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assistance, and serves as a focal point for the management ofrelations between the United States and the islands by developing and promoting appropriate Federal policies.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Originally established in 1871 when Congress created the U.S. Fish Commission to study the decrease of the nation's food fishes and recommend ways to reverse the decline.
In 1885, Congress created an Office of Economic Ornithology in the Department of Agriculture. This office studied the food habits and migratory patterns of birds, especially those that had an effect on agriculture. This office gradually grew in responsibilities and went through several name changes until finally renamed the Bureau of Biological Survey in 1905. In addition to studying birds and mammals, the Survey's responsibilities included managing the nation's first wildlife refuges, controlling predators, enforcing wildlife laws, and conserving dwindling populations of migratory birds.
The Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey were transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1939. In 1940, they were combined and named the Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) by the Reorganization Plan III (5 U.S.C. app.). Further reorganization came in 1956 when the Fish and Wildlife Act created the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and established two bureaus, Sport Fish and Wildlife and Commercial Fisheries. In 1970, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries was transferred to the Department of Commerce and renamed the National Marine Fisheries Service.
USFWS manages more than 93 million acres of land and water consisting of more than 500 national wildlife refuges, thousands of small wetlands, and other special management areas. It also operates 66 national fish hatcheries, 64 fish and wildlife management assistance offices, 64 fishery resource offices, and 78 ecological services field stations. The Service is responsible for migratory birds, endangered species, certain marine mammals, and inland sport fisheries. Its mission is to conserve, protect, and enhance fish and wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. Within this framework, the Service strives to foster an environmental stewardship ethic based on ecological principles and scientific knowledge of wildlife; works with the States to improve the conservation and management of the Nation's fish and wildlife resources; and administers a national program providing opportunities to the American public to understand, appreciate, and wisely use these resources.
National Park Service
Established in the Department of the Interior on August 25, 1916(16 U.S.C. 1). The National Park Service (NPS) is dedicated to conserving unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. There are more than 375 units in the National Park System, including national parks and monuments; scenic parkways, preserves, trails, riverways, seashores, lakeshores, and recreation areas; and historic sites associated with important movements, events, and personalities of the American past.
U.S. Geological Survey
Society (USGS) is responsible for classifying the public lands and examining the geological structure, mineral resources, and products within and outside the national domain. USGS provides relevant, objective scientific studies and information used to help address issues and solve problems dealing with natural resources, natural hazards, and the environmental effects on human and wildlife health.
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) (30 U.S.C. 1211) established the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) to ensure that land mined for coal would be returned to a condition capable of supporting its pre-mining land use. The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's primary goal is to assist States in operating a nationwide program that protects society and the environment from the adverse effects of coal mining, while ensuring that surface coal mining can be done without permanent damage to land and water resources. With most coal-mining States responsible for regulating coal mining and reclamation activities within their borders, OSM's main objectives are to oversee State mining regulatory and abandoned mine reclamation programs, assist States in meeting the objectives of the surface mining law, and regulate mining and reclamation activities on Federal and Indian lands, and in those States choosing not to assume primary responsibility.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Created as part of the War Department in 1824 and transferred to the Department of the Interior when the latter was established in 1849. The principal objectives of BIA is to encourage and assist Indian and Alaska Native people to manage their own affairs under the trust relationship to the Federal Government; to facilitate, with maximum involvement of Indian and Alaska Native people, full development of their human and natural resource potential; to mobilize all public and private aids to the advancement of Indian and Alaska Native people for use by them; and to promote self-determination by utilizing the skill and capabilities of Indian and Alaska Native people in the direction and management of programs for their benefit.
In carrying out these objectives, BIA works with Indian and Alaska Native people, tribal governments, Native American organizations, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, and other interested groups in the development and implementation of effective programs for their advancement.
Minerals Management Service
The Minerals Management Service was established on January 19, 1982, by Secretarial order. The Service assesses the nature, extent, recoverability, and value of leasable minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf. It ensures the orderly and timely inventory and development and the efficient recovery of mineral resources; encourages utilization of the best available and safest technology; and safeguards against fraud, waste, and abuse.
Offshore Minerals Management
activities (including public liaison and planning functions), lease management, and inspection and enforcement programs for Outer Continental Shelf lands. Five-year oil and gas leasing programs are developed for leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf in consultation with the Congress, the 23 coastal States, local governments, environmental groups, industry, and the public.
The Service conducts extensive environmental studies and consultations with State officials prior to issuing leases. Once leases have been issued, inspectors conduct frequent inspections of offshore operations, and environmental studies personnel collect more data to ensure that marine environments are kept free of pollutants.
Minerals Revenue Management
The Service is responsible for the collection and distribution of all royalty payments, rentals, bonus payments, fines, penalties, assessments, and other revenue due the Federal Government and Indian lessors (tribal and allotted) as monies or royalties-in-kind from the extraction of mineral resources from Federal and Indian lands onshore and from the leasing and extraction of mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf.
Bureau of Land Management
Established July 16, 1946, by the consolidation ofthe General Land Office (created in 1812) and the Grazing Service (formed in 1934). The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(43 U.S.C.) is responsible for the total management of about 270 million acres of public lands; in addition to minerals management responsibilities on the public lands, BLM is also responsible for subsurface resource management of an additional 300 million acres where mineral rights are owned by the Federal Government. Bureau programs provide for the protection (including fire suppression), orderly development, and use of the public lands and resources under principles of multiple use and sustained yield.
Resources managed by BLM include timber, solid minerals, oil and gas, geothermal energy, wildlife habitat, endangered plant and animal species, rangeland vegetation, recreation and cultural values, wild and scenic rivers, designated conservation and wilderness areas, and open space. BLM programs provide for the protection (including fire suppression), orderly development, and use of the public lands and resources under principles of multiple use and sustained yield. Land use plans are developed with public involvement to provide orderly use and development while maintaining and enhancing the quality of the environment. BLM also manages watersheds to protect soil and enhance water quality; develops recreational opportunities on public lands; administers programs to protect and manage wild horses and burros; and under certain conditions, makes land available for sale to individuals, organizations, local governments, and other Federal agencies when such transfer is in the public interest. Lands may be leased to State and local government agencies and to nonprofit organizations for certain purposes.
BLM is also responsible for the survey of Federal lands and establishes and maintains public land records and mining claims records. It administers a program of payments in lieu of taxes based on the amount of federally owned lands in counties and other units of local government.
Bureau of Reclamation
Created within the United States Geological Survey by the Reclamation Act of 1902 (43 U.S.C. 371 et seq.). In 1907 the Reclamation Service was separated from the Survey, and in 1923 was renamed the Bureau of Reclamation. The Bureau of Reclamation is established to manage, develop, and protect, for the public welfare, water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner. The Reclamation program has helped to settle and develop the West by providing for sustained economic growth, an improved environment, and an enhanced quality of life through the development of a water storage and delivery infrastructure, which provides safe and dependable water supplies and hydroelectric power for agricultural, municipal, and industrial users; protects and improves water quality; provides recreational and fish and wildlife benefits; enhances river regulations; and helps control damaging floods. With this infrastructure largely in place, the Reclamation program is now focusing greater emphasis on resource management and protection than on development.
The National Reclamation Act of 1902 authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to develop irrigation and hydropower projects in 17 Western States. The water projects created by the Bureau of Reclamation led to homesteading and promoted the economic development of the West. Reclamation has constructed more than 600 dams and reservoirs including Hoover (Boulder) Dam on the Colorado River and Grand Coulee on the Columbia River.
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
Environment and Natural Resources Division
The Environment and Natural Resources Division is the Nation's environmental lawyer. It is responsible for litigating cases ranging from protection of endangered species, to global climate change, to cleaning up the Nation's hazardous waste sites. A key responsibility is enforcing civil and criminal environmental laws in order to protect its citizens' health and environment. The Division defends environmental challenges to Government activities and programs and ensures that environmental laws are implemented in a fair and consistent manner nationwide. It also represents the United States in all matters concerning the protection, use, and development of the Nation's natural resources and public lands, wildlife protection, Indian rights and claims, and the acquisition of Federal property.
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Mine Safety and Health Administration
The Mine Safety and Health Administration is responsible for safety and health in the Nation's mines. (30 U.S.C. 962) The Administration develops and promulgates mandatory safety and health standards, ensures compliance with such standards, assesses civil penalties for violations, and investigates accidents. It cooperates with and provides programs; improves and expands training programs in cooperation with the States and the mining industry; and contributes to the improvement and expansion of mine safety and health research and development. All of these activities are aimed at preventing and reducing mine accidents and occupational diseases in the mining industry.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Under Secretary for Global Affairs
Coordinates U.S. foreign relations on a variety of global issues, including democracy, human rights, and labor, environment, oceans, and science; narcotics control and law enforcement; population, refugees, and migration; and women's issues. The Committee on Resources oversees issues relating to global climate change which fall under this office.
Assistant Secretary for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs
The Bureau of Oceans, and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES) serves as the foreign policy focal point for international oceans, environmental, and scientific efforts. OES projects, protects, and promotes U.S. global interests in these areas by articulating U.S. foreign policy, encouraging international cooperation, and negotiating treaties and other instruments of international law. The Bureau serves as the principal adviser to the Secretary of State on international environment, science, and technology matters and takes the lead in coordinating and brokering diverse interests in the interagency process, where the development of international policies or the negotiation and implementation of relevant international agreements are concerned. The Bureau seeks to promote the peaceful exploitation of outer space, protect public health from reemerging infectious diseases, encourage government to goverment scientific cooperation, and prevent the destruction and degradation of the planet's natural resources and the global environment.
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Highway Administration
Federal Lands Program
The Administration manages the Federal lands highway program, the emergency relief program for federally owned roads, and the defense access roads program. It also provides transportation services to Federal agencies, serves as an advocate for safe public access to Federal and Indian lands, and develops and disseminates technology relative to transportation access to Federal and Indian lands. In addition to the national program management of the above programs, the Administration manages the Indian reserve road category. Field Operations FHWA's field structure is comprised of four resource centers that support the 52 State-level division offices. The offices provide Federal-aid program