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THE QUOTA—NO DRAFT. 125
and asking that the draft be postponed. This was communicated to the War Department, and it was requested to announce the State quota under the last two calls. "The next day it was announced that our quota, under each call, would be 26,148, but as Illinois had furnished 16,987 in excess of her quota, of those in the field, the total quotas, under both calls, was 35,320. Applications were made hourly from the different counties in the State to ascertain what their quota was, and immediately on ascertaining from the War Department what it was, the announcement was made through the public press. Still, in the minds of some, it was a question whether volunteers for three years would be accepted in lieu of militia. This was quickly settled, however, by a telegram on the 8th, from the War Department, that all volunteers would be accepted until the 15th of August for new regiments, and all after that time, for filling up old regiments, and that all volunteers enlisted before the draft (August 18th) would be credited on those calls."—AdjutantG-eneraVs Report
On the 9th General Fuller reported there would be no draft in Illinois, basing his announcement upon the rapid enlistments and the credits for men already in the field, but the same evening he received a telegram from the Assistant Adjutant-General at Washington, stating that it had been decided in fixing the quotas to make no allowance for those in the field prior to the call, and announcing as the Illinois quota to be raised 52,296. This added 16,978 to the needed number. It is due that Adjutant Fuller shall tell how the call was answered, and we quote from the report of 1861-2:
"To raise either 52,296, or 35,320 volunteers (with perhaps the exception of one thousand who had enlisted between July fan and August 5th) but thirteen days were allowed. The floating population of the State who would enlist had already done so. These new volunteers must comevif come at all, from the farmers and mechanics of the State. Farmers were in the midst of their harvests, and it is no exaggeration to say, that inspired by a holy zeal, animated by a common purpose, and firmly resolved on rescuing this Government from the very brink of ruin, and restoring it to the condition our fathers left, over fifty thousand of them left their harvests ungathered—their tools on their benches—the plows in the furrows, and turned their backs upon home and loved ones, And Before Eleven Days Expired The Demands Of
THE COUNTRY WERE MET, AND BOTH QUOTAS WERE FILLED!! PrOud indeed Was the
day to all Illinoisans when this extraordinary announcement was made that the enlistment rolls were full. And when the historian shall write the record of these
eventful days of August, 1862, no prouder record can be created to the honor and memory of a free people than a plain, full narration of actual facts.
"It is not my province, in this report, to bestow fulsome praise, or write glowing eulogies, but when I remember what we all witnessed in those days—when I remember the unselfish and patriotic impulse which animated every soul—and the universal liberality of those who were either too young or too old to enlist to aid those in the field—-when I remember the holy ardor which aged mothers and fair daughters infused into husbands, sons, and brothers—I say when I remember these things, I cannot but feel justified in departing from the dull routine of statistics, and in bestowing upon the subject this passing notice."
•Aye, truly, for the raising of more than half a hundred thousand men within one fortnight, in the second year of war, is worthy such a notice. And no words are needed other than the Adjutant-General has so well employed.
The appended extract, from the same document, will enable the reader to see what the State had done toward filling up the army of the Union:
"Immediately after the call for nine regiments, in July, nine camps were estabtablished, one in each of the old congressional districts of the State, for the temporary rendezvous of those regiments, but with the intention of removing them, as soon as they should be full, into the principal camps of instruction at Chicago and Springfield, for permanent organization and instruction.
"There was, however, in the State barely enough camp and garrison equipage for these regiments, and consequently an additional embarrassment presented itself to provide for those called August 5th. The State was soon full of volunteers. All had left their business, and some of them were without homes. The General Government was unable to supply tents, and there was not time to erect barracks to accommodate half of them. Such, therefore, as were not supplied were directed to remain at home or seek temporary quarters, as best they could, and await orders.
"And still another difficulty grew out of the want of clothing, and especially blankets. All the resources of the Government were taxed to supply the immense array organizing throughout the country, and, considering the immense amount of supplies required, and the suddenness of the emergency which had called out these volunteers, their wants were met with very commendable promptness. In most of the counties of the State there were fair grounds at the county seats. In many counties the sheds on these county fair grounds were repaired and occupied by companies and regiments until quarters could be prepared for them at the general camps of instruction. Several regiments, however, which were unable to obtain quarters at the principal camps, moved from these neighborhood rendezvous directly to the field.
"Six of these new regiments were organized, mustered, armed, and clothed, and THE AGGREGATE. 127
sent into the field in August; twenty-two and Board of Trade Battery, Capt. Stokes, and Miller's Battery, in September; thirteen in October; fifteen, besides the Springs field Light Artillery, Capt. Vaughn, and Mercantile Battery, Capt. Cooley, in November, and three in December, making an aggregate of fifty-nine regiments of infantry and four batteries, consisting of fifty three thousand eight hundred and nineteen (53,819) officers and enlisted men. Besides this, twenty-seven hundred and fiftythree (2,753) were, during about the same time, enlisted and sent to old regiments, tindar the direction of Col. Morrison, State Superintendent. Add to these 1,083, 14th cavalry, now organizing at Peoria: 386 in Camp Butler; 156, Elgin Battery, Capt. Renwick, at Camp Douglas, now under marching orders; 135, Henshaw's Bat* tery, at Ottawa, and 83, Capt. Adams' cavalry company of the 15th regiment, makes the grand total, under the last calls, fifty-eight thousand four hundred and sixteen (58,416), or six thousand One hundred and nineteen (6,119) more than our quotas under the last calls* The excess furnished by this State, as reported by the Secretary of War, August 8th, was sixteen thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight (16,9?8), which, added to the surplus under the last calls of six thousand one hundred and nineteen (6,119), makes the total excess, as officially ascertained, twenty* three thousand ninety-seven (23,097). That the real excess is much greater there can be no doubt whatever. The reasons for this conclusion have been heretofore stated.
"Since the call of August 5th, the Secretary of War has authorized the acceptance of several regiments of cavalry and six batteries of light artillery. But two of these regiments will probably be raised by enlistments, the 14th, Col. Capron, at Peoria, and the 16th, now known as the 17th, Col. Thieleman, at Camp Butler. The 15th, Col. Stewart, was organized on the 25th ultimo, by assigning to his battalion of six companies, two companies, Capts. Willis and Shearer, attached to the 36th infantry; one, Capt. Gilbert, formerly attached to the 52d, and afterwards nominally assigned to the 12th cavalry; one, Capt. Ford, attached to the 63d infantry; one, Capt. Huntley, formerly of the 1st cavalry, and one, Capt. Wilder, known as the * Kane County Cavalry.*
"Four of the six batteries have already been raised. Three of them—Board of Trade Battery, Capt. Stokes; Mercantile Battery, Capt. Cooley; Springfield Battery, Capt. Vaughn—are in the field. The Elgin Battery, Capt. Renwick, is ready and under orders. Capt. Henshaw is nearly full, and Capt. Hawthorne will probably be full the present month."
Within two years the State of Illinois placed one hundred and thirty-five thousand four hundred and forty men in the field, and they had been heard from in the midst of battle. The list of promotions for gallant conduct and superior courage had already become large, and not a few were wearing the insignia of Brigadier and Major Generals, while one of the most modest was steadily making his way to the command of all the forces of the Union.
It breaks the sentiment of State pride which inspires one in reviewing the war record of Illinois, when compelled to read the legislative history of the General Assembly of 1863-4. Assembled at a time of profound anxiety, with the Nation in its struggle for life, with nearly one hundred and thirty-five thousand citizens under arms, surely the solemnity and magnitude of the issues should have elevated those representatives of the people to the dignity of statesmanship, and to a comprehension of the supreme importance of the hour. Alas, that it was not so. The Governor delivered an able and patriotic message, giving full information of the military condition of the State, and recommending needed legislation. Among the topics were, that provision should be made for the payment of expenses incurred in relieving the pressing wants of the soldiers in the field; for compensation to the allotment commissioners, appointed to visit the volunteers in the field and receive and send forward from time to time to their families or friends their respective allotments of pay; to the proper organization of the militia for home service; that provision be made for drafting in all cases where it should become necessary to suppress insurrection and supply any deficiency in the ordinary militia organization, that in the event of sudden danger the entire population, capable of bearing arms, might be called out on the shortest notice; that suitable legislation should provide facilities for military education; that a memorial to the President and Congress be sent from the General Assembly, seeking the brigading of State troops together, instead of scattering them, and that volunteers from the State who had enlisted elsewhere, when the War Department refused their services, might be reorganized as Illinois troops; that Congress should be asked to give the election of officers into the hands of soldiers themselves; and that provision be made for the taking of the votes of volunteers in the field. Said he:
"I desire to call especial attention to the importance of an enactment, making provision for taking the votes of the volunteers of the State in actual service. The fact that a man is fighting to sustain his country's flag should not deprive him of the highest privilege of citizenship; viz., the right to take a part in the selection of his rulers. The soldier should be allowed a voice in the nation for the existence of which he is placing his life in peril. The reason which has excluded the soldier in the regular army does not apply
SOLDIEKS' VOTES. 129
to the soldier in the volunteer service. The regular, loses his State identity, and, to a certain extent, local citizenship. The volunteer', on.the other hand, does not. He still continues to be a son of Illinois, fighting under his State flag as well as the stars and stripes. A force of one hundred and thirty-five thousand volunteered to the field from our State. Of this number it is safe to say one hundred thousand are voters. And if they were not legally voters previous to enlistment, that act ought certainly to make them so. "No man more justly owns the rights of citizenship than he who voluntarily takes up arms in defense of his country and its dearest rights. These men have as deep an interest in the selection of the representatives who are to a great extent to control and direct the destinies of the country, as any other class of persons. The Secretary of War most justly decided that he who votes must bear arms. Shall not the Legislatures of the different States respond by saying: 6 And who bears arms must vote?' I see nothing in our constitution which prohibits the enactment of such law. On the contrary, Section 5, of Article III. of that instrument, provides that 'no elector shall be deemed to have lost his residence in this State by reason of his absence on business of the United States or of this State.' Justice demands that this provision should be carried out in its letter and spirit. Past legislatures, not anticipating the present anomalous condition of national affairs, passed no enactment by which it can be legally carried into effect. A law can be framed without difficulty, providing for taking the votes of the soldiers in active service, at least for the most important officers; viz., State officers, representatives in Congress, and members of the Legislature. In the election of these officers, the soldier, although away from home, takes as much, if not more, interest than the citizen actually on the spot. He reads the newspapers, receives letters from his friends, and in fact understands the issues of the day as well, if not better, than the man for the defense of whose home he has taken up arms.
"It may be objected, that great difficulty and expense would necessarily be created in taking the vote of the army in the field. But I submit that nearly all the difficulty and expense would be obviated by the following simple and effective plan: The three field