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steamers; and as the whole of the machinery is confined within a vertical trunk 76 feet long and 18 feet wide, ample space is left on each side of the ship for state-rooms along its entire length, with unbroken passages, fore and aft, on either side. The freight-deck also presents an unbroken area fore and aft, diminished only in width in the central part of the vessel. The coal being carried in the bottom, at each side of the engines, the fore and aft hold are clear for freight. The central arrangement of the engines involves, of necessity, a central crank, and thus the spar-deck presents an uninterrupted area, on both sides, the ordinary objectionable crank hatches being dispensed with. The slow combustion peculiar to the caloric engine renders the huge smoke funnel unnecessary. A short pipe to carry off the gases produced by the combustion in the furnaces takes its place in the caloric ship. The absence of steam in every form is sufficiently important in producing a more pleasant atmosphere than in steamers, but far more remarkable is the fact that the quantity of air which will be drawn out of the ship by the action of the supply cylinders of the engines, will exceed sixty tons in weight every hour! Captain Ericsson, in calling our attention to this fact, furnished us with a few figures that we feel certain our readers will need, as much as we did, to comprehend how so vast a ventilation is effected. Each supply piston presents an area of 102 superficial feet, with a stroke of six feet. 612 cubic feet of atmospheric air will therefore be drawn into the engine at each stroke; and when the engine makes fourteen strokes per minute, 8,568 cubic feet. But as there are four supply cylinders, they will, in this space of time, draw in 34,272 cubic feet; and in 60 minutes there will be thus circulated 2,056,320 cubic feet. The weight of atmospheric air is nearly 134 cubic feet to the pound; and thus it will be seen that 68 tons of air are drawn from the interior of the ship, through the engines, and passed off into the atmosphere, every hour. The effect of such an extraordinary system of ventilation, in purifying the atmosphere of the ship, is self-evident.
The simple construction of the caloric engine, and the small quantity of coal to be handled, will reduce the number of engineers and firemen, in the aggregate, to less than one-fourth the complement required for steamers. This great reductiou in the number of men, whose duties are incompatible with strict cleanliness, will still further promote a purer state of atmosphere in calorie ships than in steamers. Again, as no smoke whatever is produced, when anthracite coal is employed, the masts and rigging of the caloric ship will be as as clean as in sailing vessels. We examined the combustion of the sixty-horse caloric-engine most critically. No smoke could be detected from it, and we arrived at the conclusion, that with such a slow combustion and easy firing smoke cannot possibly emanate from the anthracite consumed in the furnaces. Europe bas scarcely any of this fuel, and in a national point of view, therefore, the introduction of the caloric-engine is important. We congratulate the commercial world that this invention is to be presented upon a scale and in a manner commensurate with its surpassing magnitude. The commercial part of this enterprise is conducted by Mr. John B. KITCHING, a merchant of the city of New York, who has, for this purpose, associated with him a few gentlemen of wealth and bigh standing. It is fortunate that he possesses the practical intelligence which has enabled him to appreciate the advantages to be derived from the introduction of this new motive power. He at once concurred with Captain Ericsson, that its development in practice should so thoroughly test its utility and value, that no doubt could thereafter be entertained concerning either. So far as human scrutiny and foresight can penetrate, this invention promises to be the richest boon to Commerce and civilization vet attained by the application to macbinery of those natural forces created by Omnipotence for the benefit of our race. Upon the manner of its first introduction to the world, will, in a great degree depend the time within which it will be made generally available in practice. Mr. Kitching will be remembered as the man whose sound judgment and perfect self-reliance have so contributed to present the coloricengine to the public, that a second trial will not be required to warrant its universal adoption.
Art. 11.-COMMERCE OF THE BLACK SEA.
Some years ago the translator of the present article on the subject of the Commerce of the Port of Trebizond, on the southern shore of the Black Sea, during a visit which he had occasion to make there, availed himself of it to procure some details of the trade which passes through that part to Georgia and Persia, as well as with the interior of that portion of Asia Minor of which Trebizond is the principal port of entry. Those details were, soon afterwards, offered for publication to the Merchants' Magazine, in which they appeared.
With the increased intercourse of the people of the United States with the Ottoman Empire, as merchants, or as simple travelers for pleasure or instruction, it is presumed that any information made public on the subject of the trade of Asiatic and European Turkey will be perused with interest by the commercial public. The absence of a regular Commercial Bureau at Washington, to which such communications might be made, for the purpose of having them laid before the public in the form of annual “Commercial Reports” to Congress, renders this means of publicity the more valuable ; and with this object in view, the following later details of the trade which formed the subject of the previous notes are now offered for insertion in the Merchants' Magazine.
COMMERCE OF TREBIZOND IN 1851.*
During a period of six years the imports and exports of Trebizond have gone on increasing, and the transit Commerce has also augmented in an equal proportion. In 1846 some 30,000 packages of goods were disembarked there for Persia and Georgia, valuing about fifty millions of Turkish piastres, of some four cents each, making $2,000,000 of our own currency. In 1851, the merchandise which arrived at Trebizond amounted to 59,003 packages, valuing 182,000,000 of piastres. The expenses of 30,000 packages, from the period of their departure from Constantinople up to their being put into warehouses in Tabriz in Persia, were, on account of the dear
• Translated from the “ Journal de Constantinople."
+ The Turkish piastre fluctuates in value, and is governed by the sale at which bills of exchange on London are sold at Constantinople. At this date, April, 1852, the pound sterling is, in specie, (gold and silver,) 117 piastres, and in Caimehs (paper currency of the Sultan) 120 piastres. The Spanish dollar values 25 piastres in specie, and 26 and 27 piastres in paper.
ness of transportation, about 15 per cent on the whole amount-say some 7,500,000 piastres on the value of 50,000,000 piastres. On this basis, which is believed to be exact, the expenses of 59,003 packages, worth 182,000,000 piastres, should aniount to 27,000,000 piastres. It has been determined upon by the Turkish Government to construct a good wagon road from Trebizond to Erzerrow,* a town of some importance, not far from the Persian frontier, which project, for the present, has been deferred, and the preceding statements of the trade which would pass over it is certainly sufficient to serve as an inducement for its future execution. Besides the preceding, it should also be added that the Commerce in transit to Persia pays to the Turkish Government a duty of 3 per cent, which makes a sum of 5,500,000 piastres per annum. In a few years, should the trade increase in the ratio of the past six years, this revenue would quite suffice to cover the expenses of the proposed route.
The writer next adds, in behalf of the Commerce of France with Trebizond, “In the general table of the trade of Trebizond, which we publish, we are pained to observe a point which struck us in 1846, that France takes no part in this trade, whilst some forty years ago the Commerce of France predominated in the Levant."
* The steamboats which now go to Trebizond belong wholly to the Turkish, English, and Austrian marines." After some expressions of confidence that the present President of the “Republic of France” will take proper measures to restore the lost trade of Marseilles, he continues; “The goods imported into Trebizond under the flags of different nations for the consumption of the interior of the country and those destined for Persia, amount to 243,342,000 piastres, or $9,793,680, and the exports to 110,471,000 piastres, or $4,418,840—making a difference between them of some 132,871,000 piastres, or $5,314,840, which is explained in the following table.
The most important portion of this trade belongs to the Turkish marine, I next to this to the Austrian, and next to the British. The first imports into Trebizond 132,730,000 piastres, or $5,309,200; the second 72,704,000 piastres, $2,908,160 ; and the third 35,406,000 piastres, or $1,416,240. The other nations engaged in the trade may be classed as follows: Greece, the two Danubian Provinces of Turkey, one Moldavia and Wallachia, the seven Ionian Islands, and Russia.
In a general recapitulation of the same, we find 99 sailing vessels, and 73 steamers, together having 111,352 tons.
The arrivals in 1851 were as follows: Ottoman sailing vessels, 71; steamers, 30; in all, 101 ; of 68,580 tons, and 13,380 horse-power, and importing goods of the value of 132,730,000 piastres, or $5,309,200.
Austrian steamers, of 7,00 horse-power, and 23,800 tons, and importing 72,703,000 piastres, or $2,908,160 of merchandise.
British sailing vessels, 6; steamers, 17; in all, 23; of 4,994 horse-power, and 15,742 tons, with 35,406,000 piastres, or $1,416,240 of merchandise.
Greek vessels, 9; of 1,698 tons, and 1,355,000 piastres, or $54,200 of merchandise.
Danubian vessels, 7 ; of 1,004 tons, and 550,000 piastres, or $21,000 of mer. chandise.
Ionian vessels, 3; of 396 tons, and 257,000 piastres, or $10,800 of merchandise.
• The failure of this determination is attributed at Constantinople to the influence of Russia, which is, very naturally, desirous of having the transit trade of Persia pass through Georgia. The projected road was begun at the instance of the British Embassy at Conetantinople.
Making totally 90 sailing vessels and 73 steamers, or in all 172 vessels of every nation; which imported into the single port of Trebizond goods for internal consumption and transit to Georgia and Persia to the amount of 243,342,000 piastres, or $9,733,680.
The departures for Trebizond in 1851 were
Ottoman sailing vessels, 51 ; steamers, 30; in all, 81; of 18,380 horse-power, and exporting merchandise to the value of 26,686,000 piastres, and specie 20,691,000 piastres, or $1,895,080.
Austrian steamers, of 7,800 horse-power, and 23,330 tons, with merchandise of the value of 14,301,000 piastres, and specie 13,424,000 piastres, or $1,109,280.
British vessels, 5; steamers, 17; in all, 22 ; of 4,994 horse-power, and 15,300 tons, and merchandise to the value of 11,732,000 piastres, in specie, 12,017,000 piastres, or $949,960.
It must be remembered that the specie destined for Constantinople, (for all of this Commerce is between Trebizond and Constantinople,) indicated, refers entirely to the merchandise in transit to and from Georgia and Persia; whilst the following is a statement of the local Commerce, and that for the consumption of the interior of the country of which Trebizond is the first, in 1851 :
Ottoman steamers, 3,751,000 piastres, or $150,040 in specie.
Making, in total, 110,471,000 piastres, or $4,417,840, id 78 sailing vessels and 78 steamers; or total number, 151.
It must be also here added that the great difference which exists between the amount of imports and exports is caused by the circumstance that, for a good portion of the goods which go into Persia, the returns are made to Europe—that is to say, by Tiflis, where they are converted into bills of exchange on St. Petersburg or on London. The reader will remember that Georgia now forms a province of Russia.
During the year 1851 the different stean.ers carried from Trebizond 17,300 passengers to Constantinople, and this part of their business is a source of no inconsiderable gain to them. Seven large steam frigates form this line ; two are steam frigates belonging to the Sultan of Turkey, each 450 horsepower; two belong to the Ottoman Steam Navigation Company, of 250 and 350 horse-power; two Austrian steamers, of the “Lloyd Austrian," of 260 and 350 horse-power; and one English steamer of 300 horse-power.
There arrived at Trebizond, from Constantinople, England, and Trieste, (in smaller quantities from the latter place,) 59,003 packages of diverse merchandise in transit, for Persia, valuing 182,000,000 piastres, or $7,280,000.
Trebizond received from Persia for Constantinople 14,756 packages of goods of coarse kinds, of which 3,201 were bales of silk, valuing 25,000,000 piastres, or $1,000,000; the remainder consisted in gall nuts, tumbekis, Persian tobacco, for the narguila, (a water-pipe,) saffron, wax, almonds, leeches, pipe sticks, shawls of different kinds, carpets, &c., &c.
Trebizond imported grains
Indian corn from the Danube.................kilos (bushels) 390
................. 29,200 Oats ...................................................
3,200 Salt may be imported there to about 63,000 kilos, of 30 okes each (82 lbs.)
Among the imports belonging to the local trade of Trebizond, or for transit to Persia and Georgia, all carried on horses' or mules' backs, were, in 1851, 6,424 cases of sugar in loaves, (English and Dutch,) and 630 large barrels of sugar, also English and Dutch, of which three-fourths were in loaves, and one-fourth in powder.
There were, in 1851, 6,729 packages of Tumbekis of Persia, and 57,976 packages of merchandise for this country.
The preceding gives an idea of the extent and importance of the trade open of the principal ports of the Black Sea, and yet contains but few of the details needed of the nature of the same. The notes, heretofore furnished to the Merchants' Magazine, may be considered as a correct exposition of the different articles of inport and export, of which the trade is composed.
The steamers, herein mentioned, all trade at Sinope and Samsoon on their way to and from Trebizond, and besides the great number of passengers which they take in or discharge there, the mercbandise required at these places forms no inconsiderable portion of their gains,
Samsoon and Sinope receive goods for the consumption of the interior of Asia Minor, and the former may be regarded as the port of Mosul and the chief places in Mesopotamia, even as far as Bagdad.
An immense quantity of English cotton goods pass through them for the interior. These are generally purchased at Constantinople by native mer. chants, in small quantities, and shipped by them to the Black Sea.
The Commerce of Great Britain in the Black Sea was, in 1830, quite insignificant, and there were some apprehensions entertained here at the time of the negotiation of the present treaty of the United States with Turkey, that American Commerce would greatly rival English interests.
It was supposed that, besides the introduction of American commodities into Southern Russia and the ports of the Black Sea, American vessels would take an active part in the carrying trade of that sea. .
In a few years after the negotiation of the treaty, several American ves. sels went annually to Odessa, but this soon ceased. The return cargoes of these vessels were mostly hides, and there were even instances of rye being shipped at that period from Odessa to the United States. This has, of course, long ceased to be the case, and the trade with Odessa is now very inconsiderable. Only one vessel under the flag of the United States has, as yet, entered the Danube.
This occurred in 1843, and the captain was welcomed with many evidences of good feeling for his country, by the authorities of Wallachia and Moldavia.
Twenty years ago, the British trade with Trebizond, Persia, and Georgia, was almost nothing. Its present prosperity is due to the agency of the British consul at Erzeroom, Mr. Brant. This gentleman, an old merchant in the Levant, settled, as vice-consul, at Trebizond, and commenced there the introduction of English goods. In view of extending his operations to Persia and Georgia, he recommended to his government his appointment at Erzeroom, and the establishing of vice-consuls at Samsoon, Trebizond, Bat