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The compiler of the estimate remarks:-" It is not clearly expressed by any of the authorities quoted, whether the amounts of the precious metals stated to have been produced at different periods, applies to the amount coined or to the entire production, but the inference is strongly in favor of the latter.

“The limited production of gold and silver in the last years of the fifteenth century, may be very naturally accounted for in the limited number of people who at first ventured to explore the New World, and in the scarcity of those metals in the lands first occupied by Columbus; but it will, perhaps, excite surprise to find that the first deposits of California gold in the mints of the United States, in the year 1851, exceed the highest annual production of gold and silver in Mexico and South America by nearly 40 per cent."

Bowery ...........

.......

CAPITAL AND DIVIDENDS OF BANKS IN NEW YORK, We give below a statement of the capital and dividends of the several banks in the city of New York for the first half of the year 1852, as compared with the same time in 1851. The capital which paid dividends last year averaged 41 per cent for the preceding six months. This year $4,592,500 of new capital pays dividends, and the average is slightly less.

1851.

1852. Banks.

Capital. Ist div. Amount. Ist div. Amount. American Exchange ........ $1,500,000 5 $75,000

$75,000 Bank of America ..

2,001,200
80,048

80,048 Bank of Commerce....

5,000,000
183,956

183,956 Bank of New York,

1,000,000
40,000

50,000 Bank of North America. .... 1,000,000 new.

35,000 Bank of the Republic........ 1.000.000 new.

35,000 Bank of the State of N. York. 2,000,000

80,000

80,000 365,650 4 17,266

17,266 Broadway .........."

500,000
20,000

20,000 Butchers' and Drovers..

500,000
25,000

60,000 Chatham .. 300,000 pew.

12,000 Chemical..........

300,000
18,000

18.000 Citizens'... 350,000 new.

15,000 City ...........

720,000
36,000

36,000 Fulton..

600,000
30,000

30,000 Greenwich ...

200,000
10,000

10,000 Hanover...... 500,000 new.

17,500 Irving ....... 800,000 new.

10,500 Leather Manufacturers'.

600,000
24,000

24,000 Manhattan..

2,050,000
82,000

82,000 Mechanics'...

1,440,000
72,000

72,000 Mechanics' Banking Associat'n 632,000

25,280

25,000 Mechanics' and Tradesmen's.. 200,000

12,000

12,280 Mercantile...... 600,000 new.

30,000 Merchants' ....

1,490,000 5 74,500 Merchants’ Exchange...... 1,285,000 5 61,750

49,400 Metropolitan.....

2,000,000 National .........

750,000
87,500

37,500 New York Dry Dock..

240,000
10,000

10,000 New York Exchange. 130,000 new.

6,200 North River.......

655,000
32,250

82,250
1,000,000
50,000

40,000 Pacific..

422,000

16,908 People's . 412,500 new,

14,406 Phoenix......

1,200,000
48,000

48,000 Seventh Ward..

500,000
50,000

50,000 Tradesmen's...

400,000
20,000

20,000 Union ............

1,000,000
50,000

60,000 Total............ $35,044,350 44 1,281,468 4.15 1,878,206

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For the sake of comparison, we give the aggregate capital and dividends of the banks in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, as follows :

1851.

1852. Capital. Dividend. Rate. Capital. Dividend. Rate. Boston .............. $21,760,000 $884,298 4.06 $24,410,000 $1,021,950 4.11 New York....... .. 30,451,850 1,281,458 4.28 35,044,350 1,378,206 4.15 Philadelphia.......... 7,725,000 314,750 4.07 7,755,000 378,250 6.00

CONDITION OF THE BANKS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. In the Merchants Magazine for September 1851, (vol. xxv., page 353,) we published under our “JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE” a detailed statement of the condition of each bank in South Carolina, from the official copy of their returns, made to the Controller-General, for June 30th, 1851; and in the number for November, 1851, (same volume, page 615,) and also in the Merchants' Magazine for April, 1852, (vol. xxvi., p. 475,) we gave the aggregate condition of all the banks in the State, the former for the 31st of August, 1851, and the latter for the 31st of December, 1851. We now subjoin a similar aggregate statement of their Auditor for the 31st of March, 1852:-* DEBTS DUE BY THE SEVERAL BANKS OF SOUTH CAROLINA ON THE 31ST OF MARCH, 1852. Capital stock.

$5,991,885 73 Bilis in circulation...

..............

3,933,779 12 Net profits on hand ...

647,948 25 Balances due to banks in this State.....

1,253,914 69 Balances due to banks in other States.....

328.894 87 All other moneys due which bear interest ..

,13,675 00 State Treasury, for balance, Current Fund ..

29,543 39 State Treasury for balance, Sinking Fund....

522.909 30 State Treasury, for loan for rebuilding the city.

1,759,160 11 Cash deposited t.....

2,543,449 41 Total liabilities...

$17,025,159 87 RESOURCES OF THE SEVERAL BANKS ON THE 31ST OF MARCH, 1852. Specie on hand...

$682,912 62 Real estate.......

224,765 77 Bills of other banks in this State.......

416,111 47 Bills of banks in other States.....

20,765 00 Balances due from banks in this State.. .....................

106,981 94 Balances due from banks in other States.

165,7737 51 Notes discounted on personal security..

7,024,718 90 Loans secured by pledge of its own stock.

221,660 77 Loans secured by pledge of other stock .

486,849 81 Domestic exchange............

2,452,896 86 Foreign Exchange .................

668,828 45 Bonds ...........

906,705 61 Money invested in stock...,

837,938 67 Suspended debt and debt in suit ...

491,385 66 State Treasury........

87,087 50 Branches and agencies..................

1,519,121 92 Bonda under law for rebuilding Charleston.

320,833 79 Interest and expenses of State loan.....

60.793 10 Money invested in every other way....

439,064 53

tes.................

Total resources of the banks......

$17,025,159 87

• This statement embraces the Bank of the State of South of Carolina, and the Branch of the me at Columbia : the South-Western Railroad Bank; the Planters' and Mechanics' Bank : Union Bank of Charleston ; State Bank of South Carolina ; and the Bank of South Carolina.

+ And all other moneys due, exclusive of bills in circulation, profits on hand, balances due other banks, and money bearing interest.

STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES POST OFFICE. The United States Senate passed, on the 25th of March, 1852, a resolution requesting the Postmaster-General “to report to the Senate the whole number of letters which passed through the Post Office of the United States during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1851 ; distinguishing the paid from the unpaid, those paid by stamps from those paid in cash," together with certain other matters.

From the communications of the Postmaster-General and the Auditor of the Department, we condense the subjoined statistics :

POSTAGE COLLECTED IN THE LEADING CITIES. The postages collected during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1851, were as follows:New York. Philadelphia. Boston. New Orleans. Baltimore. Cincinnati. St. Louis. $631,830 $ 197,019 $176,756 $117,886 $99,670 $82,333 $53,062

DEAD LETTERS CONTAINING MONEY, ETC. The number of dead letters received during the fiscal year is estimated by the officer in charge of that department at 2,750,000. During the same period the number of dead letters containing money, opened, registered, and sent out for delivery, was 645. The aggregate amount of money found in the same.

$40,336 73 The number of such letters delivered The amount of money therein ........

$38,090 61 The number of letters returned unclaimed .......

1,106 The nominal amount of money in the same........................ $4,246 12

A few of the unclaimed letters have been restored to their owners since the close of the fiscal year, and the remainder are yet on hand in the dead letter office.

There is also another class of dead letters which contain articles of value other than money, such as bonds, notes of hand, drafts, bills of exchange, checks, certificates of deposit, certificates of stock, and other papers having a value capable of being expressed in dollars and cents. During the same year the number of letters of this class registered and sent out for delivery was 10,088. Their inclosures having a nominal value of $1,292,125.

Of these 6,631 were restored to their owners; 3,263 were returned unclaimed, and 194 remained in the hands of postmasters to whom they had been sent for delivery.

5,347

LETTERS PASSED THROUGH THE POST OFFICE IN 1851. By calculation, the Auditor estimates the whole number of paid and unpaid letters

which passed through the Post Office of the United States during the year aforesaid

(exclusive of California, foreign and dead letters) at ............. 71,185,286 Deduct number estimated to have been prepaid by stamps.......... 1,270,088

Leaves paid by cash and unpaid.. ......

69,916,197 Then estimating the number paid by cash to have been 3-64th of this amount, we have as paid letters..........

19,207,471 Leaving as unpaid letters........

50,707,726 Paid by stamps .............................................

1,270,088 Free...........

3,646,016 Drop........................................................ 715,428 Conveyed by European steamers...

3,909,186 Conveyed by Havana steamers.. ..........................

56,903 Conveyed by California steamers. .............................. 1,323,367 Dead letters........................

2,416,250 Total ........

83,252,735 Letters which passed through the Post Office of the United States during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1851.

The amount of postage due on dead letters for the same year was $165,125, by estimate.

The nomber of free letters is computed from the returns of postmasters for a single quarter, and may be regarded as rather below the actual amount, as in some cases postmasters fail to enter in their returns the free letters delivered from their office, upon which by law they are allowed a commission of two cents.

PRINTED MATTER PASSED THROUGH THE POST OFFICE IN 1851. The number of newspapers and pamphlets chargable with postage which passed through the Post Office of the United States during the year ended June 30, 1851, was .......

............................................ 82,695,872 According to a calculation made by Mr. Bradley, of the Washington

city Post Office, the free printed matter passing through his Office during the same period was..................................

3,460,050 Exchange newspapers and documents franked by Governors of States, &c, estimated.

5,000,000 Total printed matter.....

91,955,922 It is proper to remark that in computing the number of free letters no allowance is made for such free printed matter as is mailed at other offices than Washington city; and as it is never entered on way-bills by postmasters, and no returns are made therefor, this office has no data upon which to base even a calculation.

COST OF TRANSPORTATION AND POSTAGES COLLECTED IN THE SEVERAL STATES, ETC.

The following table shows the amounts actually credited for the transportation of mails, by States, and differs slightly from the amounts actually paid. It also shows the amounts by postage collected in the several States : Transportation. Postages cold. 1

Transportation, Postages col'd. Maine ........ $47,690 25 $161,891 57 Mississippi.... $81,189 93 $99,388 23 N. Hampshire,. 27,662 00 100,784 21 Tennessee .... 74,142 59 115,441 97 Vermont ..... 48,643 93 103,700 68 Missouri ..... 101,313 28 138,623 31 Massachusetts.. 132,164 84 540,686 65 Arkansas.... 61,244 90 32,528 72 Connecticut.... 62,176 19 177,592 38 Iowa......... 24,850 05 48,787 90 Rhode Island.. 12,088 2059,220 44 Louisiana .... 66,546 89 165,802 66 New York..... 321,251 60 1,351,373 63 Texas. ......... 107,977 20 50,162 35 New Jersey... 56,813 37 . 106,049 71 Minnesota ... 1,192 89 3,550 36 Maryland..... 143,150 97 174,290 72 Kentucky..... 87,121 70 148,404 67 Delaware..... 8,717 85 20,503 45 | Indiana.

76,225 82 154,269 77 Pennsylvania.. 146,105 64 595,070 86 Illinois

156,685 71 209,063 20 Virginia ....... 169,425 21 244,229 13 Ohio...... 138,543 88 485,758 78 North Carolina 154,126 1084,288 34 Michigan ..... 36,720 22 116,799 50 South Carolina 107,281 74 113,918 30 | Wieconsin ..... 34,434 77 102,540 74 Georgia ...... 144,262 86 170,054 69 California ..... 111,515 87 302,247 33 Florida ....... 31,701 55 2 3,831 58 Oregon........ 9,875 80 6,847 95 Alabama ..... 139,349 30 133,391 63 New Mexico... 350 00 441 03 Utah

1,171 48 Nebraska..

42 96 District of Columbia..

42,039 86 New York to Bremen.

166,416 68 New York to Hayre....

........... 73,550 00 Bremen postage ............................................. 19,308 76 Miscellaneous entries.........................................

274 25 Charleston to Havana..

50,000 00 19,808 76 Across the Isthmus of Panama, under treaty with New Grenada......

45,318 86 6,404,373 65

en.............

The above table of transportation embraces (with the exception of what is paid for the sea service) only such items as are classified by States upon the books of this of. fice. A portion of the expenses of the Department charged to transportation, consisting of river mails, route agents, irregular service, and some cases of recognized service, are consequently not included.

The number of letters conveyed by the Cunard, Collins, Bremen, and Havre lines for the same period is as follows, viz:- van

By the Cunard line, whole number ........
By the Collins line......
By the Havre line.........
By the Bremen line....

2,613,771 843,144 139,030 313,241

Unpaid by the Canard line .
Paid by the Cunard line..
Unpaid by Collins line ..
Paid by Collins line....
Unpaid by Bremen line.
Paid by Bremen line....
Unpaid by Havre line. ...
Paid by Havre line .....

3,909,186 1,515,860 1,097,911 497,166 345,979 206,082 107,209 91,073 47,958

3,909,186 Number of newspapers conveyed by same lines, respectively, and the amount of postage collected on the same :-By Cunard line, '637,168 ; By Collins line, 224,278; by Bremen line, 7,180; by Havre line; 3,920 ; total, 872,546 ; at two cents each, $17,450 92.

Amount of postage on letters by Cunard and Collins lines, respectively, collected in th: United States and Great Britain, and the amount of commissions paid to our postmasters on the balance due and paid to the British Government :By Cunard line collected in United States.....

$809,494 44 By Cunard line collected in Great Britain.........

296,543 17

Total..

$636,037 61

By Collins line collected in United States.....................
By Collins line collected in Great Britain .................

131.127 86 74,713 86

Total ...........

....................... $ 205,841 71 The balance due and paid to the British Government was.... $59,490 78

It is estimated that three-fourths of the postages by the Cunard and Collins lines collected in the United States have been collected in the large offices, at which the commissions are 124 per cent, and that the average rate of commissions paid on the remaining one fourth has not exceeded 30 per cent. According to this calculation, the commissions paid to our postmasters on the balance due and paid to Great Britain amounts to $10,039 06 ; to say, $44,618 09, at 127 per cent, $5,577 26 ; $14,872 69, at 30 per cent, $4,461 80; total, $10,039 06.

A portion of this sum is returned to the Department in the shape of surplus commissions at the large offices.

The amount received from the British Government on closed mails was $45,279 41. The amount paid to the British Government on closed mails was $6,306 80.

The number of letters conveyed between New York and California, and New York and Oregon, via Chagres and Panama, and the amount of postages collected thereon, are as follows:Number of letters sent and received............................. Amount of postage thereon.................................... $529,341 04 Unpaid (estimated) ............................ $443,848 57 Paid

............................ 85,492 47 Total.....

$529,341 04 The post bills sent to this office from New York do not distinguish between the California and Oregon letters ; nor do they state the number of newspapers sent and received by the same line, nor the number of free letters.

The number of letters and newspapers conveyed by the Charleston and Havada steamers, and the amount of postage collected thereon, are as follows:- Letters, 56,903 ; newspapers, 24,664; amount of letter postage, $9,156 87; amount of newspaper postage, $789 92; total, $9,896 79.

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