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since 1810, free from invasion by the Parent Country. The Provinces composing the Republick of Colombia, after having separately declar. ed their Independence, were united by a Fundamental Law of the 17th of December, 1819. A strong Spanish Force occupied, at that time, certain parts of the Territory within their limits, and waged a destructive War. That Force has since been repeatedly defeated, and the whole of it either made prisoners or destroyed, or expelled from the Country, with the exception of an inconsiderable portion only, which is blockaded in two fortresses. The Provinces on the Pacific have likewise been very successful. Chili declared Independence in 1818, and has since enjoyed it undisturbed; and of late, by the assistance of Chili and Buenos Ayres, the Revolution has extended to Peru. Of the movement in Mexico our information is less authentic, but it is, nevertheless, distinctly understood, that the new Government has declared its Independence, and that there is now no opposition to it there, nor a force to make any.
For the last 3 Years the Government of Spain has not sent a single corps of troops to any part of that Country; nor is there any reason to believe it will send any in future. Thus, it is manifest, that all those Provinces are not only in the full enjoyment of their Independence, but,considering the state of the War and other circumstances, that there is not the most remote prospect of their being deprived of it.
When the result of such a Contest is manifestly settled, the new Governments have a claim to recognition by other Powers, which ought not to be resisted. Civil Wars too often excite feelings which the Parties cannot controul. The opinion entertained by other Powers as to the result, may assuage those feelings and promote an accommodation between them, useful and honourable to both. The delay which has been observed in making a decision on this important subject, will, it is presumed, have afforded an unequivocal proof to Spain, as it must have done to other Powers, of the high respect entertained by The United States for her rights, and of their determination not to interfere with them. The Provinces belonging to this Hemisphere are our neighbours, and have, successively, as each portion of the Country acquired its Independence, pressed their recognition by an appeal to facts not to be contested, and which they thought gave them a just title to it. To motives of interest this Government has invariably disclaimed all pretension, being resolved to take no part in the controversy, or other measure in regard to it, which should not merit the sanction of the Civilized World. To other claims a just sensibility has been always felt, and frankly acknowledged, but they in themselves could never become an adequate cause of action. It was incumbent on this Government to look to every important fact and circumstance, on which a sound opinion could be formed, which has been done. When we regard, then, the great length of time which this War has been prosecuted, the complete success which has attended it in favour of the Provinces, the present condition of the Parties, and the utter inability of Spain to produce any change in it, we are compelled to conclude that its fate is settled, and that the Provinces which have declared their Independence, and are in the enjoyment of it, ought to be recognized.
Of the views of the Spanish Government on this subject, no particular information has been recently received. It may be presumed that the successful progress of the Revolution, through such a long series of Years, gaining strength, and extending annually in every direction, and embracing, by the late important events, with little exception, all the Dominions of Spain South of The United States, on this Continent, placing thereby the complete Sovereignty over the whole in the hands of the People, will reconcile the Parent Country to an accommodation with them, on the basis of their unqualified Independence. Nor has any authentic information been recently received of the disposition of other Powers respecting it. A sincere desire has been cherished to act in concert with them in the proposed Recognition, of which several were sometime past duly apprized, but it was understood that they were not prepared for it. The immense space
between those Powers, even those which border on the Atlantic, and these Provinces, makes the movement an affair of less interest and excitement to them, than to us. It is probable, therefore, that they have been less attentive to its progress than we have been. It may be presumed, however, that the late events will dispel all doubt of the result.
In proposing this measure, it is not contemplated to change thereby, in the slightest manner, our friendly relations with either of the Parties, but to observe, in all respects, as heretofore, should the War be continued, the most perfect neutrality between them. Of this friend. ly disposition, an assurance will be given to the Government of Spain, to whom it is presumed it will be, as it ought to be, satisfactory. The measure is proposed, under a thorough conviction that it is in strict accord with the Law of Nations; that it is just and right as to the Parties; and that The United States owe it to their station and character in the World, as well as to their essential interests, to adopt it. Should Congress concur in the view herein presented, they will doubtless see the propriety of making the necessary Appropriations for carrying it into effect. Washington, March 8, 1822.
The Secretary of State to the President.
Department of State, Washington, 7th March, 1822. The Secretary of State, to whom has been referred the Resolution of the House of Representatives of the 30th of January last, requesting the President of The United States to lay before that House such Communications as might be in the possession of the Executive, from the Agents of The United States with the Governments South of The United States, which have declared their Independence; and the Communications from the Agents of such Governments in the United States, with the Secretary of State, as tend to shew the political condition of their Governments, and the state of the War between them and Spain, as it might be consistent with the publick interest to communicate; has the honour of submitting to the President the Papers required by that Resolution.
The Communications from the Agents of The United States are only those most recently received, and exhibiting their views of the actual condition of the several South American Revolutionary Governments. No communication has yet been received from Mr. Prevost since his arrival at Lima.
There has been hitherto no Agent of The United States in Mexico; but among the Papers herewith submitted, is a Letter recently received from a Citizen of The United States, who has been some Years residing there, containing the best information in possession of the Government, concerning the late Revolution in that Country; and specially of the character embraced by the Resolution of the House. The President of The United States. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
LIST OF PAPERS.
1820. Page 1. The Secretary of State to Mr. Forbes... Department of State 5th July 370
1821. 2. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State.......
. Buenos Ayres....., 2d Sept. 372 3. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State... . Buenos Ayres..... 11th Sept. 375 4. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State .......
28th Sept. 375 5. Mr. Forbes to Mr. Rivadavia.... ... Buenos Ayres ....14th Sept. 378 6. Mr. Rivadavia to Mr. Forbes.... . Buenos Ayres. 15th Sept. 379 7. Minute of a Conference with Mr.Rivadavia... Buenos Ayres. 17th Sept. 379 8. Mr. Forbes to Mr. Rivadavia....... .. Buenos Ayres.. 220 Sept. 381 Inclosure-Act of Congress, April 20, 1818..
382 9. Mr. Rivadavia to Mr. Forbes..... Buenos Ayres...... 6th Oct. 385 Inclosure—Decree of the Buenos Ayres Govt......
6th Oct. 386 10. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State....
...... Buenos Ayres.......8th Oct 387 11. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State..... Buenos Ayres...... 26th Oct. 387 12. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State..
8th Nov. 388 13. Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State.. Buenos Ayres......18th Nov. 389 14. Mr. Prevost to the Secretary of State ....... St. Jago de Chili.... 30th June 390 Incl. 1. Mr. Prevost to Mr. J. de Echeverria...St. Jago de Chili....18th June 391
2. General O'Higgins to Mr. Prevost... St. Jago de Chili....230 June 392 15. Mr. Hogan to the Secretary of State........ Valparaiso . 18th Aug. 392 16. Aet of the Independence of Peru..
.15th July 393 17. Mr. Brent to the Secretary of State..
.10th July 394 Inclosure-A. Plan of Government for Mexico,
proposed by Iturbide . Iguala..... 24th Feb. 398 B. Report of a Committee of the
Cortes of Spain............ Madrid.... 24th June 400
Spain, to the Spanish Arneri-
Madrid....... ... 24th June 103
1821. Page D. Mr. Ravenga to Mr. Brent.... Madrid.
9th July 405 E. Mr. Brent to Mr. Ravenga. ...Madrid...
9th July 406 18. Ms. Torres to the Secretary of State........ Washington.. ..20th Feb. 406 19. Fuodamental Law of the Congress of Vene
1819. zuela ...
..Angostura..... 17th Dec. 407
1820. 90. Credentials of Mr. Torres .... .......Angostura..........15th May 409
1821. 21. Mr. Torres to the Secretary of State. Philadelphia........30th Nov. 410 23. Mr. Torres to the Secretary of State.. Philadelphia........30th Dec. 414
1822. 23. Mr. Torres to the Secretary of State... Philadelphia......... 2d Jan. 415 24. The Secretary of State to Mr. Torres... Washington. .. 18th Jan. 415
1821. 25. J. S.Wilcocks, Esq. to the Secretary of State.Mexico..... 25th Oct. 416 26. Treaty between O'Donoju and Iturbide. ....Cordova.. .24th Aug. 431 27. Decree of the Regency of Mexico, deter
mining the Powers of Iturbide....... Mexico..... .14th Nov, 434 28. Manifesto of the Provisional Government to the People of Mexico.....
13th Oct. 437
No. 1.—The Secretary of State to Mr. Forbes. SIR,
Department of State, 5th July, 1820. The Certificate from this Department, which has been made out and transmitted to you, constitutes you Agent for Commerce and Seamen, for either of the Provinces of Buenos Ayres or of Chili, in whichsoever of them Mr. J. B. Prevost shall not be. He is at this time at Buenos Ayres; but, having at one period intimated to the President a preference to return to Chili, where he some time resided, it is thought due to him to leave the selection of his residence, aster your arrival at Buenos Ayres, to himself. Should he determine to continue there, you will proceed, either by land over the Andes, or, in the Frigate Constellation, round Cape Horn to Valparaiso, and take up your residence there, or at St. Jago de Chili, which is understood to be the seat of the Revolutionary Government of that Province. If he should prefer to return thither, you will remain at Buenos Ayres.
The Commercial Intercourse between the United States and those Countries, though not very considerable, is deserving of particular attention. Whatever accurate information you can obtain, relating to it, as well as to the Commerce of those Countries with other Nations, and to their internal trade, will be particularly acceptable; the condition of our Seamen there will also deserve your notice. The performance of these duties will involve also the Political Relations between those Countries and The United States. In the progress of their Revolution, Buenos Ayres and Chili have, to the extent of their powers, and indeed far beyond their natural means, combined maritime operations with those of their War by land. Having no Ships or Seamen of their own, they have countenanced and encouraged Foreigners to enter their Service, without always considering how far it might affect
either the rights or the duties of the Nations to which those Foreigners belonged. The Privateers, which, with the Commissions, and under the Flag, of Buenos Ayres, have committed so many and such atrocious acts of Piracy, were all either fitted out, manned, and officered by Foreigners at Buenos Ayres, or even in Foreign Countries, not excepting our own, to which blank Commissions both for the Ships and Officers have been sent. In the Instructions to the late Commodore Perry, which his lamented decease prevented from being executed by him, and a Copy of which is now furnished to you, certain Articles in the Buenos Ayrean Privateering Ordinance were pointed out, particularly liable to the production of these abuses, and which, being contrary to the established usages among civilized Nations, it was hoped would have been revoked, or made to disappear from their otherwise unexceptionable Code. These Instructions were renewed to Commodore Morris, but the time of his stay at Buenos Ayres was so short, and he was there at a moment of so great a change in the ruling Power of the State, that, although he communicated to the then existing Director, the substance of the representations which Commodore Perry had been instructed to make, we know not that it was attended with any favourable result. You will consider the parts of Commodore Perry's Instructions, which may be still applicable on your arrival in South America, as directed to yourself; and should you proceed to Chili, will execute them there, no communication upon the subject having yet been made there. Among the inconveniences consequent upon this system of carrying on maritime Warfare, by means of Foreigners, bas been occasionally, and to a considerable extent, the enticement of Seamen belonging to Merchant Vessels, in the Ports of Buenos Ayres and Chili, from their engagements; to enlist them in Privateers or publick armed Vessels of those Countries. In attending to the numerous trials and convictions for Piracy, which have recently afflicted our Country, and cast an unusual gloom over our anuals, you will remark that a great proportion of the guilty Persons have been Seamen thus engaged, Foreigners at Buenos Ayres, or enlisted in our own Ports, in violation of our Laws. Whether at Buenos Ayres or in Chili, you will use every exertion in your power, consistent with the respect and conciliatory deportment to be constantly observed towards the existing publick Authorities, to protect the Seamen of The United States from all such eplistments; and the Owners and Masters of the Merchant Vessels from time to time arriving there, from the loss of their men by such means.
The Commercial Digest of the Laws of Foreign Countries with #hich The United States are in relation, a Copy of which has been furnished you, may suggest to you the nature of part of the information which is desirable from South America.
Political information will be equally acceptable; the more particular and correct the information of this nature which you can obtain,