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way said, "There never was a more causeless revolt since Lucifer led his cohorts of apostate angels against the throne of God; but^ I never heard that the Almighty proposed to compromise the matter by allowing the rebels to kindle the fires of hell south of the celestial meridian of 36° 30'!" Mr. Logan has been spoken of as opposed to coercive measures at the outset, but when the vote was called upon a resolution approving the act of Major Anderson in removing from Fort Moultrie and also pledging to "support the President in all constitutional measures to enforce the laws, and preserve the Union," he said in answering to his name, " As the resolution merits my unqualified approval, I vote aye."

The record of Kellogg, McClernand, Washburne, <fcc, during that memorable session, the last of the XXXVI. Congress, need not be transcribed. Whatever theoretical differences may have divided them, when war really came they were found unflinching on the side of the Union.

The position of the Governor and other state authorities, will be Been in a subsequent chapter. It is enough to say that there was no doubt in what direction the hearty influence of the Illinois Executive would be thrown. This introductory chapter will be fitly closed with a statement of the principal events down to the close of Mr. Buchanan's administration.

On the 28th of December South Carolina troops occupied Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney, and the Palmetto flag was hoisted on the ramparts, instead of the honored national colors. The en* suing day John B. Floyd resigned his place in the cabinet, as Secretary of War, charging, with an impudence unparalleled, that the President, by declining to remove Major Anderson, and to withdraw the Federal troops from Charleston Harbor, designed to plunge the country into civil war! He said, "I cannot consent to be the agent of such a calamity." On the same day the South Carolina Commissioners presented their official credentials which, on, the next day were declined. On the 1st day of January, 1861, the loyal press rang with warning that the Capital was in danger of seizure by armed rebels, and called for instant and efficient measures, for its protection. On the 2d it was announced that LieutGeneral Scott had taken steps to organize the militia of the District of Columbia, and that regulars had been placed in the navy yard, and other precautions taken against surprise or revolution. On the same day came telegraphic information that Georgia had declared for secession, and that Georgia troops had taken possession of the U. S. Arsenal in Augusta, and Forts Pulaski and Jackson. Governor Ellis, of North Carolina, seized the forts at Beaufort and Wilmington, and the arsenal at Fayetteville, stating with Floyd-like truthfulness that he did so to protect them from mobs! On the 3d the South Carolina Commissioners departed from the Capitol. On the 5th it was announced that enrollments of men to aid the government in enforcing the laws and maintaining the union of the States were progressing in the Northern cities. The Alabama and Mississippi delegations in Congress, who had met the preceding evening, telegraphed the conventions of their respective states, advising them to secede, stating there was no prospect of satisfactory adjustment. The steamer "Star of the West," sailed secretly from New York with supplies and reinforcements for Fort Sumter. Companies of Federal troops were being concentrated in and about Washington, and the public began to hope that at last Mr. Buchanan would prove himself worthy of honorable mention in American history. On the 7th the conventions of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee met. On the 8th Secretary Thompson resigned his seat in the Cabinet, on the ground that, contrary to promise, troops had been sent to Major Anderson. On the next day the " Star of the West" was fired into from Fort Moultrie and Morris Island, and turned homeward, leaving Sumter and its gallant defenders. Henceforward events crowd with fearful rapidity, of which only a few can be recorded. The ordinance of secession passed the Mississippi convention on the 9th, that of Florida, purchased with Union gold, on the 10th, and that of Alabama on the 11th. The same day witnessed the resignation of Mr. Thomas, Secretary of the Treasury, and the seizure by the rebels of the arsenal at Baton Rouge, and Forts Jackson and St. Philip at the mouth of the Mississippi River, and Fort Pike at the Lake Ponchartrain entrance. On the 13th the Pensacola Navy Yard and Fort Barrancas were surrendered to rebel troops by Col. Armstrong. Lieut. Slemmer, who had withdrawn his command from Fort McRae to Fort Pickens defied Armstrong's orders, and announced his intention to hold his post at all hazards. On the 16th


Major-General Sandford, of New York, tendered the President and General Scott the service of the first division of N. Y. Militia, well armed and disciplined, and numbering seven thousand. On the 18th came a voice from Massachusetts, her Legislature unanimously tendering the President all the men and money required to maintain the authority of the Federal Government, and declaring that South CaroHna, in seizing the national fortifications with the Post Office and Custom House,and in firing upon a vessel in the TT. S. service, had been guilty of an act of war. And so it had as truly as when, later, fire was opened upon Port Sumter. The Georgia Convention voted the secession ordinance on the 19th. On the 20th it was announced in Washington that a "thousand allied troops" were besieging Lieut/ Slemmer and his command in Fort Pickens. On the 24th the Augusta Arsenal was seized by Georgia authorities. The next day the Louisiana ordinance of secession passed the convention. On the 30th the revenue cutters, Cass and McClelland, were betrayed by their commanders into the hands of Louisiana and Alabama rebel officers. On the 1st of February the U. S. Mint and Custom House at New Orleans were seized, and the same day the Texas Convention voted that state out of the Union. On the 4th the "Peace Convention" assembled in Washington, and the Congress of seceded States met in Montgomery, Ala., and John Tyler was chosen President of the former. On the 9th a provisional Constitution was adopted at Montgomery, it being the IT. S. constitution varied to suit the purposes of treason. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was chosen President, and Alexander H. Stephens, despite the sentiments of his speech already quoted, Vice-President of the "Confederate States of North America." And yet the President of the United States saw no occasion to employ the troops tendered him! The government was going to pieces, and he was trembling with fear, not daring to strike, when a single blow might have crushed rebellion and saved the nation its terrible ordeal of blood. On the 11th Mr. Lincoln left his home for Washington; of his journey the next chapter will speak. On the 18th Jefferson Davis was inaugurated President of the C. S. A. On the 25th it was ascertained that General Twiggs, commanding the department of Texas, had basely betrayed his trust and given up all the military posts, munitions, arms, &c, to the authorities of Texas, On the 3d of March, at midnight, the term of James Buchanan expired. His administration commenced with a prosperous country, a full treasury, and a triumphant party. He went out with the latter beaten, the treasury empty, the nation in debt, and the country tossing in the agony of disruption. He sacrificed Mr. Douglas and was in turn sacrificed by his Southern allies. It, perhaps, remains to be seen whether his closing months of power gave the country an administration controlled by fear of the solemn responsibilities of the crisis or something worse. Be this as it may, the nation thanked God and took courage at twelve o'clock on the night of March 3, 1861,



Abraham LincolnEarly HistoryRemovalsTaste Op WarCandidacy—A SurveyorMember Of Illinois LegislatureInternal ImprovementPrivate LifeIn CongressWilmot ProvisoNebraska Bill—His OppositionMisSouri CompromisePeoria SpeechProphetic WordsRight And WrongBill Of Exceptions To SlaveryThe FathersSenatorial ElectionContest Of 1858—The Divided House SpeechThe Way Of ProvidenceLeaders For CriSesHis CharacteristicsNational Republican ConventionWigwamSewArd And LincolnNominationLeaving SpringfieldInvocation Of Prayer— His FarewellThe JourneySpeechesAt IndianapolisCincinnatiNew YorkTrentonPhiladelphiaIn WashingtonInaugurationThe InauguRal AddressCabinetSumterSurrender—A Lowered FlagOnly A MoMent.

THE eyes of the Nation had been, from November, turned toward Springfield, the capital of Illinois, where resided the President elect. Illinois had given the Republic the first Northern President who was destined to a re-election. Of necessity our history must make some mention of him who, the nation's chief magistrate and commander-in-chief of its army and navy, is yet of Illinois, whom she received when a young man; who developed into mature strength on her prairies—Abraham Lincoln.

He was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, February 12, 1809. In 1816 his father removed to what is now Spencer County, Indiana, and cleared his farm from the dense timber of that part of the State. Here the future statesman underwent the discipline of sturdy toil and patient labor. In 1830 his father removed to Illinois, and "located" on new land about ten miles northwest of Decatur on the north bank of the Sangamon, where timber and prairie are blended. His boyhood had few privileges of school or culture in books, and he was emphatically "self-made." In 1832 he volunteered in the noted Black-Hawk war and was captain of a company. He served three months, but was in no engagement with the enemy. Return

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