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there were blows to be given or perils to be braved. Says Mr. Stevenson, author of "Indiana's roll of honor," "Upon Oglesby's division of this (Mcdemand's) division was first hurled the rebel thunder. Under fire from several batteries, an immense mass of infantry charged upon our lines. Sudden as was the attack, the gallant troops of Illinois were ready to meet it. Into the enemy's teeth they poured a steady and deadly fire. Fresh masses of the enemy advanced, but Taylor's battery, and two of McAllister's guns met them with a storm of grape and shell, and the brigade charging, actually drove four times their number back to their intrenchments. The struggle was hand to hand. The bayonets, the bowie knife, the butt-end of the musket were freely used. McArthur's carried itself nobly. In Col. Cook's brigade, the 7th and50th participated in General Smith's division. Scarcely a regiment, company or battery from the State failed to distinguish itself, and if there was failure it was from want of opportunity."

Other details will be given in the sketches of officers and regiments, but if Illinois' troops had only participated in the single battle of Donelson only, the record of the State had been made for* ever glorious.

The tides of war were drifting towards "Pittsburg Landing," where the humble church edifice bearing the name of Shiloh, the Peacemaker, which was to give name to one of the most sanguinary battles. Converging toward that spot were some of the troops of this State, coming via Munfordsville, Mill Spring and Nashville, directly through Kentucky. The insolent reply of Governor McGoffin to the call upon Kentucky for its contingent has been given, and it must be conceded that he did what he could to throw that State into the hands of the Southern conspirators. Fortunately he was not as courageous as he was disloyal. His audacity would not serve as executor of his wishes. Some leading men of the State urged that neutrality was its safest, its only policy. The keen eyes of Holt, and Rosseauj and Breckinridge—-not the foresworn traitor who had sunk from the dignified station of Vice-President and Senator in Congress, to that of a traitorous marplot, but the noble old Doctor in Divinity who subsequently said in Baltimore that the nation must be cemented by the blood of traitors—saw differently; saw that neq*


trality was secession, and urged a vigorous policy ; urged that troops be raised; that Kentucky should be treated as an imperiled State in the Union. The Legislature broke ground with the Governor; passed loyal resolves over his veto, and called General Robt. Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame, to lead its men, he having been assigned to duty in that district. Colonel T. L. Crittenden, son of the venerable Senator, was placed in command of the State Guard. September 17, 1861, Buckner seized the upward bound passenger train, on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, embarked his troops, cut the telegraph wires, and started for the occupation of Louisville. Everything moved favorably for him until he neared Elizabethtown, when the train was thrown from the track by the displacement of a rail. Some noble Union man, hearing of Buckner's design, had sought to thwart his purpose and admirably succeeded. This disaster was fatal to the expedition. Night came on before the train was again ready for motion, and then Buckner's heart failed him. He was fearful his coming was known, and that inhospitable prepations were made to welcome him. Meantime Louisville was resting in terrible security, utterly ignorant of the fate which threatened and so nearly overwhelmed it. As the time drew near for the arrival of the Nashville passenger train, the citizens as usual gathered at the depot. The train failed to appear. * * * An attempt to ascertain its whereabouts by telegraph, disclosed the fact that the wires were cut. Suspicion of danger was at once aroused, and rumors of invasion, devastation and ruin, circulated like wild-fire through the city. The most intense excitement prevailed everywhere. Union citizens, fearful of rebel vengeance, crossed the Ohio River into Indiana, or prepared to do so, at the first intimation of actual danger.* When this was known, Kentucky awoke to the fact that war was upon it, and not to be diverted by the missives and jeremiads of the oily Beriah McGoffin.

Rosseau moved with a portion of troops toward the seat of danger and occupied Muldraugh's Hill. Troops from Ohio, Indians* and Illinois were freely offered. Dr. Breckinridge declares that the coming forward of the regiments from those States saved Kentucky. Buckner, John C. Breckinridge, W. B. Preston and other promi

*Dodge's Old Second Division.


nent secessionists went South. John Morgan left Lexington at the head of a company of mounted men. General W. T. Sherman was placed in command of the Federal forces on the line of the L. & N, R. R. General G. H. Thomas was in command at Camp Dick Robinson in the central part of the State. The counsel of Fremont had been neglected and the rebels had seized Bowling Green and were making of it a -Sebastopol. General Zollicoifer was before Thomas with a large force. Humphrey Marshall the oleaginous Falstaff of the Confederacy was at Big Sandy, and the Confederacy was moving vigorously to secure the State.

Physically worn out, General Anderson proved unfit for his position, and was succeeded by General W. T. Sherman. This officer said 200,000 men were needed to save the State and drive back the Southern armies, and was laughed at as "crazy Sherman," and yet his antics were to give the country Atlanta and Savannah! Had he been heeded, all those border hordes could have been crushed, and the armies of Johnson, Beauregard, Polk, and so on through the catalogue, could have been destroyed. But it was still the days of dress parade on the Potomac.

Meanwhile, a convention, claiming to be the sovereignty of Kentucky, met at Russelville, in November, voted a secession ordinance, elected a Governor and ten Councilmen—evidently imagining themselves on the Adriatic—gave them, with the Governor, power to make laws, ordain treaties, enter into State compacts, and to appoint State officers, and consummated the farce by choosing Senators and Representatives to the Confederate Congress, who were, of course, permitted to hold seats, and who gravely mouthed platitudes about their constituents! Their Governor, G. M. Johnson, was solemnly inaugurated; on the 11th of December the rebel Congress formally received the State into the Confederacy!

It is difficult to read those proceedings, so clearly lawless, so transparently devoid of even revolutionary authority, without the sense of the ludicrous, but at the time, they made much trouble. Two governments, two codes of laws, two conflicting authorities— obedience to either being punishable as treason by the other! The early neutrality was supreme folly, and its consequences were upon the State, which was as "a strong ass crouching between two burdens." ZOLLICOFFER BEATEtf. 211

November 15th, General Don Carlos Buell arrived at Louisville and took command of the new Department of the Ohio, embracing the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Tennessee, and that part of Kentucky east of the Cumberland River. He was to oppose a powerful foe from Cumberland Gap to Nashville.

In the 2d Division of his army, commanded by Brig.-Gen. A. McCook, and in the 5th Brigade, was the 34th Illinois, commanded by Col. E. N. Kirk, and in the 3d Division, commanded by General O. M. Mitchell, was Turchin's 19th Zouaves, and Mahalotzy's 24th, the gallant Hecker Regiment. The first named, marched in December, toward Munfordsville, on the north bank of Green River. The railroad bridge had been destroyed, but Willich's artisans provided one which answered all purposes. On the 17th was fought the battle of Rowlett's Station (or Munfordsville), the rebel force commanded by Gen. Hindman and numbering about 2,000, with Col. Terry's Texan Rangers (cavalry), Phifer's cavalry, and four pieces of artillery. Col. Willich's Indiana regiment, the 32d, fought for, and retained, possession of the field. January 19th, General Thomas engaged and defeated the enemy under the rebel Crittenden and ZollicofFer, capturing fourteen pieces of artillery, with large quantities of war materiel. This victory turned the right of the rebel offensive line. Humphrey Marshall was beaten at Prestonburg by Garfield and sent flying to Abingdon, Va.

And now came intelligence of the success of Grant and Foote at Henry, and movements on Bowling Green and Nashville began. General Mitchell was ordered to move from Munfordsville on to Bowling Green, and did so on the 13th of Feb., 1862, with Turchin's brigade, consisting of the 37th Indiana, 18th Ohio, 19th and 24th Illinois, Loomis', Edgerton's, and Simonson's batteries and three companies of Kennettfs cavalry in advance. The march of forty miles was made in twenty-eight hours, over a frozen, rocky road, obstructed by felled trees. Reaching the Barren River the advance marched rapidly to a ferry on which about fifty infantry could be crossed at once, and in silence and secrecy, were "set over." A writer in the Providence Journal says: "The repairs of an old wherry were completed and we crossed the river, protected by artillery. The Nineteenth and Twenty-fourth, Hecker's Illinois, crossed first. We pushed on slowly to within a mile or two of the town, where we halted, waiting for the rest. But the boys, getting almost frozen, declared they would rather be shot than frozen, and we then pushed on, seeing no enemy, but rather fearing a ruse, and that they would return upon us in large force. But no enemy appeared and we were soon surrounding the fires, some of which had been burning for several days." General Buell, in General Orders, thanked Mitchell's Division for its gallantry and celerity.

It has been stated that Grant and Foote desired to move upon Nashville from Fort Donelson, but Gen. Halleck declined consent. That officer doubtless had his reasons, but they have not been divulged. The delay lost some millions of property in destroyed stores, and kept open a door for the retreat of the enemy from Bowling Green.

General Mitchell conveyed his division as promptly as possible, and with the blue flag of the 19th Illinois in advance, took possession of Edgefield, opposite Nashville, which was formally surrendered the next day.

As an episode in the monotony of reading, the account below, written by a rebel, will serve a good purpose. There is in it a goodnatured confession, and sad drollery:

"The fight at Fort Donelson, on the 13th, 14th and 15th of February, was of intense concern to us, and each day's work down there wound up with the statement that the fight would be renewed to-morrow. The fears that the fall of Fort Henry were calculated to inspire, had been wel!-nigh dispelled by the way Fort Donelson was holding out. It was better located, and stronger in men and guns. Pillow, Floyd and Buckner were there. Pillow had said, 'Let come what might, he never would surrender the place,' and Nashville felt that we could not afford to lose that battle. Saturday's work was glorious. Our citizens shouted over it. Many were saying: 'I nevef liked Pillow, but forgive him now—he is the man for the occasion.* A sober, modest citizen, an old line Whig and Ex-Governor, was heard to say, Saturday afternoon, on being asked how the fight went on: * First-rate; Pillow is giving them , and rubbing it in.'

"The dispatches closed on Saturday as they had for three successive days before—'The enemy are expecting large reinforceniente,' but we slept soundly, and expected to have great news on the morrow. About 9 o'clock Sunday morning I rode out into the country seven or eight miles, and leaving the turnpike, dined with a friend in one of the quiet and luxurious farmer-homes of Middle Tennessee. Returning leisurely, I struck the pike about 4 P.m., and as everybody I had met in the

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