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Governor's Message. 145

States on a radical anti-slavery platform, with an endorsement of military emancipation and the arming of freedmen; and Illinois, whose soil had been watered by the blood of Lovejoy, gave him a majority of more than 30,000! One must think of the words of poor Galileo, manacled, and humiliated as he paced his way to his cell, "the world does move though"

At the same time, and by about the same majority, Richard J. Oglesby, late a gallant Major-General of volunteers, and who had been scarred on more than one hotly-fought battle field, was chosen Governor, as the successor of Richard Yates, and Wm, Bross, one of the editors of a radically anti-slavery sheet, was elected LieutenantGovernor, with a General Assembly which should choose Richard Yates to occupy the seat in the United States Senate, so long filled by Stephen A. Douglas.

Verily, time is an inexorable Nemesis. From Lovejoy dead to Lincoln and Oglesby, only twenty-seven years!

The final message of Governor Yates was delivered to the General Assembly on the 3d of January, 1865, and reviewed the two years preceding. It summed the State resources and liabilities; gave the evidence that through the war the State had steadily advanced in the great material and educational interests essential to her prosperity.

He thus aggregates the State contributions of men to the national armies:

"The following exhibits the quotas of the States under respective calls since the commencement of the war, and the number of men furnished to the national armies up to the present time:

"Our quota, under calls of the President

"In 1861, was 47,785

"In 1862," 32,685

"In 1863," 64,630

"In 1864," 52,260

"Total quotas under all calls prior to Dec. 1,1864 197,360

"During the years 1861, 1862, and to the 18th day of October,

1863, the State, by voluntary enlistment, had exceeded its quota

under all calls. Prior to that date settlements had not been made

with the War Department, because of the voluntary action of our people in meeting the requirements of the country and their per. istence in organizing, with unparalleled enthusiasm and determination, a larger number of regiments and batteries than the actual quotas under each levy called for. Prior to 17th October, 1863, the State had furnished and been credited with one hundred and twenty-five thousand three hundred and twenty-one (125,321) men—-a surplus of eight thousand one hundred and fifty-one (8,151) over all other calls, to be credited to our quota for that call, and which reduced it to 19,779 men; and we claimed, besides, other credits, which could not be fully adjusted because of imperfect record of citizens (and in some cases whole companies of Illinoisans) who had entered the service in regiments of other States, at times when our quotas on special calls were full, and because of which I was compelled to decline their services. Six thousand and thirty-two (6,032) citizens of Illinois prior to that date had been enlisted in Missouri regiments, and residents of Missouri had enlisted and been mustered into Illinois regiments, which left a credit, as between the States, in favor of Illinois of 4,373 men.

"After adjustment of credit of 125,321, at and prior to October,

1863, it was ascertained we were entitled to an additional credit of 10,947, which increased the number enrolled in our own regiments, and for which we were entitled to credit prior to that call, to 136,268—leaving the whole account, at that date, thus:

"Quotas under calls to October, 1863 145,100

"Credits for enlistments in Illinois regiments 136,268

"Balance in Missouri regiments 4,373

140,000

"Balance due the Government 4,459

"At this time there was a claim made by the State for volunteers previously furnished, which would more than account for the bal* ance against us of 4,459. This adjustment was made in February,

1864, and was exclusive of old regiments re-enlisting as veterans, and disclosed the fact that at the time the first draft was ordered, viz., January 1, 1864, under the call of October, 1863, Illinois had exceeded her quota, and, by the voluntarily demonstrated patriotism of her people, was free from draft.

Governor's Message. 147

"The unadjusted balances of the State claimed as above were allowed in the settlement made with the War Department in August last.

"Between the first day of October, 1863, and the first day of December, 1864, we have furnished and received additional credits for fifty-five thousand six hundred and nineteen (55,619) men, which, added to credit of 140,641 to October 1, 1863, makes 197,260 men, which leaves our whole account thus:

"Quotas of the State under all calls prior to Dec. 1, 1864. .197,362 "Total credits for three years' volunteers, drafted men and

substitutes to Dec. 1, 1864 197,260

"Balance due the Government Dec. 1, 1864. 100

"The deficit of one hundred men has been more than balanced by enlistments during the month of December, 1864.

"Of the entire quota of one hundred and ninety-seven thousand three hundred and sixty (197,360) men, we have furnished one hundred and ninety-four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight (194,198) volunteers, and three thousand and sixty-two (3,062) drafted men—organized as follows:

"138 regiments and one battalion of infantry.
"17 regiments of cavalry.
"2 regiments and 8 batteries of artillery.

"ONE HUNDRED DAY TROOPS.

"In addition to the foregoing the State has furnished thirteen (13) regiments and two companies of one hundred day volunteers, the following being the numerical designation, name of commanding officer and strength of each:

No. Regiment. Commanding Officer. Aggregate.

132 Col. Thomas J. Pickett. 853

133 Col. Thaddeus Phillips 851

134 Col. Walter W. McChesney 878

135 Col. JohnS. Wolfe 855

136 Col. Frederick A. Johns 842

137 Col. John Wood 849

188 Col. John W. Goodwin 835

139 Col. Peter Davidson ♦ 8Y8

No. of Regiment. Commanding Officer.

140 Col. Lorenzo H. Whitney SlV

141 Col. Stephen Bronson 842

142 CoL Rollin V. Ankney 851

143 Col. Dudley C. Smith 855

145 Col. George W. Lackey S11

Capt. Simon J. Stookey, (Alton bat, 2 co's). .181

Total 11,328

"After the fall of Vicksburg, 1863, and General Sherman's raid into Mississippi, Georgia and Alabama, active military operations were transferred from the Mississippi to Eastern Tennessee and Georgia. The forces of the enemy, during the winter of 1863-4, were being largely increased and carefully prepared for a desperate spring and summer campaign, East and West, and in April he had concentrated his strength for offensive operations in Virginia and Georgia, or, in the event of our advance, for the most determined and bitter resistance. To hold the vast extent of country wrested from the enemy, embracing many States and Territories, many thousand miles of sea coast, the whole length of the Mississippi, and most of her tributaries, and protect our long line of sea and river coast and rail communication, required an immense stationary force. The towns and cities surrounding strongholds, posts and garrisons, situated in the midst of a doubtful and in most part disloyal population, required too great a portion of our large army for their protection and defense. In view of these circumstances, and of the palpable evidence which surrounded us that the battles about to be fought in Virginia by the army under direct supervision of Lieutenant-General Grant, and in Georgia under General Sherman, would doubtless decide the fate of the country, the Governors of the Northwestern States believed that the efficiency of the army and the prospects of crowning victories to the national arms would be greatly increased by a volunteer force, immediately raised, and which should occupy the points already taken and relieve our veteran troops, and send them forward to join the main army, soon to engage the effective forces of the enemy. I, therefore, in connection with Governors Brough of Ohio, Morton of Indiana, and Stone of Iowa, offered the President infantry troops for one hundred days'

LESSONS LEABNED. 149

service, to be organized under regulations of the War Department, and to be clothed, equipped, armed, subsisted, transported and paid as other United States infantry volunteers, and to serve in fortifications wherever their services might be required, within or without the State. There being no law authorizing it, no bounty could be paid or the service credited on any draft. Our quota offered was 20,000 men, which was a fair proportion to the aggregate number (85,000) to be made up by all of said States.

"Our regiments, under this call, performed indispensable and invaluable services in Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri, relieving garrisons of veteran troops, who were sent to the front, took part in the Atlanta campaign, several of them, also composing a part of that glorious army that has penetrated the very vitals of the rebellion, and plucked some of the brightest laurels that this heroic age has woven for the patriot soldier. Five of our one hundred days' regiment, after their term of service had expired, voluntarily extended their engagements with the Government, and marched to the relief of the gallant and able Rosecrans, who, at the head of an inadequate and poorly appointed army, was contending against fearful odds for the preservation of St. Louis and the safety of Missouri. The officers and ^soldiers of these regiments evinced the highest soldierly qualities, and fully sustained the proud record our veterans have ever attained in the field—and the State and country owe them lasting gratitude, and we have, in a great degree, to attribute our successes in Virginia and Georgia to the timely organization and efficient services of the one hundred-day volunteers, furnished by all of said States. The President has, by order, returned them the thanks of the Government and the nation for the service thus rendered, and accords the full measure of praise to them, as our supporters and defenders in the rear, to which the regular reserve force of large armies are always entitled."

With a glow of patriotic pride the Governor thus alludes to the State and its men:

"In prompt support of the Government at home, and in response to calls for troops, the State stands pre-eminently in the lead among her loyal sisters; and every click of the telegraph heralds the perseverance of Illinois Generals and the indomitable courage and bravery of Illinois' sons, in every engagement of the war. Our State

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