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39.—Buchanan's Journal of Man. Vol, 3., No. 6. December.
The present number of this able journal opens with a lengthy description of the Aztec Children,” who form one of the most striking exhibitions of the present day. There are two of them, a male and female; they are low in stature, and with extremely attenuated figures. Their heads present the most striking peculiarities, which seem to puzzle the most scientific to determine the race of mankind to which they belong. The peculiarities consist in a huge and monstrous prominence of the pasal bones of the face and the upper jaws, while the occiput at the back of the head appears to be entirely wanting. The forehead is very retreating, and that portion of the cranium containing the brain is extremely small, and the size and prominence of the face is immense. Physicians and learned men have examined them with amazement. They are generally regarded as belonging to the race of Aztecs from Mexico. They appear to be about seven or eight years of age, and still retain their first teeth. They are lively, active, observing, but seem to be degenerate offsprings of a race of degenerate men. They cannot be ranked with idiots, as they do out, like them, lack a manifestation of intellectual qualities. The position taken in this journal is that they belong to the Taltec race of Central America; their heads have not been artificially deformed, although they are smaller than was ever before known with children of their age; their facial appearance offers strong marks of idiotic degeneracy in the breed, while they bear a close resemblance to the profiles found in the ruins of Central America. 40.—The Catholic Offering : A Gift Book for All Seasons. Containing a Series of
Pieces, in Prose and Verse, for Different Parts of the Year. By the Rt. Rev. Wm. Walsh, D. D., Bishop of Halifax. 8vo., pp. 550. New York: Edward Dunigan & Brother,
A beautiful book. It is printed in large and clear type, upon fine paper, and bound in a very rich and elegant style. Its contents consist of numerous very finely exeuted engravings of persons and scenes of the highest interest to the religious mind. The pieces are quite numerous, and are of both a devotional and miscellaneous character. They are written with great elegance of style and richness of thought and language, such as is rare in works even of this class. To every serious mind the work will prove very acceptable, while by the Catholic, in particular, it will be held in high esteem, 41.—The Scourge of the Ocean; a Story of the Atlantic. By an Officer of the U. 8.
Navy. 8vo., pp. 214. Philadelphia : A. Hart.
A lively and attractive story. 42.—Directions for Cooking, in its Various Branches. By Miss LESLIE. Forty-second
Edition, thoroughly revised, with additions. 12mo., pp. 528. Philadelphia : Henry C. Baird.
This is one of the best of cook-books, for it is American in its tastes and its recommendations. The success which it has met with is unparalleled. 43.-Salander and the Dragon: A Ronance of the Hartz Prison. By FREDERIC
William SHELTON, M. A. 12 mo., pp. 250. New York: John S. Taylor.
Slander, that mischievous fault, is here personified under the title of Salander; and its evil consequences are represented in an allegory, which displays much in vention and skill, and which will be read with considerable pleasure and interest. 44.—The Life of a Vagrant, or the Testimony of an Outcast to the Value and Truth
of the Gospel. 12mo., pp. 165. New York : Robert Carter.
This volume has already attracted a surprising interest abroad. It is the life of one who was born to a state of degradation and want, but becoming impressed by the influence of high and devoted principles, he was stimulated, by the vitality of these truths, to overcome his ignorance and degradation, and rise to the standard of a man, 46.—Olive Leaves. By Mrs. SIGOURNEY. Illustrated. 12mo., pp. 306. New York:
Robert Carter. Such little sketches as these, from the graceful pen of Mrs. Sigourney, can hardly fail to enlist the feelings of youth, while they are certain to awaken permanent impressions of an excellent kind. 46.- Al Manual of Christian Atonement. By Rev. Thomas LAPE, A. M. 18mo., pp.
158. New York: M. W. Dodd.
CONTENTS OF NO. III., VOL. XXVI.
Indies-History of export to, &c.--Do. of Europe-Do. of South America - Table of ex
port to the principal markets, 1789-1850.-Chapter yıl.-Imports-Whence brought Effect.-CHAPTER 18.-Statistics of British American fisheries. -- Reasons of their present efficient competition- Propinquity to ground-beapness of vessels-of wages of living -Cheaper mode of curing-Faults of American fisherman-Over-salting - Abuses of Massachusetts inspectorship, etc. By E. HALE, Jr., of N. Y....
287 III. A NATIONAL CURRENCY-REAL ESTATE ITS BASIS.-No. 11. By N. H. C...... 299 IV. COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.-No. XXX-St. Louis, and her means of advancement and wealth.
308 V. THE CURRENCY-GOLD AND SILVER.......
324 VI. LAWS RELATING TO DEBTOR AND CREDITOR IN WISCONSIN.
328 VII, FEARLESS FEAT OF AN AMERICAN WAALEMAN. By HENRY GARRETT...
.... 334 JOURNAL OF MERCANT!LE LAW.
Case of libel by a consignee of goods for a failure to deliver them according to contract..
COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW:
337 338 339
EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES, ETO., ILLUSTRA
TED WITH TABLES, ETC., AS FOLLOWS: Comparative trade for January and February-Distinctive features of the season's businessCharacter of the American merchant, showing the value of lessons of caution-Difficulties now experienced resulting from beedlessness during past prosperity- State of the country in the South and West, with prospects for the future-Comparative prices of breadstuffs, and the opening demand from abroad-Heavy payments due in March as compared with corresponding receipts-Condition and prospects of the cotton and wooled manufaciuring interests—Relativo cost of raw materials-Dificulty of increasing wool crop-Propriety of abolishing duties on all raw materials and dye-stuffs--other obstacles to success in manufacturing-Return of federal stocks from abroad, with the reasons thereof, and a comparison of prices at different dates--Condition of the banks-Deposits and coinage for the month of January at the Philadelphia and New Orleans mints-Imports at New York for January-Imports of dry goods for the same periou--Receipts of cash duties-Exports from New York for January-Summary of the leading articles of produce exported as compared with the same period of 1851–Falling off in general imports at Now York, and througbout the United States-Decline in value of American coin at London, etc.....
340-345 VOL. XXVI.—NO. III.
RNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE.
esources, taxation, &c., of Pennsylvania.
-House, South coast of .
Art. 1.-COMMERCE OF FRANCE IN 1850.*
The annual report on the Commerce of France during the year 1850 has been published by the French government. We are indebted for an early copy to the polite attention of our friend and correspondent at Paris, Mons. D. L. Rodet. We proceed to translate for the Merchants' Magazine the summary exhibiting the general features of French trade, which is prefixed to the detailed tables comprising this elaborate report.
The technical terms used in this summary are explained in the general observations accompanying it, which we translated at length in connection with the report for 1848.f
In the report for 1849 an explanation was given of the distinction between official and actual values observed in these tables, and of the manner in which these values are determined. The official value corresponds generally with what we understand by specific rates. Actual values, on the other hand, are the average real rates prevailing during the year.
The care and minute accuracy with which the inquiries of the Commission are prosecuted, by which actual values are determined, were pointed out in the report for 1849, and an account of the labors of this Commission was given in the March number of the Merchants' Magazine for 1851.
The general Commerce of France with her colonies and foreign powers in 1850, amounted, including imports and exports, to 2,705,000,000 francs, official value. This is 140,000,000 or 5 per cent more than the aggregate
• Tableau General du Commerce de la France, avec ses colonies et les puissances etrangeres, pendant l'annee 1850.
+ See Merchants' Magazine, vol. xxii., p. 259.
# This is the amount according to the official values, established in 1826 as distinguished from actual values which are revised every year.
of the previous year, 294,000,000 or 12 per cent more than the average of the five previous years.
According to the valuation of 1850, the trade of France, amounts to a total of only 2,555,000,000 francs. Comparing this with the total according to the official values of 1826, we have a falling off of 150,000,000 or 6 per cent. Comparing with the business of 1847, 1848, and 1849, in like manner, we have a diminution of ten per cent with regard to the first, and of 18 and 11 per cent with regard to the other two.
Of the aggregate of 2,705,000,000 francs, 1,174,000,000 francs are imports, 1,531,000,000 francs are exports. Compared with the business of 1849, the imports show an excess of 32,000,000 or 3 per cent; compared with the average of five years, the excess is 5,000,000 francs. In exports there has been a gain of 108,000,000, or 8 per cent, on 1849, and of 288,000,000, or 23 per cent, on the average of five years.
According to actual rates, the total of imports is reduced to 1,120,000 francs, and of exports tu 1,435,000,000 francs. Compared with the figures given above, 1,174,000,000 and 1,531,000,000 francs, the difference is 54,000,000 francs, and 96,000,000 francs, or 5 and 7 per cent. This difference re ards General Commerce.
In Special Commerce, the aggregate total is 1,904,000,000 francs. The aggregate for 1849 was only 1,812,000,000 francs, that of the five years previous 1,709,000,000 francs. The increase, therefore, is 92,000,000 francs, or 5 per cent, on the former, and 195,000,000, or 11 per cent, on the second am junt. Of tliis amount of 1,904,000,000 francs, ther, ale of Imports.
.francs 781,000,000 Esports .
1,123,000,000 In 1849 there were of Imports.....
.francs 780,000,000 Exports.
1,032,000,000 It thus appears that while imports have remained stationary, exports have increased 91,000,000 francs, or 9 per cent. It may be well to call attention to the fact that in 1849 there was a gain on 1818 of 40 per cent in imports, and 24 per cent in exports.
In imports the five years' average is 818,000,000 francs, in exports 891,000,000 francs ; the result is a difference on the one hand of 232,000,000 or 26 per cent in favor of 1850, and on the other hand of 37,000,000, or 5 per cent, against it.
The total of Special Import trade at actual rates is ten millions beyond the total of official values ; that of exports is 55,000,000 less, or 5 per cent.
Comparing actual rates of 1850 and 1849, we have a difference in favor
+ The following table exhibits in official values, and in periods of five years, the course of French Foreign commerce during the last fifteen years. 1ST PERIOD. 2D PERIOD.
Imports. Exports. Total. Years
1,121 1,666 2,187 1846. 1,257 1,180 2,437 1837 808 758 1,566 1842 1,142 940 2,0821847
1,343 1,271 2,614 1838 937 956 1,893 1843. 1,187 992 2,179 1848
862 1153 2,015 1849 947 1,003 1,950 1844 1,193 1,147 2.340 1849
1,142 1,423 2,563 1,052 1,011 2,063 1845 1,240 1,187 2,427 1850. 1,174 1,531 2,705 Total. 4,650 4,689 9,329 Total 3,8835,332 11,215 Total ... 5,778 6,558 12,336