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formed by the expedition from Columbus, and nevertheless it has not yet complied with the promise made by President Wilson that these troops would be withdrawn as soon as the motive for their entry into Mexico had been removed.

The motives for preserving interior political order which might militate against the withdrawal of the troops from Mexican territory, unfounded as they are, do not justify this attitude, but, on the contrary, accentuate the discrepancy between the assurances of respect for Mexico's sovereignty and the actual fact that for purely political reasons in the United States this state of affairs, so unjust towards the Mexican Republic, is allowed to continue.

25. The American Government stated that its intention in sending troops into Mexico was only to defend its frontier against possible incursions. This statement is, notwithstanding, in contradiction to the attitude assumed by the government itself in discussing the agreement in regard to a reciprocal crossing of the boundary, for while the Mexican Government insisted that this agreement limit the zone of operations of the troops of each country, the duration of the expeditions, the number of soldiers and the class to which they should belong, the American Government constantly eluded these limitations. This attitude of the American Government, which was the one which expected to cross the boundaries at such times as might be necessary, in pursuit of the bandits, is clearly indicating its intention of preparing to penetrate further into Mexican territory than the purposes of defense would seem to warrant.

26. The punitive expedition from Columbus, as it has been called, did not have, according to statements of President Wilson, any further object than to capture and punish the band guilty of the raid, and was organized under the supposition that the Mexican Government had consented thereto. Nevertheless it has shown an attitude of manifest distrust toward the Mexican Government and a spirit of such absolute independence that it can not but justly be considered as an invasion without Mexico's consent, without its knowledge and without the coöperation of its authorities.

It was well known that the Columbus expedition crossed the frontier without the knowledge of the Mexican Government. The American military authorities carried out this expedition without waiting to obtain the consent of the Government of Mexico, and even after they were officially advised that this government had not given its consent thereto, they continued to send forward more troops without informing the Mexican Government thereof.

The expedition has crossed into and operated in Mexican territory without seeking the coöperation of the Mexican authorities. The American military authorities have maintained always the most complete silence respecting their movements, never informing the Mexican Government of them, as they would have done had they in reality desired to obtain the coöperation of the latter. This failure to advise and coöperate with the Mexican authorities was the cause of the encounter which took place in Parral between the American forces and Mexican citizens.

Finally, the Columbus expedition was effected not in a spirit of harmony but, on the contrary, of distrust and suspicion of our authorities, for not only was no effort made to seek our cooperation or to keep us informed regarding the military operations being carried out, but the said expedition was organized with artillery and infantry forces.

If it was intended to pursue a band of robbers, an act which, by its very nature, required rapidity, such pursuit should have been carried out by a squad of cavalry. The employment of artillery and of infantry can not be explained in any other way than as a measure of precaution against a probable attack by the Mexican forces.

Now, then, it is not possible to reconcile the declarations of friendly coöperation made by the American authorities with the use of the infantry and artillery, exclusively destined for use against the regular Mexican forces.

If the Columbus expedition had been carried out with the consent of the Mexican Government and the coöperation of the latter had been sought, the employment of the artillery and of the infantry would have been an insult to the Mexican authorities as offering a suggestion of the possibility of treachery on their part against the American forces who had entered Mexican territory in the pursuit of a common enemy, relying on the friendship of the former. It is preferable, notwithstanding, to interpret this as a proof that the American forces crossed into Mexican territory without the consent of the Mexican Government and were, therefore, resolved to repel any aggression on the part of the regular Mexican troops, who were ignorant of their presence.

All of this demonstrates a great discrepancy between the assurances on the part of the American authorities of a sincere and friendly coöperation and the actual purpose of the expedition, which, through its dis

trust, the secrecy maintained regarding its movements, and the forces of which it was composed, clearly indicated the hostile nature of the expedition and an actual invasion of our territory.

27. The American Government has stated on various occasions that the Columbus expedition had no other object than that of pursuing and dispersing Villa's bands, and that so soon as this was accomplished its forces would retire.

The facts, however, have demonstrated that the intention of the American Government was no longer the same as during the conferences at Ciudad Juarez and El Paso. There is no other way of explaining why Gen. Scott should have insisted so emphatically on the signing of a memorandum which stated that the American forces would not have been withdrawn if any other occurrence took place which might convince the American Government of the inability of the Government of Mexico to protect the frontier. The conclusion to be deduced from this insistence of Gen. Scott, on the signing of this memorandum, is that the Columbus expedition entered Mexico promising to withdraw as soon as the bands of Villa had been destroyed, but that afterwards efforts were made to make use of the said expedition as a means to guarantee the protection to the frontier.

28. The American Government justly desires the protection of its frontier. If the frontier were duly protected against incursions from Mexico there would be now no reason for the existing difficulties. The American Government understands perfectly the difficulties which exist in the protection of a boundary which possesses no natural advantages for its defense, and, notwithstanding its enormous resources the American Government itself has been unable to afford an efficient protection along the more than 2,000 kilometers which it has to cover.

The Mexican Government proposed that the military chiefs at the head of the troops of each country should discuss a plan of distribution of troops along the boundary line, and notwithstanding the assurances of the Government of the United States that it desired to find a solution to the difficulties with Mexico, Gen. Scott would not agree to carry out this plan, which is the only rational one and the only one which could be effected without the necessity of one or the other country invading the territory of the other. The American Government prefers to maintain its troops inactive and idle on Mexican territory rather than to withdraw them and station them along the border by arrangement with the Mexican authorities who would agree to do the same. By acting as it has the American Government leads us to suppose that its real intention is to keep these troops in Mexico in the event that it may need them there later for future operations.

29. The American Government on every occasion has declared itself as desirous of assisting the Constitutionalist Government in concluding its work of pacification, and of accomplishing this in the shortest possible times. The real attitude of the American Government in connection with these desires appears incongruous, as, for some time past, it has been committing various acts which indicate that it not only does not lend its aid in the pacification of Mexico but that, on the contrary, it seems to place every possible obstacle in the way of attaining such an end. In reality, without considering the great volume of diplomatic representations which under the pretext of protection of established American interests in Mexico, constantly impede the labor of the new government in its efforts to reorganize the political, economic and social conditions of the country on new bases, a large number of other acts seem to show that the influence of the American Government is directed against the consolidation of the present Mexican Government.

The decided aid lent at one time to Villa by Gen. Scott and the Department of State was itself the principal cause of the prolonged civil war in Mexico. Later the continuous aid extended by the American Catholic clergy to that of Mexico, which labored unceasingly against the Constitutionalist Government, and the constant activity of the American press favoring intervention and the interests of the business men of the United States, are still further indications that the present American Government can not or will not prevent the work of conspiracy which is being effected in the United States against the Constitutionalist Government.

30. The American Government incessantly demands from the Mexican Government an effective protection of its frontier, and yet the greater part of the bands which take the name of rebels against this government are cared for and armed, if they are not also organized, on the American side under the tolerance of the authorities of the State of Texas, and, it may even be said, that of the Federal authorities of the United States. The leniency of the American authorities respecting these bands is such that in a majority of the cases the conspirators, who are well known, when they have been discovered and taken to prison, obtain their liberty by insignificant promises which allows them to continue in their efforts.

The Mexican emigrants who conspire and organize incursions from the United States side have now more facilities for doing harm than formerly, for they know that any new difficulty between Mexico and the United States will prolong the stay of the American troops. They endeavor therefore to increase the possibilities of conflict and friction.

31. The American Government says it will aid the Constitutionalist Government in its labor of pacification and demands urgently that such pacification be effected in the quickest possible time, and that at the same time the protection of the frontiers shall be effected in the most efficacious manner. Yet notwithstanding this, it has on various occasions detained the shipments of arms and munitions purchased by the Mexican Government in the United States, destined to be employed in accelerating the work of pacification and in the more effective protection of the frontier. The pretexts for detaining the shipments of munitions consigned to this government have always been futile, and a frank reason has never been given. It has been said, for example, that the munitions have been embargoed because of the fact that the true owner was not known, or because of the fear that they might fall into the hands of the Villistas.

The embargo on stores consigned to the Mexican Government can be interpreted in no other way than that the American Government desired to be on its guard against the emergency of a possible future conflict and for that reason tries to prevent arms and stores from reaching the Mexican Government, as they may eventually be used against the Americans themselves. The American Government would be within its rights in guarding against such an emergency, but in such a case it should not claim that it is trying to coöperate with the Mexican Government, and it would be better to show a greater frankness in its procedure.

Either the American Government really and decidedly wishes to assist the Mexican Government in reëstablishing peace, and in this event it should not impede the movement of arms, or else its real intention is to prepare itself so that in the event of future war with Mexico this country may find itself less provided with arms and provisions. If the latter is true it would be better to say so.

In any event the embargo on arms and supplies consigned to the Mexican authorities, effected under the weak pretext of preventing such arms and munitions from falling into the hands of the Villistas, is a clear indication that the real acts of the military authorities are completely

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