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LIGHT-HOUSE AT THE MOUTH OF THE RIVER LLOBREGAT.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTON, March 23, 1852. FREEMAN Hunt, Esq., Conductor of the Merchants' Magazine, etc.
Sir :—The inclosed intelligence, respecting a new light-house, erected at the mouth of the river Llobregat, near the city of Barcelona, is transmitted to you for such use as you inay think proper to make thereof.
I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. HUNTER, Acting Secretary. BUREAU OF Ligut.Houses--GENERAL DIRECTION OF Public WORKS. From the 1st of March, 1852, a light will burn every night, from the setting to the rising of the sun, in a light-house, which has been established on the projecting point formed by the river Llobregat, where it empties itself into the sea. The light-house is situated on the left bank of the river, and has been constructed upon an old battery, which is put down in the maps and marine charts by the name of Torre de la punta del rio. Its location, in regard to the actual conformation of the shore, is as follows: distance from the mouth 2,520 Castillian feet; distance from the coast 1,803 Castillian feet. The geographical position of the light-house is the following : -- latitude 41° 19' 12" N., longitude 8° 26' 30" East of Cadiz Its apparatus is of the second calioptric order, Fresnel, composed of a revolving light with obscurations at every thirty seconds' interval, the whole revolution being performed in six minutes. The light is of a natural color, it is placed at an elevation of 116 Castillian feet above the level of the sea, producing a tangent of 10.5 miles, but may be descried from a greater distance, according to the state of the atmosphere and the elevation of the observer. As a guide to those navigators who may approach the port of Barcelona from the west, it is necessary to remark, that all vessels that may find themselves two miles south of Punta lirrosa, on the coasts of Garraf, must shape their course 12° to the south of the light of the light-house, as much to avoid the shores on the left bank of the river Llobregat, as to keep watch for a shoal on said bank, situated 0.8 mile westward of the mouth of the river, which stretches out for a distance of 1.5 miles S. S. E. of the light-house. Following the above-mentioned course, said vessels may steer for the port of Barcelona, when the light-house bears 35° west of them. Madrid, December 11, 1852.
(Signed] REINOSO. [True copy.]
CONCERNING SABLE ISLAND. The information contained in the subjoined extract from a letter of H. W. BAYFIELD Captain Surveying the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is important to our navigation, to Great Britain, France, and the North of Europe; the more so as the English charts, according to G. W. Blunt, with the exception of the adıniralty, place Sable Island from fourteen to twenty-two miles too far to the westward, and six miles too far north.
EXTRACTS FROM CAPTAIN BAYFIELD'S REPORT ON SABLE ISLAND-SEPT., 1851. The western flagstaff at the principal establishment in Sable Island is in latitude 43° 56' 33" N., lon. 60° 3' 16.7" W.
The eastern extreme of the Grassy Sand Hills is in lat. 43° 59' 0.5" N., lon. 59° 45' 59" W.
The east extreme of the Sand Hills alone remains unchanged from comparison with the observations of Admiral Ogle's officers.
No reason to find fault with their determination of latitude and longitude.
Two miles of the west end of the island washed away since they were observed in 1828. This reduction and consequent addition to the western bar is reported to bave been in operation since 1811. and seems almost certain to continue.
An opinion exists that the island is insensibly becoming narrower. It is agreed by all that there has been no material change in the east end of the island within the memory of any one acquainted with it.
The western bar can be safely approached by the lead, from any direction, with common precaution.
The length of the N. E. bar has been greatly exaggerated, but it is still a most formidable danger; it extends 14 miles from the island to 10 fathoms, and is 13 miles to
6 fathoms; all within the last named depth being a line of heavy breakers in bad weather. Not far from the extremity of the bar the depth is 170 fathoms, so that a Vessel going moderately fast, might be on the bar in a few minutes after in vain trying for soundings. This bar, moreover, is very steep all along its north side, and is on these accounts exceedingly dangerous.
The reduction of this bar from its reported length of 28 miles to its real length of 14 miles, greatly lessons one of the objections to a light on the east end of the island.
The people of the island frequently see the mail steamers passing, as well as other vessels, which from their distande were probably unaware of their proximity.
POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS IN THE UNITED STATES.
POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES AND TOWNS IN THE UNITED STATES, WITH THEIR DR-
Ratio of in- Ratio of in-
Population Population Population crease fr'in crease f'm
of 1830. of 1840. of 1850, 1830 to 1840. 1840 to '50. Bangor, Me...
2,867 8,627 14,432 200.09 67.28 Portland.
12,598 15,218 20,815 20.79 36.77 Augusta.
3,980 6,314 8,225 33.51 54.77 Bath.....
3,773 5,141 8,020 36.25 56.00 Manchester, N. H..
877 3,235 13,932 268.87 330.67 Boston, Mass..
61,392 93,383 136,871 52.01 46.56
6,474 20,796 33.3 2:21.22 60.62 Salem. 13,895 15,082 016
8.54 34.36 Roxbury...
5,247 9,089 16.01 73.22 102.04 Charlestown...
8,783 11,484 17:10 30.75 49.91 Worcester
4,173 7,497 17,1119 79.65 127.41 New Bedford.
7,592 12,087 16,4133 59.02 36.03 Cambridge.
6,072 8,409 15,15 38 48 80.93 Lynn......
5 00 52.02 Springfield.
6,784 10,985 11,600 61 92 7.01 Taunton 6,042 7,645 10.41
26 53 36.57 Providence, R. I
16,833 23,171 41.51 37.65 79.16 New Haven, Conn...
10,678 12,960 20,., . 5 1,37 56.98 Norwich.. 5,161 7,239 10,71 5
7,074 9,468 13,0w5 33.84 43.16 New York City, N. Y.. 197,112 312,710 515,5ui 58.04 64.85 Brooklyn 15,394 36,233 96,80
167.26 Albany. 24,209 33,721 50,703 39.29
8,668 18,213 42,261 110.01 132.03 Rochester..
9,207 20,191 36,403 119.03 80.29 Williamsburg... 1,117 5,094 30,780 356.04
11,556 19,334 28,785 67 03 48.88 Syracuse
7,222 10,006 13,944 38.54 39.35 Lockport
3,823 9,105 12,323 138.68 35. 0 Oswego...
2,703 4,665 12,205 72.58 161.62 Newburg..
6,424 8,933 11,415 39.05 27.78 Kingston
4,170 5.824 10,233 39.66 75.07 Newark, N. J...
10,953 17,290 38,891 57.85 124.95 7,696 11,838
49.26 New Brunswick..
7,831 8,663 13,387 10.62 54.53 Philadelphia City, Pa.. 80,462 93,665 121,376 16.04 29 68 Phila. Co., exclu'e of the city 108,335 164,372 287,386 51.72 74.88 Pittsburg..
21,115 46,601 68.00 120.07 Alleghany
2,801 10,089 21,261 260.19 110.73 Reading..
5,856 8,410 16,748 43.61 87.25 Lancaster.
7,704 8,417 12,365 9.25 46.09
Cities and Towns,
Ratio of in- Ratio of inPopulation Population crense from crease i'm of 1810. of 1850, 1830 to 1840. 1840 to '50. 8,367 13,979
67.07 102,313 169,054 26.09 65.23 23,364 40,001 24.01 71.02 20,153 27,482 232.83 36.36 10,920 14,326 11.26 31.19 11,136 14,010 33.81 25.08
7,885 11,391 49.45 44.46 29,261 42,985
46.90 11,214 16,060 53.57 43.21 12,672 20,513 296.74 61.87 102,193 119,460 105.09 16.89 3,207 14,190
342.46 2,026 8,839
6,048 17,883 148.37 195.68
110.76 4,470 29,963
670.31 9,102 21,019 309.63 130.92 16,469 77,860 230.09 372.76 1,712 20,061
5,566 10,341 24,831 2,435 1,076 2,950 2,846 3,094
POPULATION OF NICARAGUA. The population of Nicaragua may be estimated at 250,000. The civilized Indians, and those of Spanish and negro stocks crossed with them, constitute the mass of the population. The pure individuals of pure European stock constitute but a small part of the whole, and are more than equaled in number by those of pure negro blood. The entire population may be divided as follows:Whites ..
250,000 Most of these live in towns, many of them going two, four, and six miles daily to labor in the fields, starting before day and returning at night. The plantations, " haciendas,” “ hattos,” “ranchos,” and “chacras” are scattered pretty equally over the country, and are reached by paths so obscure as almost wholly to escape the notice of travelers who, passing through what appears to be a continual forest from one town to the other, are liable to fall into the error of supposing the country almost wholly uninhabited. Their dwellings are usually of canes, thatched with palm, many of them open at the sides, and with no other floor but the bare earth, the occupation of which is stoutly contested by pigs, calves, fowls, and children. These fragile structures, so equable and mild is the climate, are adequate to such protection as the natives are accustomed to consider necessary. Some of them are more pretending, and have the canes plastered over and whitewashed, with tile roofs and other improvements; and there are a few, belonging to large proprietors, which are exceedingly neat and comfortable, approaching nearer our ideas of habitations for human beings.
A large part of the dwellings in the towns are much of the same character; the residences of the better classes, however, are built of adobes, are of one story, and inclose large courts, which are entered under archways often constructed with great beauty. The court-yard has generally a number of shade trees, usually orange, mak. ing the corridors, upon which all the rooms open, exceedingly pleasant.
The State is divided into five Departments, each of which has several Judicial Districts, as follows: Departments.
Districts. 1. Meridional...
20,000 Rivas or Nicaragua. 2. Oriental.
| Acayopa or Choutales, Grenada, 95,000
Masaga, and Managua. 3. Occidental....
90,000 Leon and Chinandega. 4. Septentrional of Matugalpa..
40,000 Matagalpa. 5. Septentrional of Segovia
12,000 Segovia. Total.......
247,000 The population here given is the result arrived at, in round numbers, by a census attempted in 1816. It was only partially successful, as the people supposed it preliminary to some military conscription, or new tax.
The principal towns of the State, with their estimated population, are as follows: Leon, (the capital,) including
2,900 Subtiava 25,000 Nagorote..
1,800 Chinandega. 11,000 Souci
2,500 Chinandega Viejo. 3,000 Managua
12,000 Realejo.... 1,000 Massaya.
15,090 Chichigalpa 2,800 Grenada.
10,000 Posultega. 900 Nicaragua
8,000 Telica... 1,000 Segovia .
8,000 Somotillo. 2,000 Matagalpa. .
2,000 Villa Nueva...
1,000 It is a singular fact that the females greatly exceed the males in number. In the Department Occidental, according to the census, the proportions were as three to two !
PROGRESS OF LIVERPOOL IN POPULATION AND COMMERCE. The model of Liverpool, forwarded to the Great Exhibition in London, is accompanied with the following tabular statement, illustrative of the population of Liverpool under three Queens, namely, Elizabeth, Anne, and Victoria
RISE AND PROGRESS OF LIVERPOOL.
Under Queen Under Queen Under Queen
Victoria. 170. 1710.
12,636 3,536,337 15
£378 198. 11d. £91,000 £272 38. Od. £70,000
£3,366,284 £20 48. 8d. £1,115 18. 03d. £139,152 78. 4d.
POPULATION OF SAN FRANCISCO. This great metropolis of the western seas, built upon more hills than Rome was, and, unlike her, built almost in a “day," contains a population of twenty-three thousand, who, attracted by the sparkling of gold, have come hither from every quarter of the habitable globe. From the sunny climes of Spain and Italy, from the fairy lands of Persia and Arabia, from the regions of snow and ice in Norway and Russia, from the corn and vine Jands of pleasant France, from the British isles and colonies, from the green South America, from the imperial dominions of the near relative of the Sun and Moon, and from the golden islands of the Pacific, have they come in myriads to California. In our streets the fair European jostles with the swarthy Kanaka or the darker Hindoo; the pious Mussulman says his daily prayers, as he passes the churches of the Christian, the calculating German drives bard bargains with the volatile Frenchman, and the stiff-made Yankee daily deals with the long-tailed Chinaman. Such an omnium gatherum of humanity was never before witnessed in the world's history. The golden charm bas spoken the “open sesame” to the brazen gates and losty walls that have
heretofore inclosed a nation of millions, and the whole world has sent her representatives in great convention to a little spot that four years ago was known only as a resort for whalers or merchant vessels who were on the Pacific coast.
No man can accurately calculate the result of this union, but its effects must be grand and lasting. The southron of Europe will return to his home, the fur-clad northerner will again visit the cold land of his childhood; the light-limbed oriental will go back to his fairy land, the long tailed child of the sun will enter again his doble wall, the bearded Turk will once more listen to the muezzim as it is sounded from the minerets, and the unsophisticated children of the sea will return to their flowery islands. But all will carry back with them a knowledge of the English language, an idea of the American institutions and liberties, a portion of the energy and ardor of the great Anglo-Saxon race, and an understanding of the blessed principles of Him whose precepts will yet sprend peace among the nations, and make the wilderness bud and blossom as the rose tree.”
The discovery of gold in California has done more to advance the cause of civilization and the spread of enlightened and Christian institutions, than any other one fact brought to light within the last century.- Alta California.
RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
CANALS AND RAILROADS OF PENNSYLVANIA. The following statement of the canals and railroads of Pennsylvania is derived from the report of the Canal Commissioners. It only includes the public works owned by the State :
The commonwealth of Pennsylvania bas completed and in operation 652} miles of canal and railroad, independent of feeders not navigable, as follows: Delaware division, from Bristol to Easton.....
miles 594 Columbia Railroad, from Philadelphia to the basin at Columbia...
82 Eastern division, from Columbia to the junction of the Juniata and Susquehanna divisions at the head of Duncan Island ...
463 Juniata division, from the junction at Duncan's Island to the basin at Hollidaysburg.
127} Portage Railroad, from Hollidaysburg to Johnstown
36 Western division, from Johnstown to the Monongahela River at Pittsburg... 1044 Susquehanna division, from the junction at Duncan's Island to Northumberland ...
401 West Branch division, from Northumberland to Farrandsville..
76 North Branch division, from Northumberland to the Lackawauna ..
724 Bald Eagle side cut, from the pool of Duostown Dam, on the West Branch division, to Bald Eagle Creek..
38 Lewisburg side cut, from Lewisburg to the West Branch division Lackawanna feeder, at the termination of the North Branch division. Alleghany Branch of the Western division in Alleghany City... Feeder at Johnstown on the Western division...
it Feeder at the mouth of the Rayston branch of the Juniata
1 Total miles ....
6527 Upon the completion of the North Branch Canal, from the mouth of the Lackawanna to the New York State Line, 941 miles more of navigation will be added to the above.
The Erie extension, consisting of the Beaver division, the Shenango and Conneaut lines, and the French Creek feeder, 163 miles in length, and the Wisconi-co Canal, 121 miles in length, which were nearly completed, have been transferred to private companies.
The receipts from tolls have been nearly doubled within the last ten years, as the following table shows:1842.. $940,213 69 1846. $1,295,494 76 | 1849. $1,633,277 72
1 1843 1,017,841 12 1847. 1,581,575 87 1850
1,768,209 46 1,167,603 42 1848 1,533,344 00 1851
1,798,624 01 1845