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himself a name second to few in history." Another characteristic anecdote told of him is to the effect that, on the breaking down of a mound of turf by means of which his youthful banditti were labouring to turn a dirty watercourse into the shop-door of an obnoxious dealer, he threw himself into the gutter, and filled the breach with his body till his companions were in a condition more effectually to repair the damage.

P. 5, l. 24. The prophet's gourd. (See Jonah iv.)
P. 6, 1. 18. The great Mogul. (See Introduction.)

P. 6, 1. 23. There is still a Nizam. The Nizam of Hyderabad. The present representative is a mere boy. His Dewan, or prime minister, Sir Salar Jung, was one of England's staunchest friends during the terrible Sepoy niutiny, laying her under a debt of gratitude not lightly to be forgotten. (See Macmillan's Magazine, August 1876.)

P. 8, 1. 7. Wallenstein. Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius, Count von Waldstein, the great general of the Imperialists in the Thirty Years' War, was born of an ancient and noble family of Bohemia, in 1583. He was murdered at the castle of Egra, in 1634. His eventful career furnished Schiller with the subject of his splendid trilogy, Wallenstein s Camp, The Piccolomini, and The Death of Wallenstein. A fine translation of the last two was made by Coleridge.

P. 8. I. 14. The war of the Austrian succession. The Emperor Charles VI. had died October 20, 1740. The succession of his daughter, Maria Theresa, to his hereditary dominions, the dukedom of Austria, and the kingdom of Hungary and Bohemia, was guaranteed by the Pragmatic Sanction, to which England was a party; but it was also claimed by the Elector of Bavaria, who assumed the title of Duke of Austria, and whose cause was supported by France, and consequently by the Bourbon king of Spain. Frederick II. of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, resolved to profit by this conjuncture, and entering Silesia at the head of 30,000 men, defeated the Austrians at Molwitz (1741).

The English, Dutch, Hanoverian, and Hessians espoused the cause of Maria Theresa. The war continued with varying success till the spring of 1748. In October of that year it was concluded for a time by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. (See Macaulay's Essay on Frederick the Great, and Johnson's Vanity of Human Wishes, 241-254.)

P. 8, I. 34. Labourdonnais. Bertrand François Mahé de la Bourdonnais (1699-1751) entered the French East India Company at the age of nineteen, and soon rose to distinction. In 1734 he was appointed governor-general of Île de France and Bourbon. On his return to his native land he was thrown into the Bastille, and languished there for three years and a half. The charge brought against him was that he had been corrupted at the taking of Madras. It was made by Dupleix, in spite of whose endeavours he was eventually acquitted ; but not till his spirit and health were broken, and his fortune spent. Voltaire said of him that "he was able to do much with little, and was as intelligent in commerce as he was skilful in naval affairs." He is no doubt best known through the mention made of him in the story of Paul and Virginia.

P. 9, I. 2. Dupleix, Joseph Dupleix was a French merchant, who, as head of the factory at Chandernagore, raised it to such a pitch of prosperity that, in 1742, he was appointed governor of Pondicherry, and director-general of the French factories in India. He died in poverty in 1763, nine years after his shameful recall.

P. 10, l. 5. Major Lawrence. Major Stringer Lawrence was born in 1697, and was for twenty years a distinguished soldier of the East India Company. After his death, in 1774, the Company erected a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey. P. 10. 1. 8. Peace had been concluded.

The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, signed Oct. 7, 1748, between Great Britain, France, Holland, Germany, Spain, and Genoa. Conquests were mutually restored, with the exception of Silesia, which was retained by Frederick the Great.

P. 1o, 1. 20. The English and French Companies. (See Introduction.) It must be borne in mind that the settlements of the French in the East at this time were more extensive, and of far greater political importance than those of the English, whose sole aim hitherto had been trade, not political power. Besides the French kept a much greater number of regular troops on foot, and had already begun to arm and discipline battalions of Sepoys after the European fashion.

P. 1o, l. 23. The house of Tamerlane. (See Introduction.)

P. 10, l. 24. Baber and his Moguls. (See Introduction.)

P. 10, l. 30. Travellers who had seen St. Peter's. François Bernier, for instance, or, more notably, Sir Thomas Roe (1580-1644), who left an interesting account of his embassy in 1615 to Jehangir, at whose court he remained three years. He seems to have been perfectly dazzled ly the splendour around him; and not !east by the gold and jewels on the foreheads of the royal elephants. Fitch also wrote an account of his visit to the court of Akbar in 1583. (See Introduction.)

P. 11, 1. 33. Theodosius. Theodosius the Great, Emperor of the East, was a native of Spain, and was born about 346. He died at Milan in 395, leaving the empire to be divided between his sons Arcadius and Honorius. In the reign of the latter the frontiers of the Western Empire began to recede before barbarian invaders, and the province of Britain was abandoned. During the government of the feeble descendants of Theodosius the reins of empire were really handled by women, eunuchs, and barbarian generals who intrigued with and against each other for no object but their own personal aggrandisement. Disgrace after disgrace overtook the so-called Roman armies. Within sixty years Rome was twice sacked by Alaric the Goth and Genseric the Vandal, while the fairest provinces of the empire passed under the dominion of alien masters, and the Vandals, the Alans, the Goths, and the Huns ruled as lords over Roman citizens. This passage should be very carefully studied, as one of the finest in the essay, and as very characteristic of Macaulay's best manner. Its picturesque clearness and wide range of view are admirable ; and, though the sentences are somewhat abrupt and stiff, and the number of fullstops somewhat excessive, there is nevertheless a vigour and a ring about the words which is all Macaulay's own. The parallel which he draws will not bear pushing very far, for the facts show very little more than a superficial likeness. (See Introduction.)

P. 12, 1. 1. Charlemagne. Charles the Great, king of the Franks, and Emperor of the West, was born at Salzburg in 742. His empire extended from the North Sea to the Mediterranean, and from the Atlantic and the Ebro to the Raab and the mouth of the Oder. He died in 814, and was buried at Aachen (Aix-laChapelle). Charles the Bald, Charles the Fat, and Charles the Simple ruled the Frankish empire from 840 to 929.

P. 12, 1. 8. Fierce invaders. Neustria, formerly the kingdom of Soissons in West Francia, was allotted to Clothair I., in 511, as his portion of the dominions of his father Clovis (Hlodwig or Louis). The part of it which began to be called Normandy about 876 was, after many incursions, ceded to the Scandinavian chief Rollo by Charles the Simple, in 905. A Scythian tribe called the Ungri, and a Finnish tribe of Magyars, settled in Hungary in 890. But the westward progress of the latter was checked by their defeat by Henry the Fowler, king of the Germans, in 931. The Saracens in 711 commenced the expulsion of the Visigoths from Spain (who had settled there in 414), and established the Caliphate of Cordova in 755. They conquered Sicily between the years 832 and 878. It was in 887 that the Frankish kingdoms of Charles the Fat were finally split up.

P. 12, 1. 16. Gog, or Magog. See Revelations xx. 8. “Gog” occurs in more than one place in the Old Testament as a proper pame (e.g. Ezekiel xxxviii. 3, 14, xxxix. II), but the two names are generally taken as symbols for the heathen nations of Asia, probably the Scythians, of whom the Jews heard only rumours. Josephus (Antiq. i. 6, 3) puts Exúbafor “Magog," and Jerome agrees with him. Suidas renders it IIépoar, which is not very different, for

• Scythians " was a name given in general by the Jews to partially known tribes. (See also Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, article Magog.")

P. 12, 1. 18. Pannonian forests. Pannonia was a district bounded on the north and east by the Danube, on the south by the Save, and on the west by Styria.

P. 13, 1. 3. Bang. A decoction of the dried leaves of hemp, is eminently narcotic, and forms the well-known intoxicating Turkish drug called 'bang' or 'haschish."" (Loudon's Encyclo pædia of Plants, p. 1083.)

P. 13, 1. 10. Bernier, François Bernier, a celebrated French traveller who resided twelve years at the court of Aurungzebe as his physician. His “Travels," which have always been popular, and have been translated into many languages, were published in 1670. He died in 1688.

P. 13, 1. 10. The Peacock Throne was erected by the Emperor Shah Jehan in his palace at Delhi, at a cost estimated at six and a half millions sterling. It was plundered by Nadir Shah

in 1739.

P. 13, 1. 14. Runjeet Sing. Ranjit Sing (1780–1839), the “Lion of the Panjâb,” was appointed governor of Lâhôr in 1797 by the Afgân monarch Zemân Shâh, and his life was devoted to enlarging his territory. In 1831 he had an interview with Lord W. Bentinck, at Rupâr on the Satlaj, which was conducted with extraordinary pomp and magnificence, and an assurance of perpetual amity was given him by the Governor-General. He co-operated with the English in their ill-fated attempt to replace Shah Shuja on the throne of Afganistan. The "Mountain of Light," or the “Kob

P. 13,

-nûr," has had a rather eventful history. In the fifteenth century it was possessed by one of the Afgân emperors of Delhi of the house of Lôdi, who had taken it from a prince of Mâlwa. It was then taken by Ahmed Shah Abdâlî, who transmitted it to Shah Shuja, who gave it to Ranjit Sing. Ranjit bequeathed it at his death in 1839 to the idol of Jagannath ; but on the annexation of the Panjâb in 1849 it came into the possession of the East India Company, who presented it to Queen Victoria, June 3, 1850.

15. The idol of Orissa. That of Jagannath, "the Lord of the World," in the temple in the city of Puri, near the mouth of the Mahannadi. Jagannath is one of the many forms of the cod Vishnu (for an account of whose worship and temple see W. W. Hunter's Orissa, i. 81). The present temple was built in 1198 A.D. The notion that the god was propitiated by self-murder is thus remarked on by Mr. Hunter : "The few suicides that did occur were, for the most part, cases of diseased and miserable objects, who took this means to put themselves out of pain. (As. Res. xv. 324; Calcutta Review, X. 235, &c.) The official returns now place this beyond doubt. Indeed, nothing could be more opposed to the spirit of Vishnu-worship than self-immolation." (Orissa, i. 134.)

P. 13, 1. 15. The Afghan soon followed. Ahmed Shah Abdali, in 1751. He passed the Attock to invade India altogether six times, between 1747 and 1761.

P. 14, 1. 8. Redeemed their harvests, &c. The "annual ransom was termed the chout, and was first levied by Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta power, in 1665. It amounted to one-fourth of the revenue.

P. 14, 1. 11. One rapacious leader. Baji Rao, Peishwa of the Mahrattas in 1736, advanced upon Delhi to prove, as he said, " that he was still in Hindustan." (See Introduction.)

P. 14, 1. 18. Mahratta ditch. Made in 1742, as a defence against the Mahrattas, who, under Meer Hubeeb, were laying waste Bengal.

P. 15, 1. 20. Dictate terms of peace at the gates of Ava. Hostilities were commenced in 1824. Aracan was ceded, and a peace was signed on February 24, 1826.

P. 15, 1. 35. Saxe. Maurice, Comte de Saxe, and Marshal of France, was a natural son of Frederic Augustus II., king of Poland, and was born at Dresden in 1696. He died in 1750. He was one of the most distinguished and dashing commanders, and one of the

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