line until they have passed each other; this will obviate any risk of collision and prevent a vessel from approaching too close to the sides of the Canal.

86. Self-propelling Canal craft, at work on their stations or under way, will give way and leave the center of the channels clear to seagoing ves sels in transit; nothing in this rule shall be construed to warrant a violation of the rules of the road, but shall be interpreted to mean that tugs, launches, and small self-propelling craft shall keep close to the sides of the Canal and out of mid channel when large vessels are passing, whenever practicable, without involving any danger to themselves.

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