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The Russian and Mongolian Governments shall consult each other to decide the railway lines and procedure of their building, which should be carried out in such a way as to benefit both parties concerned.
In case of railway building, whether financed by the Russian or Mongolian Government or by private persons, the Russian Government shall render adequate help to the Mongolian Government.
When such railways as will connect with the railways on Russian frontiers are to be built, the Russian and Mongolian Governments shall consult each other on the terms concerning the privileges, localities and railway revenue regarding the same.
Whereas the Mongolian Government has the right to build railways within the boundaries of its own territory, if it can raise funds internally to build paying railways, the Russian Government shall not interfere with it. But should the Mongolian Government concede such rights to other countries, the Mongolian Government, for the sake of friendly relations with Russia, should discuss this matter with the Russian Government, before the former makes the actual concession, in order to ascertain whether the projected line or lines of railway would jeopardize the Russian interest from an economical or military standpoint.
This treaty shall be duplicated in both the Mongolian and Russian languages. One copy shall be deposited in the office of the Russian Consul-General in Mongolia and the other in the office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Mongolian Government.
AGREEMENT BETWEEN CHINA, RUSSIA AND MONGOLIA
Signed at Kiachta, June 7/ May 25, 1915.
The President of the Republic of China,
His Holiness the Bogdo (Great) Cheptsun (Venerable) Damba (Sacred) Hut'ukht'u (Reincarnated) Khan (Ruler) of Outer Mongolia,
Animated by a sincere desire to settle by mutual agreement various questions created by a new state of things in Outer Mongolia, have named for that purpose their plenipotentiary delegates, that is to say:
The President of the Republic of China, General Pi Kuei-fang and Monsieur Ch'ên Lu, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of China to Mexico;
His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, His Councillor of State Alexandre Miller, Diplomatic Agent and Consul-General in Mongolia; and
His Holiness the Bogdo Cheptsun Damba Hut’ukht’u Kahn of Outer Mongolia, Eênh-tê-ni Cho-nang Pei-tau Sô-lông-tan, Vice-Chief of Justice, and T'uhsieh-t’u Ch'in Wang Ch'a-K'o-tu-êrh-cha-pu, Chief of Finance.
Who having verified their respective full powers found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following:
ARTICLE I. Outer Mongolia recognizes the Sino-Russian Declaration and the Notes exchanged between China and Russia of the 5th day of the 11th month of the 2nd year of the Republic of China (23 October 1913) 1
Outer Mongolia recognizes China's suzerainty. China and Russia recognize the autonomy of Outer Mongolia forming part of Chinese territory.
ARTICLE III. Autonomous Mongolia has no right to conclude international treaties with foreign Powers respecting political and territorial questions. As respects questions of a political and territorial nature in Outer Mongolia, the Chinese Government engages to conform to Article II of the Notes exchanged between China and Russia on the 5th day of the 11th month of the 2nd year of the Republic of China (23rd October, 1913).
1 Printed in this Supplement, p. 246.
ARTICLE IV. The title “Bogdo Cheptsun Damba Kut'ukt'u Kahn of Outer Mongolia” is conferred by the President of the Republic of China. The calendar of the Republic as well as the Mongol calendar of cyclical signs are to be used in official documents.
China and Russia, conformably to Article II and III of the SinoRussian Declaration of the 5th day of the 11th month of the 2nd year of the Republic of China, 23rd October 1913, recognize the exclusive right of the Autonomous Government of Outer Mongolia to attend to all the affairs of its internal administration and to conclude with foreign Powers international treaties and agreements respecting all questions of a commercial and industrial nature concerning autonomous Mongolia.
Conformably to the same Article III of the Declaration, China and Russia engage not to interfere in the system of autonomous internal administration existing in Outer Mongolia.
The military escort of the Chinese Dignitary at Urga provided for by Article III of the above-mentioned Declaration is not to exceed two hundred men. The military escorts of his assistants at Uliassutai, at Kobdo and at Mongolian-Kiachta are not to exceed fifty men each. If, by agreement with the Autonomous Government of Outer Mongolia, assistants of the Chinese Dignitary are appointed in other localities of Outer Mongolia, their military escorts are not to exceed fifty men each.
On all ceremonial or official occasions the first place of honor is due to the Chinese Dignitary. He has the right, if necessary, to present himself in private audience with His Holiness Bogdo Cheptsun Damba
Kut'uhkt’u Kahn of Outer Mongolia. The Imperial representative of Russia enjoys the same right of private audience.
ARTICLE X. The Chinese Dignitary at Urga and his assistants in the different localities of Outer Mongolia provided for by Article VII of this agreement are to exercise general control lest the acts of the Autonomous Government of Outer Mongolia and its subordinate authorities may impair the suzerain rights and the interests of China and her subjects in Autonomous Mongolia.
Conformably to Article IV of the Notes exchanged between China and Russia on the 5th day of the 11th month of the 2nd year of the Republic of China (23rd October, 1913), the territory of Autonomous Outer Mongolia comprises the regions which were under the jurisdiction of the Chinese Amban at Urga, of the Tartar-General at Uliassutai and of the Chinese Amban at Kobdo; and connects with the boundary of China by the limits of the banners of the four aimaks of Khalka and of the district of Kobdo, bounded by the district of Houlon-Bouire on the east, by Inner Mongolia on the south, by the Province of Singkiang on the South-West, and by the districts of Altai on the west.
The formal delimitation between China and Autonomous Mongolia is to be carried out by a special commission of delegates of China, Russia, and Autonomous Outer Mongolia, which shall set itself to the work of delimitation within a period of two years from the date of signature of the present agreement.
ARTICLE XII. It is understood that customs duties are not to be established for goods of whatever origin they may be, imported by Chinese merchants into Autonomous Outer Mongolia. Nevertheless, Chinese merchants shall pay all the taxes on internal trade which have been established in Autonomous Outer Mongolia and which may be established therein in the future, payable by the Mongols of autonomous Outer Mongolia. Similarly the merchants of Autonomous Outer Mongolia, when importing any kind of goods of local production into Inner China, shall pay all the taxes on trade which have been established in Inner China and which may be established therein in the future, payable by Chinese merchants. Goods of foreign origin imported from Autonomous Outer Mongolia into Inner China shall be subject to the customs duties stipulated in the regulations for land trade of the 7th year of the Reign of Kouang-Hsu (of 1881).
ARTICLE XIII. Civil and criminal actions arising between Chinese subjects residing in Autonomous Outer Mongolia are to be examined and adjudicated by the Chinese Dignitary at Urga and by his assistants in the other localities of Autonomous Outer Mongolia.
Civil and criminal actions arising between Mongols of Autonomous Outer Mongolia and Chinese subjects residing therein are to be examined and adjudicated conjointly by the Chinese Dignitary at Urga and his assistants in the other localities of Autonomous Outer Mongolia, or their delegates, and the Mongolian authorities. If the defendant or the accused is a Chinese subject and the claimant or the complainant is a Mongol of Autonomous Outer Mongolia, the joint examination and decision of the case are to be held at the Chinese Dignitary's place at Urga and at that of his assistants in the other localities of Autonomous Outer Mongolia; if the defendant or the accused is a Mongol of Autonomous Outer Mongolia and the claimant or the complainant is a Chinese subject, the case is to be examined and decided in the same manner in the Mongolian yamen. The guilty are to be punished according to their own laws. The interested parties are free to arrange their disputes amicably by means of arbiters chosen by themselves.
Civil and criminal actions arising between Mongols of Autonomous Outer Mongolia and Russian subjects residing therein are to be examined and decided conformably to the stipulations of Article XVI of the RussoMongolian Commercial Protocol of 21st October, 1912.
All civil and criminal actions arising between Chinese and Russian subjects in Autonomous Outer Mongolia are to be examined and de
1 Printed in this Supplement, p. 241.