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present left precisely as if this Proclamation were not issued; and by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held vaa slaves within the designated States, and parts of States, are and henceforward shall be free, and that the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of the said persons, and I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free, to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense, and I recommend to them that in all cases where allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages, and I further declare and make known that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States, to garrison forts, positions, stations and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.

"And upon this sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God.

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

"Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-seventh.

"(Signed) Abraham Lincoln.

4'By the President:

"Wm. H. Seward, Secretary of State."


On the 13th of February, in the same year, a speech was delivered in the Illinois Senate by Hon. Isaac Funk, an old man and one of the wealthiest farmers in the State, which, for brevity, bluntness and energy, has rarely been excelled. Made on the spur of the moment, struck off at white heat, and delivered in indignant response to the efforts of partizans to stave off a vote upon the appropriations for the support of the State government, it gained a wide circulation and achieved a national fame. The Senate was crowded with spectators, when Mr. Funk rose and said:

44 Mr. Speaker:—I can Bit in my seat no longer and see such boys' play going on. These men are trifling with the best interests of the country. They should have asses' ears to set off their heads, or they are secessionists and traitors at heart

"I say that there are traitors and secessionists at heart in this Senate. Their actions prove it. Their speeches prove it. Their gibes and laughter and cheers here nightly, when their speakers get up in this hall and denounce the war and the Administration, prove it.

441 can sit here no longer and not tell these traitors what I think of them. And

while so telling them, I am responsible myself for what I say. I stand upon my own bottom. I am ready to meet any man on this floor, in any manner, from a pin's point to the mouth of a cannon, upon this charge against these traitors. [Tremendous applause from the galleries.] I am an old man of sixty-five. I came to Illinois a poor boy. I have made a little something for myself and family. I pay $3,000 a year in taxes. I am willing to pay $6,000, aye $12,000, [great cheering, the old gentleman bringing down his fist upon his desk with a blow that would knock down a bullock, and causing the ink-stand to bound a half dozen inches in the air], aye, I am willing to pay my whole fortune, and then give my life to save my country from these traitors that are seeking to destroy it. [Tremendous cheers and applause, which the Speaker could not subdue.]

Mr. Speaker, you must please excuse me. I could not sit longer in my seat and calmly listen to these traitors. My heart, that feels for my poor country, would not let me. My heart that cries out for the lives of our brave volunteers in the field, that these traitors at home are destroying by thousands, would not let me. My heart, that bleeds for the widows and orphans at home, would not let me. Yes, these villains and traitors and secessionists in this Senate [striking his clenched fist on the desk with a blow that made the house ring again] are killing my neighbors' boys, now fighting in the field. I dare to toll this to these traitors, to their faces, and that I am responsible for what I say to one or all of them. [Cheers.] Let them come on, right here. I am sixty-five years old, and I have made up my mind to risk my life right here, on this floor, for my country.

"These men sneered at Col. Mack, a day or two ago. He is a little man; but I am a large man. I am ready to meet any of them in place of Col. Mack. I am large enough for them, and I hold myself ready for them now, and at any time. [Cheers from the galleries.]

"Mr. Speaker, these traitors on this floor should be provided with hempen collars. They deserve them. They deserve them. They deserve hanging, I say. [Raising his voice and violently striking the desk.] The country would be better off to swing them up. I go for hanging them, and I dare to tell them so, right here, to their traitors' faces. Traitors should be hung. It would be the salvation of the country, to hang them. For that reason, I would rejoice at it. [Tremendous cheering-]

Mr. Speaker: I beg pardon of the gentlemen in the Senate who are not traitors, but true, loyal men, for what I have said. I only intend it and mean it for secessionists at heart. They are here, in this Senate. I see them joke and smirk and grin at a true Union man. But I defy them. I stand here ready for them and dare them to come on. [Great cheering.] What man with the heart of a patriot could stand this treason any longer? I have stood it long enough. I will stand it no more. [Cheers.] I denounce these men and their aiders and abettors as rank traitors and secessionists. Hell itself could not spew out a more traitorous crew than some of the men who disgrace this Legislature, this State and this country. For uiysalf, I protest against and denounce their treasonable acts. I have voted

Gen. Logan's Appeal. 515

against their measures. I will do so to the end. I will denounce them as long as God gives me breath. And I am ready to meet the traitors themselves here or anywhere, and fight them to the death. [Prolonged cheers and shouts.]

I said I paid three thousand dollars a year taxes. I do not say it to brag of it. It is my duty—yes, Mr. Speaker, my privilege to do it. But some of the traitors here, who are working night and day to get their miserable little bills and claims through the Legislature, to take money out of the pockets of the people, are talking about high taxes. They are hypocrites, as well as traitors. I heard some of them talking about high taxes in this way, who do not pay five dollars to support the Government. I denounce them as hypocrites as well as traitors. [Cheers.]

"The reason that they pretend to be afraid of high taxes is that they do not want to vote money for the relief of the soldiers. They want also to embarass the Government and stop the war. They want to aid the secessionists to conquer our boys in the field. They care about taxes? They are picayune men any how. They pay no taxes at all, and never did, and never hope to, unless they can manage to plunder the Government. [Cheers.] This is an excuse of traitors.

"Mr. Speaker: Excuse me. I feel for my country in this her hour of danger; I feel for her from the tips of my toes to the ends of my hair. That is the reason that I speak as I do. I cannot help it. I am bound to tell these men to their teeth what they are, and what the people, the true loyal people, think of them.

"Mr. Speaker: I have said my say. I am no speaker. This is the only speech I have made. And I do not know that it deserves to be called a speech. I could not sit still any longer, and see these scoundrels and traitors work out their selfish schemes to destroy the Union. They have my sentiments. Let them one and all make the most of them. I am ready to back up all I say, and I repeat it, to meet these traitors in any manner they may choose, from a pin's point to the mouth of a cannon.''


On the 12th of February 1863, General Logan issued the following stirring appeal to his soldiers. The appeal is dated at Memphis, and created a perfect storm of enthusiasm among his troops who almost worshipped their commander:

"my Fellow Soldiers:—Debility from recent illness has prevented and still prevents me from appearing amongst you, as has been my custom, and is my desire. It is for this cause I deem it my duty to communicate with you now, and give you the assurance that your General still maintains unshaken confidence in your patriotism, devotion, and in the ultimate success of our glorious cause.

"I am aware that influences of the most discouraging and treasonable character, well calculated and designed to render you dis^tisfied, have recently been brought to bear upon some of you by professed friends. Newspapers, containing treasonable articles, artfully falsifying the public sentiment at your homes, have been circulated in your camps. Intriguing political tricksters, demagogues, and time-servers, whose corrupt deeds are but a faint reflex of their more corrupt hearts, seem determined to drive our people on to anarchy and destruction. They have hoped, by magnifiying the reverses of our arms, basely misrepresenting the conduct and slandering the character of our soldiers in the field, and boldly denouncing the acts of the constituted authorities of the government as unconstitutional usurpations, to produce general demoralization in the army, and thereby reap their political reward, weaken the cause we have espoused, and aid those arch traitors of the South to dismember our mighty Republic and trail in the dust the emblem of our national unity, greatness and glory. Let me remind you, my countrymen, that we are soldiers of the Federal Union, armed for the preservation of the Federal Constitution and the maintenance of its laws and authority. Upon your faithfulness and devotion, heroism and gallantry, depend its perpetuity. To us has been committed this sacred inheritance, baptized in the blood of our fathers. We are soldiers of a government that has always blessed us with prosperity and happiness.

"It has given to every American citizen the largest freedom and the most perfect equality of rights and privileges. It has afforded us security in person and property, and blessed us until, under its beneficent influence, we were the proudest nation on earth.

• "We should be united in our efforts to put down a rebellion, that now, like an earthquake, rocks the nation from State to State, from center to circumference, and threatens to engulf us all in one common ruin, the horrors of which no pen can portray. We have solemnly sworn to bear true faith to this government, preserve its Constitution, and defend its glorious flag against all its enemies and opposers. To our hands has been committed the liberties, the prosperity and happiness of future generations. Shall we betray such a trust? Shall the brilliancy of your past achievements be dimmed and tarnished by hesitation, discord and dissension, whilst armed traitors menace you in front and unarmed traitors intrigue against you in the rear? We are in no way responsible for any action of the civil authorities. We constitute the military arm of the Government. That the civil power is threatened and attempted to be paralyzed, is the reason for resort to the military power. To aid the civil authorities (not to oppose or obstruct) in the exercise of their authority is our office, and shall we forget this duty, a id stop to wrangle and dispute while the country is bleeding at every pore, on this or that political act or measure whilst a fearful wail of anguish, wrung from the heart of a distracted people is borne upon every breeze, and widows and orphans are appealing to us to avenge the loss of their loved ones who have fallen by our side in defence of its old blood-stained banner, and whilst the Temple of Liberty itself is being shaken to the very center by the ruthless blows of traitors, who have desecrated our flag—obstructed our national highways, destroyed our peace, desolated our firesides, and draped thousands of homes in mourning?

"Let us stand firm at our posts of duty and of honor, yielding a cheerful obedience to all orders* from our superiors, until by our united efforts, the Stars and COL. SHERMAN'S LETTER. 517

Stripes shall be planted in every city, town and hamlet of the rebellious States. We can then return to our homes and through the ballot-box peacefully redress all our wrongs, if any we have.

"Whilst I rely upon you with confidence and pride, I blush to confess that recently some of those who were once our comrades in arms have so far forgotten their honor, their oaths and their country, as to shamefully desert us, and skulkingly make their way to their homes, where, like culprits, they dare not look an honest man in the face. Disgrace and ignominy (if they escape the penalty of the law) will not only follow them to their dishonored graves, but will stamp their names and lineage with infamy to the latest generation. The scorn and contempt of every true man will ever follow those base men, who, forgetful of their oaths, have, like cowardly spaniels, deserted their comrades in arms in the face of the foe, and their country in the hour of its greatest peril. Every true-hearted mother or father, brother, sister or wife, will spurn the coward who could thus not only disgrace himself, but his name and his kindred. An indelible stamp of infamy should be branded upon his cheek, that all who look upon his vile countenance may feel for him the contempt his cowardice merits. Could I believe that such conduct found either justification or excuse in your hearts, or that you would for a moment falter in our glorious pur pose of saving the nation from threatened wreck and hopeless ruin, I would invoke from Deity as the greatest boon, a common grave to save us from such infamy and disgrace.

"The day is not far distant when traitors and cowards, North and South, will cower before the indignation of an outraged people. March Bravely Onward! Nerve your strong arms to the task of overthrowing every obstacle in the pathway of victory until with shouts of triumph the last gun is fired that proclaims us a united people under the old Flag and one Government! Patriot Soldiers! This great work accomplished, the reward for such service as yours will be realized; the blessings and honors of a grateful people will be yours.

John A. Logan, Brig.-General Commanding.


About the same time Col. Frank Sherman, of the 88th Illinois, son of Hon. Francis Sherman, of Chicago, wrote a letter from which we take the following eloquent extract:

* * «■ « What can our people be thinking of, when they go so far with their partisan feeling, as to lose sight of the fact that our country is now passing through the darkest hours of her history. With armed rebellion in our front, and insidious foes and traitors in our rear, she needs that all true patriots should step forth, at whatever cost or sacrifice, and crush out traitors at home who are trying to poison the minds of the weak and fearful, whose minds are worked upon by tbeir hellish cunning and damnable sentiments of party, who wish to save the country through dishonorable overtures to rebels in arms, and make us, as a people, a by-word for all time to come.

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