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and, upon agreement with the Mongolian authorities, they may construct, at their own cost, bridges, ferries, etc., with the right to exact a special due from persons crossing over.

ARTICLE 14.

Traveling cattle, the property of Russian subjects, may stop for the purpose of resting and feeding. In the event of prolonged halts being necessary, the local authorities shall assign proper pasturage areas along traveling cattle routes, and at cattle markets. Fees shall be exacted for the use of these pasturing areas for periods exceeding three months.

ARTICLE 15.

The established usage of the Russian frontier population harvesting (hay), as also hunting and fishing, across the Mongolian borders shall remain in force in the future without any alteration.

ARTICLE 16.

Agreements between Russian subjects and institutions on the one side and Mongolians and Chinese on the other may be concluded verbally or in writing, and the contracting parties may present the agreement concluded to the local government authorities for certification. Should the latter see any objection to certifying the contract, they must immediately notify the fact to a Russian consul, and the misunderstanding which has arisen shall be settled in agreement with him.

It is hereby laid down that contracts respecting real estate must be in written form, and presented for certification and confirmation to the proper Mongolian Government authorities and a Russian consul. Documents bestowing rights to exploit natural resources require the confirmation of the Government of Mongolia.

In the event of disputes arising over agreements concluded verbally or in writing, the parties may settle the matter amicably with the assistance of arbitrators selected by each party. Should no settlement be reached by this method, the matter shall be decided by a mixed legal commission.

There shall be both permanent and temporary mixed legal commissions. Permanent commissions shall be instituted at the places of residence of Russian consuls, and shall consist of the consul, or his representative, and a delegate of the Mongolian authorities of corresponding rank. Temporary commissions shall be instituted at places other than those already specified, as cases arise, and shall consist of representatives of a Russian consul and the prince of that "khoshun” to which the defendant belongs or in which he resides. Mixed commissions shall be empowered to call in as experts persons with a knowledge of the case from among Russian subjects, Mongolians, and Chinese. The decisions of the mixed legal commissions shall be put into execution without delay, in the case of Russian subjects through a Russian consul, and in the case of Mongolians and Chinese through the prince of the “khoshun” to which the defendant belongs or in which he is resident.

ARTICLE 17.

The present protocol shall come into force from the date of its signature.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries, finding, upon comparison of the two parallel texts of the present protocol-Russian and Mongol-drawn up in duplicate, that the texts correspond, have signed each of them, affixed their seals, and exchanged texts.

Executed at Urga, the 21st October, 1912 (o.s.), and by the Mongolian calendar, on the twenty-fourth day of the last autumn moon, in the second year of the administration of the Unanimously Proclaimed.

In the original follow the signature of M. Korostovets, Minister Plenipotentiary; and in the Mongol language the signatures of the President of the Mongolian Council of Ministers, and the Plenipotentiaries, the Ministers of the Interior, Foreign Affairs, War, Finance, and of Justice.

DECLARATION AND EXCHANGE OF NOTES BY RUSSIA AND CHINA."

Signed at Peking, October 23/ November 5, 1913.

The Imperial Government of Russia having formulated the principles which it took as the basis of its relations with China as regards Outer Mongolia, and the Government of the Chinese Republic having stated its approval of the said principles, the two governments have agreed upon the following:

1 Translated from the Chinese Year Book, 1914, pp. 633-635.

I.

Russia recognizes that Outer Mongolia is under the suzerainty of China.

II.

China recognizes the autonomy of Outer Mongolia

III.

Recognizing the exclusive right of the Mongols of Outer Mongolia to provide for the internal administration of Autonomous Mongolia and to settle all questions of a commercial and industrial nature relating to this country, China binds itself not to intervene in these matters and consequently will not send troops into Outer Mongolia, nor will it keep any civil or military official there, and it will abstain from colonizing in this country. It is, however, understood that a Dignitary sent by the Chinese Government may reside at Urga, accompanied by the necessary subordinates and an escort. Moreover, the Chinese Government may, in case of need, keep in certain localities of Outer Mongolia, to be determined in the course of the conferences provided for in Article V of the present agreement, agents for the protection of the interests of its subjects. Russia, on its side, binds itself not to keep troops in Outer Mongolia, with the exception of consular guards, and not to intervene in any branch of the administration of this country and to abstain from colonizing.

IV. China declares itself ready to accept the good offices of Russia for the establishment of its relations with Outer Mongolia, in conformity with the principles above set forth and with the stipulations of the RussoMongolian Commercial Protocol of October 21, 1912 (November 3, 1912).

V. Questions pertaining to the interests of Russia and of China in Outer Mongolia and resulting from the new state of affairs in this country will be the subject of subsequent conferences.

In faith whereof the undersigned, duly authorized to this effect, have signed the present Declaration and have affixed their seals thereto.

2 Printed in this Supplement, p. 241.

Done at Pekin, in duplicate, October 23/ November 5, nineteen hundred and thirteen, corresponding to the fifth day of the eleventh month of the second year of the Chinese Republic.

(Signed) Sun Pao-Chr.

L. S. (Signed) B. KRUPENSKY.

L. S.

Note of the Russian Minister at Peking to the Chinese Minister for Foreign

Affairs.

In signing the Declaration under date of this day relating to Outer Mongolia, the undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to this effect, has the honor to declare, in the name of his government, to His Excellency Mr. Sun Pao-Chi, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Chinese Republic, the following:

1. Russia recognizes that the territory of Outer Mongolia is a part of the territory of China.

2. As regards questions of a political and territorial nature, the Chinese Government shall come to an agreement with the Russian Government through negotiations in which the authorities of Outer Mongolia shall take part.

3. The conferences provided for in Article V of the Declaration shall take place between the three interested parties, who shall designate for this purpose a place where their delegates shall meet.

4. Outer Mongolia shall comprise the regions which have been under the jurisdiction of the Chinese Amban of Urga, of the Tartar General of Ouliassoutai, and of the Chinese Amban of Kobdo. Inasmuch as there are no detailed maps of Mongolia and as the boundaries of the administrative divisions of this country are uncertain, it is agreed that the exact boundaries of Outer Mongolia, as well as the boundary between the district of Kobdo and the district of Altai, shall be the subject of the subsequent conferences provided for in Article V of the Declaration.

The undersigned takes advantage of this opportunity to repeat to His Excellency Mr. Şun Pao-Ki the assurances of his very high consideration.

(Signed) B. KRUPENSKY.

Note of the Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Russian Minister

at Peking. In signing the Declaration under date of this day relating to Outer Mongolia, the undersigned, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Chinese Republic, duly authorized to this effect, has the honor to declare, in the name of his government, to his Excellency Mr. Krupensky, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the following:

1. Russia recognizes that the territory of Outer Mongolia is a part of the territory of China.

2. As regards questions of a political and territorial nature, the Chinese Government shall come to an agreement with the Russian Government through negotiations in which the authorities of Outer Mongolia shall take part.

3. The conferences provided for in Article V of the Declaration shall take place between the three interested parties, who shall designate for this purpose a place where their delegates shall meet.

4. Outer Mongolia shall comprise the regions which have been under the jurisdiction of the Chinese Amban of Urga, of the Tartar General of Ouliassoutai, and of the Chinese Amban of Kobdo. Inasmuch as there are no detailed maps of Mongolia and as the boundaries of the administrative divisions of this country are uncertain, it is agreed that the exact boundaries of Outer Mongolia, as well as the boundary between the district of Kobdo and the district of Altai, shall be the subject of subsequent conferences provided for in Article V of the Declaration.

The undersigned takes advantage of this opportunity to repeat to His Excellency Mr. Krupkensky the assurances of his very high consideration.

(Signed) SUN PAO-CHI.

THE RUSSO-MONGOLIAN RAILWAY AGREEMENT 1

Signed at Kiachta, Sept. 30, 1914.

ARTICLE 1. The Russian Government hereby recognizes the permanent right of the Mongolian Government to build railways within the boundaries of its own territory.

1 Peking Gazette, Dec. 8, 1914.

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