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Missouri came up gallantly to the rescue, and with deafening shouts advanced steadily upon the rebels who quailed before their unerring and well directed fire, and retreated towards the woods.
As' only a division or two had come up, our forces remained in line of battle deeming it imprudent to attack. The enemy in their exasperation determined to overwhelm us before the balance should arrive. At eleven o'clock, A. M., artillery firing commenced. The enemy remained sullenly silent for a long time but, finally opened upon Captain Loomis' and Captain Simonson's batteries. To the extreme left, another of our batteries opened and the enemy replied from at least six different positions. At the foot of the hill just behind the batteries, Rousseau's division was posted, Lytle's brigade on the right, most of it to the east of a narrow lane which opened out into the field where Loomis' battery was at work, the 9th brigade on the left of the lane, and the twenty-eighth brigade still further to the left, supporting the 19th Indiana battery. All of these positions were more or less exposed to the enemy's fire, but not a man flinched. Suddenly the enemy's firing ceased and there was a lull in the battle, but only the lull which precedes the storm. At two o'clock, p. M., the cannonading recommenced with terrific fury all along the line, and the enemy's legions began to emerge from the cover of the woods. At three o'clock, Bragg massed the very flower of the army, artillery, cavalry and infantry, and made a desperate effort, but in vain, to break through our lines to the left of our center. Buckner massed another and an immense force against Jackson's division, and in spite of the desperate resistance offered, by virtue of the disparity of numbers, broke through our line at that point. The partial success of the rebels encouraged them to renew the attack upon Rousseau and a desperate fight ensued. The rebels were in overwhelming numbers and the carnage was terrible. Regiment after regiment was beaten back only to rally again and renew the fight. General Lytle fell in the fiercest of the storm. The 15th Kentucky was decimated almost in a minute. The 10th Ohio was surrounded and cut its way through. While the seventh brigade in spite of its fearful losses was holding the rebels in check, the 9th and 28th brigades came to the rescue and bore down upon the enemy. The combat raged with great fury for half an hour, Col. Carlin's Charge. 347
but in the meantime on the right, Sheridan and Mitchell had repulsed an attack and pursued the rebels beyond Perryville. Upon the disastrous issue of this attack on the right, the attack upon the left was abandoned, and the rebels retired from the field. About sundown, the baffled foe made one last despairing attack upon Rousseau's division, but was repulsed by Loomis' battery, and our men lay upon their arms expecting a renewal of the attack the next morning. During the evening General Crittendon's corps came up, but no movement was made until noon of the next day, when it was found the enemy had retreated in the night. These are the general features of the Perryville battle. We now purpose more particularly to trace the share Illinois had in the combat.
During the afternoon, General Mitchell advanced his brigade in which were the 59th Illinois, Major J. C. Winters; 74th Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Keer; 75th Illinois, Lieut en ant-Colon el Bennett; 21st Illinois, Colonel Alexander; 38th Illinois, Major Gilmer; 25th Illinois, Colonel McClelland, and the 35th Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, and formed them in position, supporting Gen. Sheridan. Almost immediately on the formation of the line, the rebels advanced against Colonel Carlin's (38th Illinois) brigade, but retired under cover, at the advance of Colonel Carlin's skirmishers. Colonel Cariin was then ordered to advance rapidly to reinforce General Sheridan who was hard pressed. He pushed on through a skirt of timber to the open fields on the right, and upon ascending a hill, discovered the rebels advancing in strong force upon Sheridan's right. Colonel Cariin immediately formed his brigade, and on the double quick charged the advancing foe with such impetuosity that their columns were thrown into confusion and broken. The gallant Cariin completely pierced their center, and chased them for two miles, pressing them closely until they formed under the protection of two powerful batteries on a line of bluffs. Finding that in the impetuosity of his charge and the ardor of his pursuit, he had outstripped all support and isolated himself, he retired in safety before the enemy could recover from their confusion. In Colonel Carlin's advance, the 38th, his own regiment, overtook and captured an ammunition train and the train guard of one hundred and thirtyeight men and three officers. The 75th were fighting their first battle and did their work like veterans, while the 59th added to the laurels they had already gained at Pea Ridge. General Mitchell in his report paid an especial tribute to Major Gilmer of the 38th, for the skill and activity he displayed in capturing the ammunition train, and to his aid de-camp Lieutenant Andrews of the 42d, for the able, gallant, and heroic manner in which he performed his duties. In his division, Surgeon Hazlet of the 59th, Lieutenant Johnson of the 58th, Lieutenant Blean and Lieutenant Eels of the 75th died gallantly in defence of the flag.
General McCook, in his report, honorably mentioned his orderlies, George Richardson, Avery Graham and George P. Jenniss, of the 34th, as behaving with coolness and bravery, and recommended their promotion.
In the 10th division of the 1st corps, the following Illinois regiments participated in the fight with great credit to themselves: 80th, Col. Allen, and 123d, Col. Monroe. The former lost eleven killed, thirty-two wounded, and thirteen missing; the latter, thirtyfive killed, one hundred and nineteen wounded and thirty-five missing.
In General Sheridan's division, Barnett's 2d Illinois battery did most excellent service, and, in conjunction with Hezcock's battery, drove the enemy's batteries from every position they took. Colonel Greusel, of the 36th, also behaved with great gallantry, leading his men at all times, and infusing them with a large share of his own coolness and bravery.
In General Rousseau's division, at a critical period of the fight, the old fighting 24th Illinois was ordered up to the support of a weak point, and went into action, deploying as skirmishers in a manner which won universal plaudits. They were repeatedly assailed by overwhelming numbers, but determinedly and firmly held their position. Lieut. William Quinton, of the 19th Illinois, detached for signal duty, was also conspicuous for his bravery, attending General Rousseau voluntarily—although not his place to do so—in the thickest of the fight. Major Winters of the 59th, was highly complimented for his bravery, and Lieut. West of the 39th, A. A. A. G. to Colonel Gooding of the 30th brigade, although wounded in five different places, refused to leave the field until entirely disabled. One
THE CLOSE OF THE CAMPAIGN. 349
hundred and fifty-three out of three hundred and twenty-five of the 59th, and two hundred and twenty-one out of seven hundred of the 75th were lost. In every changing phase of this severe and wellfought contest, Illinois soldiers proved their titles to the laurels they had won at Donelson, Shiloh, Pea Ridge and Corinth.
The remaining events of the campaign we shall trace briefly, to preserve the unity of the narrative, although no great battles were fought. It was expected that General Bragg would make his next stand at Camp Dick Robinson, a place which was defensible in front but easily flanked. Accordingly, General Crittenden was ordered to march to Dick River, as if about to attack in front, and Generals McCook and Gilbert to approach by different roads on the flank and compel Bragg to fight. The rebel gouerai, however, penetrated the plan, owing to the retrograde movement of a division of General Crittenden's corps, and on the night of the 11th the evacuation commenced, the rebel army moving toward Cumberland Gap. There were two lines of retreat converging to that point—one by the way of Richmond and Big Hill, through Madison county, and the other, called the Crab Orchard road, by way of Mt. Vernon and Barboursville, the two roads converging at Pitman's Junction, fiftyeight miles from the Gap. On the night of the 12th, General Buell ordered an advance from Danville, and at 1 o'clock the army was in motion towards Stanford. The advance arrived in time to see the rear of the rebel rear-guard pass out of the town unmolested. Having checked the advance of our army, and gained time for the main body of the rebel army, they retired toward Crab Orchard. On the morning of the 14th, our army was again on the march and soon reached Crab Orchard. The Confederate rear guard again halted and kept up a skirmish with our forces, during which time the rebel army was retreating unmolested. Our advance the next day reached Mt. Vernon, Cook's and Gilbert's corps remaining at Crab Orchard, and the cavalry ordered to +he rear in consequence of the difficulty of procuring forage. The Confederate forces rapidly re, tired and escaped into East Tennessee, laden with the rich spoils they had gathered in Kentucky, and Buell fell back to the line between Louisville and Nashville, where he was superseded in his command by General Rosecrans.
Gen. Buell Superseded By Gen. Rosecrans—Reorganization Of The Army—The March On Murfreesboro—The Battle Op Stone River—Three Days' FightingPlan And Details Op The Battle—The 89th Illinois Fighting Against FateGallantry Of Gen. Kirk's Old Regiment—Wounding Of Gen. Kirk—The Rebel Attack On Our Left—Gen. Negley Comes Up—Illinois To The Rescue—"who Will Save The Left?" "the 19th Illinois, Sir"—Magnificent And Daring Charge Of The 19th—Complete Rout Of The Rebel Right—Capture Of A BatTery—The Chicago Board Of Trade Battery—Casualties, &c.
GENERAL ROSECRANS assumed command of the army of the Cumberland on the 27th of October. The army was then concentrated at Bowling Green and Glasgow, one hundred and thirteen miles distant from Louisville, whence they moved to Nashville, the advance reaching that place November 7th. From that date until December 26th, the time was occupied in completing the clothing of the army, providing ammunition, and replenishing the depot with necessary supplies and in sufficient amount to ensure against delay or interruption, caused by any breakage of the Louisville & Nashville road, to guard against which, a strong force was posted at Gallatin. The rebels had expected that Rosecrans was going into winter quarters at Nashville, and consequently prepared their winter quarters at Murfreesboro, and sent a large force into West Tennessee to annoy General Grant's communications, and another into Kentucky to break up the railroad. The absence of these forces gave Rosecrans an opportunity for an advance, which he determined to improve without delay. The situation was as follows: Polk's and Kirby Smith's forces at Murfreesboro, Hardee's on the Shelbyville and Nolinsville turnpike, while our troops were in front of Nashville on the Franklin, Nolinsville and Murfreesboro turnpike.