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environment, and quality of life. To fulfill its responsibilities, NESDIS acquires and manages the Nation's operational environmental satellites, provides data and information services, and conducts related research. It also manages the largest collection of atmospheric, geophysical, and oceanographic data in the world.

National Marine Fisheries Service

The Nation's first Federal conservation agency, initiated in 1871, was devoted to the protection, study, management, and restoration of fish. This agency was the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, which was usually just called the Fish Commission. Later it was renamed the Bureau of Fisheries, and still later it became the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. Today it is NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (16 U.S.C. 1801). NMFS supports the management, conservation, and sustainable development of domestic and international living marine resources. NMFS is involved in the stock assessment of the Nation's multi-billion dollar marine fisheries, protecting marine mammals and threatened species, habitat conservation operations, trade and industry assistance, and fishery enforcement activities.

National Ocean Service

The National Ocean Service (NOS) develops the national foundation for coastal and ocean science, management, response, restoration, and navigation. NOS maintains its leadership role in coastal stewardship by bridging the gap between science, management, and public policy in the following areas: Healthy Coasts, Navigation, Coastal and Ocean Science, and Coastal Hazards. Coastal communities rely on NOS for information about natural hazards so they can more effectively reduce or eliminate the destructive effects of coastal hazards. NOS assesses the damage caused by hazardous material spills and works to restore or replace the affected coastal resources. Through varied programs, NOS protects wetlands, water quality, beaches, and wildlife. In addition, NOS provides a wide range of navigational products and data that help vessels move safely through U.S. waters and provides the basic set of information that establishes the latitude, longitude, and elevation framework necessary for the Nation's surveying, navigation, positioning, and mapping activities.

Office of Ocean and Atmospheric Research

The Office of Ocean and Atmospheric Research (OAR) works in partnership with NOAA's National Weather Service, National Ocean Service, National Environmental Satellite Data Information Service and National Marine Fisheries Service as the research and development organization of the agency. OAR carries out research into such phenomena as El Nino, global warming, ozone depletion, solar storms that can disrupt telecommunications and electrical power systems, and coastal and Great Lakes ecosystems. OAR conducts and directs its research programs in coastal, marine, atmospheric, and space sciences through its own laboratories and offices, as well as through networks of university-based programs across the country.

NOAA Corps of Commissioned Officers

NOAA Corps, are direct descendants of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey NOAA Corps can trace their lineage to 1807 when President Thomas Jefferson, among the most scientific of our Presidents, signed a bill for the "Survey of the Coast." The NOAA Corps serve in assignments within NOAA, officers operate ships, fly aircraft, lead mobile field parties, manage research projects, and conduct diving operations.

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DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

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Department of the Army (Army Corps of Engineers wetlands permit program under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act)

The legislative origins of the program are the Rivers and Harbors Acts of 1890 and 1899 (33 U.S.C. 401, et seq.). Various sections of the act establish permit requirements to prevent unauthorized obstruction or alteration of any navigable water of the United States. The most frequently exercised authority is contained in Section 10 (33 U.S.C. 403) which covers construction, excavation, or deposition of materials in, over, or under such waters, or any work which would affect the course, location, condition, or capacity of those waters. Other permit authorities in the Act are Section 9 for dams and dikes.

In 1972, amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the “Clean Water Act”, added what is commonly called Section 404 authority (33 U.S.C. 1344) to the program. It is this section that is within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Resources. The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is authorized to issue permits for the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States at specified disposal sites. Selection of such sites must be in accordance with guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in conjunction with the Secretary of the Army; these guidelines are known as the 404(b)(1) Guidelines.

In 1972, with the enactment of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, was authorized to issue permits for the transportation of dredged material to be dumped in the ocean. Disposal sites for such discharges are selected in accordance with criteria developed by EPA in consultation with the Secretary of the Army.

Department of the Navy (Oceanographer of the Navy)

Established in 1842 as a part of the permanent building for the Navy's Depot of Charts and Instruments as authorized by the passage of Bill No. 303 of the 27th Congress, the Oceanographer of the Navy maintained all charts and records of Department of the Navy. The Depot was renamed The U.S. Naval Observatory and Hydrographic Office in 1854. The Committee maintains jurisdiction over the Oceanographer of the Navy insofar as the maintenance of charts and records.

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

The Department of Energy, in partnership with its customers, is entrusted to contribute to the welfare of the Nation by providing the technical information and the

leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense.

The Department of Energy (DOE) was established by the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7131), effective October 1, 1977, pursuant to Executive Order 12009 of September 13, 1977. The act consolidated the major Federal energy functions into one Cabinet-level Department.

Power Administrations

The marketing and transmission of electricity generated at federal facilities falls under the Power Administrations

Alaska Power Administration

Established under the Flood Control Act of 1944 (Public Law 78-534)(42 U.S.C. 7152). This Act formed the basis for the later creation of the Southeastern Power Administration (SEPA) a in 1950 to sell power produced by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Southeast; and the Alaska Power Administration (APA) in 1967 to both operate and market power from two hydroelectric plants in Alaska: the Eklutna Project and the Snettisham Project.

Bonneville Power Administration:

Established under the Bonneville Project Act of 1937, P.L. 75-329 (16 U.S.C. 832). The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), is accountable for the transmission and marketing of power produced at Federal dams in the Northwest, with the original purpose of selling the power generated by the Bonneville Dam. Today, BPA supplies roughly half of the electricity used in the Northwest. The power comes primarily from 29 federal dams, and is the result of international development of the Columbia River for multiple purposes. BPA is also responsible for energy conservation, renewable resource development, and fish and wildlife enhancement under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (16 U.S.C. 839 note).

Southeastern Power Administration:

Established under the Flood Control Act of 1944, P.L. 78-534. This Act formed the basis for the later creation of the Southeastern Power Administration (SEPA) in 1950 to sell power produced by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Southeast 1950 by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary by the Flood Control Act of 1944. In 1977, Southeastern was transferred to the newly created Department of Energy. SEPA has the responsibility to market the electric power and energy generated at reservoirs operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in markets power in West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky. SEPA is unique from the other marketing authorities because it does not own any transmission lines.

Southwestern Power Administration

agency is responsible for marketing the hydroelectric power produced at 23 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers multipurpose dams. By law, the power and associated energy are marketed to publicly held entities such as rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities. Southwestern has over one hundred such “preference” customers which ultimately serve over 7 million end use customers. SWPA transmits energy to the States of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Western Power Administration

Established under the DOE Organization Act of 1977 P.L. 95-91 (42 U.S.C. 7101). This Act transferred power marketing responsibilities and transmission assets previously managed by the Bureau of Reclamation to Western Area Power Administration (WAPA). WAPA's authority was extended through the Hoover Power Plant Act of 1984, P.L. 98-381. WAPA sells power to cooperatives, municipalities, public utility districts, private utilities, Federal and State agencies, and irrigation districts. The wholesale power customers, in turn, provide service to millions of retail consumers in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, lowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

The Department of Health and Human Services is the Cabinet-level department of the Federal executive branch most involved with the Nation's human concerns. In one way or another, it touches the lives of more Americans than any other Federal agency. It is literally a department of people serving people, from newborn infants to persons requiring health services to our most elderly citizens. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was created as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on April 11, 1953 (5 U.S.C. app.).

Indian Health Service

The Indian Health Service, as part of the Public Health Service (25 U.S.C. 1621), provides a comprehensive health services delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives, with opportunity for maximum tribal involvement in developing and managing programs to meet their health needs. It assists Native American tribes in developing their health programs; facilitates and assists tribes in coordinating health planning, obtaining and utilizing health resources available through Federal, State, and local programs, operating comprehensive health programs, and evaluating health programs; and provides comprehensive healthcare services including hospital and ambulatory medical care, preventive and rehabilitative services, and development of community sanitation facilities.

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT

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agency responsible for programs concerned with the Nation's housing needs, fair housing opportunities, and improvement and development of the Nation's communities. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was established in the 1965 by the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S.C. 3532-3537).

Public and Indian Housing Program

The Public and Indian Housing Program makes available safe, decent and affordable housing to Native American families, creates economic opportunities for Tribes and Indian housing residents, assists Tribes in the formulation of plans and strategies for community development, and assures fiscal integrity in the operation of the programs.

Congress established the Section 184 Indian Housing Loan Guarantee Program in 1994. The program is designed to offer home ownership, property rehabilitation, and new construction opportunities for eligible tribes, Indian Housing Authorities and Native American individuals and families wanting to own a home on their native lands.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

The Department of the Interior was established in 1849 by act of March 3, 1849 (43 U.S.C. 1451), which transferred to it the General Land Office, the Office of Indian Affairs, the Pension Office, and the Patent Office. It was reorganized by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1950, as amended (5 U.S.C. app.). The Department manages the Nation's public lands and minerals, national parks, national wildlife refuges, and western water resources and upholds Federal trust responsibilities to Indian tribes. It is responsible for migratory wildlife conservation; historic preservation; endangered species, surface-mined lands protection and restoration; mapping, and geological, hydrological, and biological science. Over the years, other functions have been added and removed, so that its role has changed from that of general housekeeper for the Federal Government to that of custodian of the Nation's natural resources.

Office of the Secretary

Special Trustee for American Indians

The Office of Special Trustee for American Indians (OST), in the Secretary of the Interior's office, was authorized by Title III of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-412). OST is responsible for managing Indian trust funds. These funds were formerly managed by the BIA, but numerous federal, tribal, and congressional reports had shown severely inadequate management with probable losses to Indian tribal and individual beneficiaries. OST is directed to produce a detailed operating plan and to fund a multi-tribal trust-fund monitoring association.

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Office of Insular Affairs

The Office of Insular Affairs assists the territories of American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in

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