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At the present moment, taking into consideration the facts stated above, as well as the mutual friendship which has always existed between the Russian and Mongolian nations, and in view of the necessity of defining exactly the system regulating trade between Russia and Mongolia;

The Actual State Councillor Jean Korostovetz, duly authorized for the purpose by the Imperial Russian Government; and

The Protector of the Ten Thousand Doctrines Sain-noin Khan Namnan-Souroun, President of the Council of Ministers of Mongolia;

The Plenipotentiary Tchin-souzouktou Tzin-van Lama TzerinTchimet, Minister of the Interior;

The plenipotentiary Daitzin-van Handa-dorji, of the rank of Khanerdeni, Minister for Foreign Affairs;

The Plenipotentiary Daitzin-van Handa-dorki, of the rank of Khanerdeni, Minister for Foreign Affairs;

The Plenipotentiary Erdeni Dalai Tzun-van Gombo-Souroun, Minister of War;

The Plenipotentiary Touchetou Tzun-van Tchakdorjab, Minister of Finance; and

The Plenipotentiary Erdeni Tzum-van Namsarai, Minister of Justice;

Duly authorized by the Ruler of the Mongolian nation, by the Mongolian Government and by the ruling Princes, have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE 1.

The Imperial Russian Government shall assist Mongolia to maintain the autonomous régime which she has established, as also the right to have her national army, and to admit neither the presence of Chinese troops on her territory nor the colonization of her land by the Chinese.

ARTICLE 2.

The Ruler of Mongolia and the Mongolian Government shall grant, as in the past, to Russian subjects and trade the enjoyment in their possessions of the rights and privileges enumerated in the protocol annexed hereto.3

It is well understood that there shall not be granted to other foreign subjects in Mongolia rights not enjoyed there by Russian subjects.

3 Printed herein, p. 241.

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ARTICLE 3.

If the Mongolian Government finds it necessary to conclude a separate treaty with China or another foreign Power, the new treaty shall in no case either infringe the clauses of the present agreement and of the protocol annexed thereto, or modify them without the consent of the Imperial Russian Government.

ARTICLE 4.

The present amicable agreement shall come into force from the date of its signature.

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries, having compared the two texts, Russian and Mongolian, of the present agreement, made in duplicate, and having found the two texts to correspond, have signed them, have affixed thereto their seals, and have exchanged texts.

Done at Urga on the 21st October, 1912, corresponding to the 24th day of the last autumn month of the 2nd year of the reign of the Unanimously Proclaimed, according to the Mongolian calendar.

PROTOCOL ANNEXED TO RUSSO-MONGOLIAN AGREEMENT OF OCTOBER 21/

NOVEMBER, 3, 1912.

Signed at Urga, October 21 November 3, 1912.

By virtue of the enactment of the second article of the agreement, signed on this day between Actual State Councillor, Ivan Korostovets, Plenipotentiary of the Imperial Russian Government, and the President of the Council of Ministers of Mongolia, Sain-noin Khan NamnamSouroun, the Protector of Ten Thousand Doctrines; the Plenipotentiary and Minister of the Interior, Tchin-souzouktou Tzin-van Lama TzerinTchimet; the Plenipotentiary and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Daitzinvan Handa-dorji of the rank of Khan-erdeni; the Plenipotentiary and Minister of War, Erdenia Dalai Tzun-van Gombo-Souroun; the Plenipotentiary and Minister of Finance, Touchetou Tzum-van Tchakdorjab; and the Plenipotentiary and Minister of Justice, Erdeni Tzun-van Namsarai, on the authority of the Ruler of Mongolia, the Mongolian Government, and the ruling Princes; the above-named plenipotentiaries have come to an agreement respecting the following articles, in which are set forth the rights and privileges of Russian subjects in Mongolia, some of which they already enjoy, and the rights and privileges of Mongolian subjects in Russia:

ARTICLE 1.

Russian subjects, as formerly, shall enjoy the right to reside and move freely from one place to another throughout Mongolia; to engage there in any kind of commercial, industrial, and other business; and to enter into agreements of various kinds, whether with individuals, or firms, or institutions, official or private, Russian, Mongolian, Chinese, or foreign.

ARTICLE 2. Russian subjects, as formerly, shall enjoy the right at all times to import and export, without payment of import and export dues, every kind of product of the soil and industry of Russia, Mongolia and China, and other countries, and to trade freely in it without payment of any duties, taxes, or other dues.

The enactments of this (2nd) article shall not extend to combined Russo-Chinese undertakings, or to Russian subjects falsely declaring themselves to be owners of wares not their property.

ARTICLE 3. Russian credit institutions shall have the right to open branches in Mongolia, and to transact all kinds of financial and other business, whether with individuals, institutions, or companies.

ARTICLE 4.

Russian subjects may conclude purchases and sales in cash or by an exchange of wares (barter), and they may conclude agreements on credit. Neither “khoshuns” nor the Mongolian Treasury shall be held responsible for the debts of private individuals.

ARTICLE 5.

The Mongolian authorities shall not preclude Mongolians or Chinese from completing any kind of commercial agreement with Russian subjects, from entering into their personal service, or into commercial and industrial undertakings formed by them. No rights of monopoly as regards commerce or industry shall be granted to any official or private companies, institutions, or individuals in Mongolia. It is, of course, understood that companies and individuals who have already received such monopolies from the Mongolian Government previous to the conclusion of this agreement shall retain their rights and privileges until the expiry of the period fixed.

ARTICLE 6. Russian subjects shall be everywhere granted the right, whether in towns or “khoshuns," to hold allotments on lease, or to acquire them as their own property for the purpose of organizing commercial industrial establishments, and also for the purpose of constructing houses, shops, and stores. In addition, Russian subjects shall have the right to lease vacant lands for cultivation. It is, of course, understood that these allotments shall be obtained and leased for the above-specified purposes, and not for speculative aims. These allotments shall be assigned by agreement with the Mongolian Government in accordance with existing laws of Mongolia, everywhere excepting in sacred places and pasture lands.

ARTICLE 7. Russian subjects shall be empowered to enter into agreements with the Mongolian Government respecting the working of minerals and timber, fisheries, etc.

ARTICLE 8. The Russian Government shall have the right, in agreement with the Government of Mongolia, to appoint consuls in those parts of Mongolia it shall deem necessary.

Similarly, the Mongolian Government shall be empowered to have government agents at those frontier parts of the empire where, by mutual agreement, it shall be found necessary.

ARTICLE 9.

At points where there are Russian consulates, as also in other localities of importance for Russian trade, there shall be allotted, by mutual agreement between Russian consuls and the Mongolian Government, special "factories" for various branches of industry and the residence of Russian subjects. These "factories” shall be under the exclusive control of the above-mentioned consuls, or the heads of the Russian commercial companies if there be no Russian consul.

ARTICLE 10. Russian subjects, in agreement with the Mongolian Government, shall retain the right to institute, at their own cost, a postal service for the dispatch of letters and the transit of wares between various localities in Mongolia and also between specified localities and points on the Russian frontier. In the event of the construction of "stages" and other necessary buildings, the regulations set forth in Article 6 of this protocol must be duly observed.

ARTICLE 11.

Russian consuls in Mongolia, in case of need, shall avail themselves of Mongolian Government postal establishments and messengers for the dispatch of official correspondence, and for other official requirements, provided that the gratuitous requisition for this purpose shall not exceed one hundred horses and thirty camels per month. On every occasion, a courier's passport must be obtained from the Government of Mongolia. When traveling, Russian consuls, and Russian officials in general, shall avail themselves of the same establishments upon payment. The right to avail themselves of Mongolian Government "stages" shall be extended to private individuals, who are Russian subjects, upon payment for the use of such “stages” of amounts which shall be determined in agreement with the Mongolian Government.

ARTICLE 12.

Russian subjects shall be granted the right to sail their own merchant vessels on, and to trade with the inhabitants along the banks of, those rivers and their tributaries which, running first through Mongolia, subsequently enter Russian territory. The Russian Government shall afford the Government of Mongolia assistance in the improvement of navigation on these rivers, the establishment of the necessary beacons, etc. The Mongolian Government authorities shall assign on these rivers places for the berthing of vessels, for the construction of wharves and warehouses, for the preparation of fuel, etc., being guided on these occasions by the enactments of Article 6 of the present protocol.

ARTICLE 13. Russian subjects shall have the right to avail themselves of all land and water routes for the carriage of wares and the droving of cattle,

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