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of the former of these periods of 67,000,000 in imports, and 130,000,000 in exports, or 9 and 14 per cent.

COMMERCE BY SEA AND BY LAND,

Of the total aggregate of imports and exports, being 2,705,000,000 francs official and 2,555,000,000 francs actual values comprehending the entire movement of French Trade, the proportion of goods carried by sea and by land is as follows;

Omcial value.

Actual value. By sea

.francs 1,955,000,000 1,845,000,000 By land....

750,000,000 710,000,000 The proportion is 72 to 28 per cent, which is nearly the same as in 1849 and for the average of five years.

Oficial and actual values. Imports by sea.

• per cent

66 By land..

34 Exports by sea.

77 By land

23

per cent

MARITIME TRADE.

Of 1,955,000,000 francs, the total of maritime trade, the proportion of the French flag, in official values, was 937,000,000, or 48 per cent; that of foreign flags 1,018,000,000 francs or 52 per cent. In 1819 the proportion was 51 to 49 per cent, and that for five years 52 to 48 per cent. Imports in French bottoms reached 941,000,000 fr. in 1849, and the average for five years is only 834,000,000.

Of this amount of 937,000,000, 222,000,000, (official) or 193,000,000, (actual rates,) belong to privileged trade. This is 3 per cent less than the previous year, 13 per cent less than the average.

The colonies, the Antilles, Cayenne, and Reunion, come in for five per cent of general Commerce; other French possessions out of Europe, including Algeria, for 6 per cent, the Whale fishery 1 per cent. The balance is foreign trade.

Of the foreign trade open to competition the following figures exhibit the proportion of French and Foreign flags.

French vessels, 1850
French vessels, 1849
French vessels average of five years.
Foreign vessels, 1850 ..

69
Foreign vessels, 1849...
Foreign vessels, average of five years.

per cent

41
44
39

66
61

IMPORTS.

•per cent

French vessels, 1850
French vessels, 1849...
French vessels, average of five years
Foreign vessels, 1850..
Foreign vessels, 1849 ..
Foreign vessels, average of five years...

49 49 43 51 51 67

EXPORTS,

•per cent

36

French vessels, 1850
French vessels, 1849
French vessels, average of five years
Foreign vessels, 1850...
Foreign vessels, 1849
Foreign vessels, average of five years.

42 35 64 58 66

The French flag has thus retained the proportion of the previous year, 49 per cent, and gained 6 per cent on the 5 years' average in the import trade. In exports it has lost the ground gained in 1849, or 6 per cent. Taking imports and exports together we find that the French flag has lost 3 per cent on the amount of 1849, and gained 2 per cent on the average of five years.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS TOGETHER,

In the general Commerce of France, colonial and foreign, including imports and exports, England, the United States, Belgium, Switzerland, Sardinia, Spain, the German Union, Turkey, Russia, Brazil, placed thus in the order of importance, shared to the extent of from 15 to 2 per cent, and all together 73 per cent. The English Indies, Two Sicilies, Low Countries, Tuscany, the Spanish America possessions, and Mexico, come next, with 9 per cent. French colonies and possessions out of Europe take 8 per cent, of which 3are for Algeria. The balance of 10 per cent falls to some 32 points of export or import. Last year Algeria was eighth in importance, Martinique sixteenth, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Senegal, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the whale fishery, the French possessions in India and Cayenne, occupy the 21st, 22nd, 25th, 26th, 41st and 42nd places.

The total official value of colonial and foreign trade is greater than the total actual value, except as regards England, the United States, the Spanish America possessions, Saint Pierre, Miquelon, and the Barbary States, as to which the actual values are 7,000,000 francs, or 2 per cent, 9,000,000, or 2 per cent, 4,000,000, or 10 per cent, 9,000,000, or 34 per cent, and 2,000,000, or 8 per cent.

As regards Special Commerce, French trade with the United States has increased 2 per cent on 1849, and 20 per cent on the average of 5 years. With England trade has increased 14 and 39 per cent, with Belgium 17 and 28 per cent. With the German Union, French trade has increased 10 per cent, but it has not reached by 12 per cent the average of 5 years.

The Russian trade, which had fallen in 1849, 16 and 31 per cent, has undergone further depression, to the extent of 15 per cent on 1849, (42,000,000 to 50,000,000 francs ;) the average of 5 years being 71,000,000.

Trade with the Two Sicilies has slightly fallen off; that with Tuscany has increased 5,000,000 and 3,000,000 francs at general and special rates. But the trade with the Low Countries has lost the ground gained in 1849; instead of 30,000,000 francs the total is but 24,000,000 fr., which is also the average.

The official total of the Special Import and Export Trade with Algeria is 81,000,000 francs, against 86,000,000 in 1849 and the average of 87,000,000. This decrease is at the rate of 6 and 8 per cent. Reunion has gained 4,000,000 and 3,000,000; Martinique bas lost 6 and 5,000,000, and Guadeloupe 4 and 9,000,000 francs, Senegal 2,000,000.

Valued at actual rates, both the general and special trade with England, the United States, Spanish America Possessions, Saint Pierre, Miquelon, the Barbary States exhibits a larger total than at official rates. In Special trade this is the case with several other powers also, one of the first of these is Belgium, the special trade with which amounted to 205,000,000 official, and 218,000,000 francs actual value, the increase being 6 per cent. Trade with the German Union increased 80,000,000 and 81,000,000. Trade with the Two Sicilies, Austria, the Dutch Indies, Sweden, the Roman States, the Phil

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ippines, and two or three other inferior powers, exhibit like results, amounting together to a difference of 3,000,000 francs between the official and actual values.

IMPORTS-COUNTRY OF ORIGIN.

per cent.

Total imports from Belgium into France are estimated at 158,000,000, or 14 per cent more than in 1849, and 28 per cent more than the average of 5 years. In special trade that power stands second, the total being 105,000,000 francs or 14 and 8 per

cent. The total of general imports from the United States, was 137,000,000 fr., of special 123,000,000 fr., or 22 and 13 per cent less on the one hand, and 16 and 6 per cent on the other.

6 Switzerland is third in general trade, the total being 134,000,000, to 123,000,000 in 1849, and 108,000,000 fr. the average of five years. In special trade it retains its place, the tenth. Swiss imports thrown on the French markets amounted to 24,000,000, which is an increase of 6 and 2 per cent.

The total of imports from England is 122,000,000 and 70,000,000 francs, which is a gain on 1849 of 14 and 18 per cent, and on the average of five years of 12 and 7

Imports to the value of 91,000,000 fr, were received from the Sardinian States, of which 74,000,000 were consumed in the country. There is here a falling off in both general and special trade, in the former of 9 and 2 per cent, in the latter of 4 and 3 per cent.

The total of imports from Turkey was 55,000,000 fr., general trade in 1849, and 33,000,000 special trade. On the other hand, the average of five years preceding 1850 is 56,000,000 and 40,000,000.

The general trade with Spain has increased from 35 to 50,000,000 francs. The increase of imports is 33 and 27 per cent on 1849, and 17 and 15 per cent on the average of five years.

The total of the general import trade with the German Union in 1850 was only 45,000,000, while in 1849 it amounted to 51,000,000 and 30,000,000 francs, but the special trade rose to 33,000,000 ; this is a falling off of 11 per cent on the one, and a gain of 10 per cent on the other. Compared with the average of five years, the decrease is 26 and 16 per cent.

Official value of imports from the English Indies is 45,000,000, of which 31,000,000 francs are special trade. We have here a gain of 57 and 8 per cent on 1849, and of 42 and 22 per cent on the average of five years.

As regards imports of every class, in the general import trade, Russia occupied the eighth place in 1849, and as regards imports for home consumption, or the special trade, the sixth place. In 1850 it stands 10th and 9th, the total values being 39,000,000 and 25,000,000 fr. This is a gain of 2 per cent in 1849 in general trade, but a loss of 20 per cent in special trade, and it is a loss of 40 and 55 per cent, compared with the average of

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five years.

The share of the ten powers above named in general trade is 75 per cent; in special trade 72 per cent.

The general imports from the French colonies are but 5} per cent of the whole, while they were 6 per cent in 1840, and the average is 8 per

cent. The total special trade with these colonies is 74 per cent instead of 9} per cent in 1849, and 9 per cent the average of five years.

of the remaining 20 per cent, being the balance of the import trade, about

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12 per cent fall to the Low Countries, the Spanish America Possessions, the Two Sicilies, the Barbary States, Brazil, Norway, Rio de la Plata, and Tuscany; this is the same proportion as in 1849, but it is one per cent less than the average.

EXPORTS, OR COUNTRY OF DESTINATION, The official value of French exports to Great Britain was 295,000,000 fr., of which 226,000,000 were special trade.

To the United States general exports amount to 273,000,000 francs, special exports to 178,000,000 francs.

This is an increase as regards England of 21 and 23 per cent compared with the preceding year, and of 57 and 53 per cent compared with the average; and as regards the United States of 14 and 21 per cent, and 45 and 50 per cent.

General exports to Belgium amounted to 117,000,000 francs, of which all but 16,000,000 fr. are for articles of French production. This is an increase of general trade of 18,000,000 on 1849, and 42,000,000 (56 per cent) on the average. The increase of special trade is 19 and 59 per cent.

Exports to Spain amount 106,000,000 and 71,000,000 fr.; increase of general trade 17 per cent, of special trade 3 per cent.

The official value of exports from France to Switzerland was 104,000,000 and 56,000,000 fr. The corresponding amounts for 1849 are 109,000,000 and 53,000,000, and for the average 103,000,000 and 49,000,000.

The demand from Sardinia amounted to 82,000,000, (general trade,) or three millions more than in 1849, or than the average of five years, and to 58,000,000 special trade; which is a gain of 5,000,000 and 10,000,000 fr.

French exports to the German Union, amounted in 1849 to 53,000,000 general, and 42,000,000 special trade. The five years' average was 64,000,000 and 51,000,000.

Exports to Turkey increased from 34,000,000 and 19,000,000 in 1849, to 36,000,000 and 23,000,000 in 1850, or 5 and 23 per cent. Compared with the average of five years, the difference is 26 and 54 per cent.

Brazil, which, leaving Algeria out of view, stands ninth in general and special trade, imported 33,000,000 francs in goods of which 22,000,000 were of French production. This is a gain of 2 and 5 per cent on 1849, and of 5 and 17 per cent on the average of five years.

The total of exports to Tuscany was 28,000,000 and 17,000,000, which is an increase of 24 and 28 per cent on the special and general trade of 1849 and the average of five years. 74 per cent of general trade, and 71 per cent of special trade fall to the ten powers just named.

The export trade with Mexico, Russia, Chili, and Rio de la Plata, was not so great as in 1849. However it presents a total of 72,000,000 in general, and 58,000,000 in special trade, or 5 per cent of the whole, which is higher than the average

The official value of goods exported to Algeria was 88,000,000 and 76,000,000 fr., against 90,000,000 and 79,000,000 in 1849, and the five years' average of 95,000,000 and 84,000,000.

The amount of exports to Martinique, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Senegal, and Cayenne, was 63,000,000, of which 58.000,000 francs were goods of French origin. The aggregate of 1849 was 61,000,000 and 56,000,000, and the average 62,000,000 and 56,000,000. The improvement here belongs entirely to Reunion, the exports to which increased about 6,000,000 francs.

of five years.

The aggregate exports to French Colonies and possessions, including Algeria and the whale fishery, amounts to 10 per cent of general exports and to 12 per cent of special exports. It was 11 and 14 per cent in 1849, and the average is 13 and 16 per cent.

The following table exhibits the share of the ten nations having the largest dealings with France in the general and special import and export trade in both official and actual values.

Special Commerce.

[blocks in formation]

General Commerce.

Value.
Official, Actual.

19.3 21.7
17.8 19.9
7.7 7.9
6.9

6.0
6.8

6.5 5.4

6.0 8.6

3.6 2.3

2.2 2.1

1.9 1.8

1.7

Value. Oficial. Actual. 20.0 22.4 15.8 18.1 9.0

9.3 6.3

5.6 5.0

4.7 5.2

4.8 4.2

4.2 2.0

2.1 1.9

1.8 1.5

1.6

Official values.
Debit,

Credit.

Debit.

Credit.

COUNTRIES IMPORTED FROM AND EXPORTED TO. The debit and credit account with these powers, and with Russia and the Two Sicilies, taking special Commerce or trade in articles of domestic production, and for domestic consumption, for the basis of comparison is as follows:

Actual values. England ...... francs 226,000,000 70,000,000 239,000,000 73,000,000 United States..

178,000,000 123,000,000 194,000,000 122,000,000 Belgium.

161,000,000 105,000,000 100,000,000 118,000,000 Spain. ..

71,000,000 35,000,000 60,000,000 30,000,000 Switzerland

56,000,000 24,000,000 50,000,000 24,000,000 Sardinia..

58,000,000 74,000,000 52,000,000 73,000,000 German Union...

47,000,000 33,000,000 45,000,000 36,000,000 Turkey

23,000,000 44,000,000 23,000,000 40,000,000 Brazil..

22,000,000 12,000,000 19,000,000 11,000,000 Tuscany.

17,000,000 10,000,000 16,000,000 10,000,000 Russia..

18,000,000 25,000,000 18,000,000 20,000,000 Two Sicilies....

14,000,000 15,000,000 13,000,000 17,000,000 From this table it appears that the value of exports to England, the United States, Spain, Switzerland, the German Union, Brazil, and Tuscany, is considerably greater than the value of the imports from those countries; that as regards the Two Sicilies, the imports and exports are very nearly balanced, and as respects Belgium, Sardinia, and Turkey, imports are cousiderably heavier than exports.

NATURE OF IMPORTS. Of the official total of imports, 1,174,000,000 fr., 722,000,000 were for raw materials, of which 602,000,000 were for articles consumed by the domestic manufacturers. This is an increase of 1,000,000 and 6,000,000 on 1849, and that year showed a gain of 50 and 59 per cent. The value of articles of consumption in the natural state, which was 182,000,000 francs in 1849 in general, and 151,000,000 in special trade, was 189,000,000 and 137,000,000 francs in 1850. There is here an increase of 7,000,000, or 4 per cent, in general, and a decrease of 14,000,000, or 9 per cent, in special trade.

In imports of manufactured articles there has been an increase of 23,000,000 and 9,000,000, 10 and 28 per cent,

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