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de facto government demurs and objects to measures taken by the United States. The Government of the United States does not wish to believe that the de facto government approves these marauding attacks, yet as they continue to be made, they show that the Mexican Government is unable to repress them. This inability, as this government has had occasion in the past to say, may excuse the failure to check the outrages complained of, but it only makes stronger the duty of the United States to prevent them, for if the Government of Mexico can not protect the lives and property of Americans, exposed to attack from Mexicans, the Government of the United States is in duty bound, so far as it can, to do so.

In conclusion, the Mexican Government invites the United States to support its "assurances of friendship with real and effective acts'

can be no other than the immediate withdrawal of the American troops.” For the reasons I have herein fully set forth, this request of the de facto government can not now be entertained. The United States has not sought the duty which has been forced upon it of pursuing bandits who under fundamental principles of municipal and international law, ought to be pursued and arrested and punished by Mexican authorities. Whenever Mexico will assume and effectively exercise that responsibility the United States, as it has many times before publicly declared, will be glad to have this obligation fulfilled by the de facto government of Mexico. If, on the contrary, the de facto government is pleased to ignore this obligation and to believe that “in case of a refusal to retire these troops there is no further recourse than to defend its territory by an appeal to arms,” the Government of the United States would surely be lacking in sincerity and friendship if it did not frankly impress upon the de facto government that the execution of this threat will lead to the gravest consequences. While this government would deeply regret such a result, it cannot recede from its settled determination to maintain its national rights and to perform its full duty in preventing further invasions of the territory of the United States and in removing the peril which Americans along the international boundary have borne so long with patience and forbearance. Accept, etc.,







PARIS, June 17, 1916. The representatives of the Allied Governments have met in Paris, Mr. Clémentel, Minister of Commerce, presiding, on the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th of June, 1916, for the purpose of fulfilling the mandate which was confided to them by the conference of Paris on March 28, 1916, to put into practice their solidarity of views and interests and to propose to their respective governments suitable measures for realizing this solidarity.

They perceive that the Central Powers of Europe, after having imposed upon them their military struggle in spite of all their efforts to avoid the conflict, are preparing to-day, in concert with their allies, a struggle in the economic domain which will not only survive the reestablishment of peace but, at that very moment, will assume all its amplitude and all its intensity.

They can not in consequence conceal from themselves that the agreement which is being prepared for this purpose amongst their enemies has for its evident object the establishment of their domination over the production and the markets of the whole world and to impose upon the other countries an inacceptable hegemony.

In the face of such a grave danger, the representatives of the Allied Governments consider that it is their duty, on the grounds of necessary and legitimate defense, to take and realize from now onward all the measures requisite on the one hand to secure for themselves and the whole of the markets of neutral countries full economic independence and respect for sound commercial practice, and on the other to facilitate the organization on a permanent basis of this economic alliance. For

1 Transmitted by the American Ambassador at Paris and published by the Department of State.

this purpose the representatives of the Allied Governments have decided to submit for the approval of their governments the following resolutions:


Measures For War Period.


Laws and regulations prohibiting trading with the enemy shall be brought into accord, for this purpose:

a. The Allies will prohibit their own subjects and citizens and all persons residing in their territories from carrying on any trade with the inhabitants of enemy countries of whatever nationality, or with enemy subjects, wherever resident, persons, firms, and companies whose business is controlled wholly or partially by enemy subjects or subject to enemy influence, whose names will be included in a special list.

b. The Allies will also prohibit importation into their territories of all goods originating or coming from enemy countries.

c. The Allies will further devise means of establishing a system of enabling contracts entered into with enemy subjects and injurious to national interests to be canceled unconditionally.


Business undertakings, owned or operated by enemy subjects in the territories of the Allies, are all to be sequestrated or placed under control. Measures will be taken for the purpose of winding up some of these undertakings and realizing the assets, the proceeds of such realizations remaining sequestrated or under control. In addition, by export prohibitions, which are necessitated by the internal situation of each of the allied countries, the Allies will complete the measures already taken for the restriction of enemy supplies both in the mother countries and the dominions, colonies, and protectorates

1. By unifying lists of contraband and export prohibition, particularly by prohibiting the export of all commodities declared absolute or conditional contraband:

2. By making the grant of licenses to export to neutral countries, from which export to the enemy territories might take place, conditional upon the existence in such countries of control organizations approved by the Allies, or, in the absence of such organizations, upon special

guarantees, such as the limitation of the quantities to be exported and supervision by allied consular officers, etc.


Transitory Measures For The Period of The Commercial, Industrial, Agricultural, and Maritime Reconstruction of The Allied Countries.


The Allies declare their common determination to insure the reëstablishment of the countries suffering from acts of destruction, spoliation, and unjust requisition, and they decide to join in devising means to secure the restoration to those countries, as a prior claim, of their raw materials, industrial, agricultural plant and stock, and mercantile fleet, or to assist them to reëquip themselves in these respects.


Whereas the war has put an end to all treaties of commerce between the Allies, and enemy Powers, and it is of essential importance that during the period of economic reconstruction the liberty of none of the Allies should be hampered by any claim put forward by enemy Powers to most favored nation treatment, the Allies agree that the benefit of this treatment will not be granted to those Powers during a number of years, to be fixed by mutual agreement among themselves.

During this number of years the Allies undertake to assure each other, so far as possible, compensatory outlets for trade in case consequences detrimental to their commerce should result from the application of the undertaking referred to in the preceding clause.


The Allies declare themselves agreed to conserve for the allied countries, before all others, their natural resources during the whole period of the commercial, industrial, agricultural, and maritime reconstruction, and for this purpose they undertake to establish special arrangements to facilitate the interchange of these resources.


In order to defend their commerce and industry and their agriculture and navigation against economic aggression, resulting from dumping

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