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dated May 17th. He entered the service to help crush the rebellion, and right well he knew the character of the men who led it. He had sounded the depths of pro-slavery hate, and was aware that it meant the destruction of the Union and the enslavement of the North. On the 15th of July, 1861, he issued a proclamation to the people of Northeastern Missouri, where he was in command, in which he taught the restless dupes of Claibourn Jackson, sound doctrine in words of unmistakable import:—" The time for the toleration of treason has passed, and the man, or body of men, who venture to stand in defiance of the supreme authority of the Union, peril their lives in the attempt." He pronounced stern retribution upon the guerrilla mode of warfare invented by secession infamy. He gave fair warning that Missouri courts w^ould not be his resort for justice in such cases, but that it would be sought and administered through the swifter, surer agency of the court-martial. They soon found that his hand was
"Gauntleted in glove of steel."
In command on the line of the Hannibal & St. Jo. Railroad, and on the 29th of July, 1861, he gave the wealthy secessionists notice of his purpose to keep the road in repair at their expense. That he was not jesting they soon learned. A train was fired upon and a Mr. Wilcox disarmed. Gen. Hurlbut marched his troops into Palmyra, county seat of Marion County, and issued an order requiring the citizens to deliver to Col. Smith, commanding the 16th Illinois, each morning, rations as follows:
"Salt pork or bacon, 412 pounds, or in lieu thereof, 687 pounds fresh beef; corn meal, 687 pounds; beans, 44 quarts, or 55 pounds rice; coffee, 55 pounds; sugar (brown dry), 8£ pounds; vinegar, 5\ gallons; soap, 22 pounds; salt, 11 quarts; potatoes, or mixed vegetable diet, 550 pounds; molasses, 1\ gallons; wood, \ cord; corn in ear, 2 bushels." He farther gave the authorities notice that if these things were not delivered promptly, "they will be taken from the most convenient persons and places and the regiment will be billeted upon the city of Palmyra, in private houses, according to the convenience of the regiment."
In addition the county was notified that it would be required to pay the expenses of the transportation of the regiment. The oecu
pation on the terms of the order to continue until the marauders were given up. There was added a piece of grim humor, that * if the county authorities declined to act, or cannot be found, those of the city must "fill the order and render their charges against the county."
This did not prove sufficient to cure the marauding, and he issued, on the 19th of August, an order to the mayor and authorities of Palmyra to "deliver within six days the marauders who fired on the train bound west on the Hannibal <fc St. Joseph railroad, on the evening of the 16th irist., and broke into the telegraph office. If the guilty persons are not delivered up as required, and within the time herein specified, the whole brigade will be moved into your county and contributions levied to the amount of $10,000 on Marion County, and $5,000 on the city of Palmyra."
It was essential, and it was truly humane, early to teach those "borderers" that treason was costly; that its indulgence was incompatible with both duty and safety. This promptness in settling accounts has marked General Hurlbut's administration wherever he has been charged with the duties of military administrator.
After the capture of Donelson he was temporarily in command at that post. In the battle of Pittsburg Landing he was in charge of the fourth division of General Grant's army, placed across the Corinth road, and which was brought into action early on Sunday, fought through that day with desperate courage, and on Monday morning at eight o'clock was re-formed in line of battle, and after eating a few crackers, again plunged into the sea of fire.
Official and unofficial reports alike concur in honoring the bravery of this division and the gallantry and ability of its commanding General. Mounted on his gray, he rode along the ranks, a prominent target for the enemy's fire. He personally superintended the planting and directing of new batteries, and personally headed his light brigades in the desperate charge. On the second day, his gray which had become a mark for rebel riflemen was killed, greatly to the relief of the General's staff, though to his own grief. It is not proper to re-write what is found in the previous chapter, and which would be necessary to give the details of Hurlbut's division. A member of the staff, says: "The General had several narrow escapes. He was struck by a spent musket ball on his left arm, but save that received no personal injury. The writer saw a rifle-shot strike a tree within a few feet of his head, eliciting from him the remark, 'They have our range pretty well.' At another time a shell burst within ten feet of him, but he was not scratched by it. His courage and coolness under fire, and his entire disregard for his personal safety, were remarked by all under him, and by his bravery and skill in this engagement, he has won the love and confidence of the brave troops under his command."
For bravery on this field, he was promoted Major-General of volunteers, with commission dating from September 17, 1862.
While other troops fought the bloody battle of Corinth, MajorGeneral Hurlbut marching from Bolivar and with Major-General Ord fell upon the enemy's rear at the Hatchie. General Grant says in his official report, these divisions "drove the enemy back and across the Hatchie over ground where it is almost incredible that a superior force should be driven by an inferior, capturing two of his batteries (eight guns) many hundred small arms, and several hundred prisoners. "To these two divisions of the army all praise is due and will be awarded by a grateful country."
The battles of Iuka, Corinth and the Hatchie were part of one grand engagement and will be examined farther on.
It has been the fortune of General Hurlbut to mingle in other battle scenes yet to come in review and also to have command of the important post of Memphis. At present he is in command of the important Department of the Gulf, where his eminent administrative abilities have full scope. None can deny him the meed of the true soldier and the successful commander, for he has been fully tested. We shall meet him in later campaigns.
Among those who fell at Shiloh was Edward F. W. Ellis, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the 15th Regiment Illinois Volunteers. He was born in Milton, Maine, April 15, 1819. He was a tall, noble looking man of much decision and positiveness. He came to Ohio when nineteen years of age, and was admitted to the bar at twentytwo. In 1849 he went to California, where he was unfortunate in LIEUT.-COL. ELLIS. 270
commercial spoculation and lost all. He then resumed the profession with marked success. In the year 1851 he was a member of ,the California Legislature, and fought the effort to shadow the Golden Coast with the curse of slavery. In 1852 he returned to Ohio, and in 1854 removed to Rockford, Illinois, and was associated with a banking firm. When war came he promptly gave himself to his country, and raised for the 15th, a company called the Ellis Rifles. He was chosen Lieutenant-Colonel, but Col. Turner being placed in command of a brigade, he was acting Colonel. At the battle of Pittsburg Landing the 15th, LieutenantColonel Ellis commanding, was in the 2d brigade, Colonel Veatch commanding, of Hurlbut's Division. The line in front, on Monday morning became panic-stricken and stampeded through the lines of the 15th and 46th Illinois—broke without an effort at resistance, General Hurlbut says "without firing a shot." The 15th was left exposed to a terrible fire, which it met and gallantly returned. Lieutenant-Colonel Ellis cheered his men forward, but was struck in the breast by a ball and killed instantly.
The next in command, Major Goddard, a brave soldier and gallant gentleman met a similar fate, falling bravely at his post. The regiment was compelled to fall back.
The city of Rockford mourned the death of Col. Ellis with deep sorrow. His future promised distinction. Major Goddard was worthy of his post and together they went down to the soldier's grave.
Colonel Ransom reports among the names mentioned with honor, that of Captain Henry H. Carter, of Company K, 11th 111., "who, with his company, so bravely cut his way through the rebel cavalry at Fort Donelson, was among the first to fall on this bloody field, mortally wounded. A good man, a true soldier, his loss is irreparable."
Major Nevieus, of the same regiment, was severely wounded, but rallied sufficiently to assume command when Colonel Ransom was so badly wounded as to be compelled to submit to removal to the rear. "Capt. Coats and Lieut. Walrod were also wounded. Lieut. Freed, commanding Co. A, whose coolness and bravery always made his command invincible, was borne to the rear during the first engagement, severely and, I fear, mortally wounded."
"Acting Quartermaster Goodrich, ever faithful to his trust, a brave soldier, was shot by my side, through the head."
Col. Hare, commanding the first brigade of the first division (W. H. L. Wallace's) says:
"Major Samuel Eaton, of the 18th Illinois, was badly wounded while commanding his regiment. Captain Daniel H. Brush, next in command, was soon after severely wounded. Captain W. Q. Dillon, of Co. C, arrived on the field at this moment and took command, but was almost instantly killed. From that time the regiment was led by Captain Anderson, who did his duty nobly."
General Hurlbut mentions with pride the heroism of Col. John A. Davis, of the 46th, who rallied his regiment in the terrible fire when Ellis went down, and, who, seeing the color-bearer fall, seized and carried off the colors, receiving in so doing a severe wound. He states that Colonel Pugh, of the 41st Illinois was unexpectedly called to command a brigade, "and led it steadily and well through the battle." He says: "Colonel A. K. Johnston, 28th Illinois, was under my eye during both days. I bear willing testimony to the perfect coolness and thorough handling of his regiment throughout the whole time."
Colonel John Logan was severely wounded on Sunday, and the Lieut.-Colonel of the 41st fell about the same time, both in discharge of duty."
General McCook honorably mentions Colonel Kirk, of the 34th Illinois, who commanded a brigade, as a brave and competent officer. When the Major commanding the 34th fell, "the regiment wavered for a moment, when Colonel Kirk seized a flag, rushed forward, and steadied the line again; while doing this he was severely wounded in the shoulder."
Major Levanway, a noble, scholarly gentleman, a popular lawyer, was greatly beloved by the men of the 34th, fell, killed instantly. General McCook said: "The gallant Levanway, foremost in the ranks of danger, was killed instantly by a grape-shot. His name is another bright one added to the list of illustrious Illinois dead, who have dared to do and die in the cause of the Republic. To him and the brave ones who sleep with him, the nation owes the holy debt of remembrance."