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ian, changing as fast as, or even faster than, he also commands the more poignant elothe melody, gives the tension demanded by quence of that other style, associated most modern feeling.
of all with Wagner, in which the harmonies Sensibility thus supplements will in Elgar; shift and grope along the “chromatic ”scale the thoroughly English solidity of his character of semitones and the rhythms coalesce into a does not preclude an awareness of the subtler fluid stream. That is the idiom of mental parts of emotional life-of passion, aspiration, and spiritual as well as of physical yearning; doubt, despair, and religious consolation, and no composer who cannot use it can hope not always found in Anglo-Saxons; and, in- to voice the ever-unsatisfied longings of our deed, it is precisely to this unusual combina generation. It is an idiom that may be seen tion that he owes his place as not only an in Elgar's works growing up alongside the English but a representative modern com- older one, and progressively asserting itself. poser. Now, translated into musical terms, In “ The Dream of Gerontius " it is used this is equivalent to saying that he has mas- with masterly power in phrases of a passionate tered, not only the vigorous style, with its eloquence that must have startled and shocked diatonic harmony and square-cut rhythm, the audiences accustomed to drowse through which with all their differences is common to the traditional oratorio. Here, for example Purcell, Handel, and Mendelssohn, but that (Figure II), is the agonized cry of Gerontius
for mercy, and the magnificent passage with appeal to the Saviour in Parsifal," it is no which the orchestra supplements and expli- servile imitation of it, and will bear comparicates it.
son with it on the score of sincerity, directThese interlacing, groping harmonies, quiv- ness, and power. ering with feeling, take us at once into a dif- At the other end of the scale of passion, erent world from that of Mendelssohn and but not less moving, is the music suggesting Handel. It is the world of Wagner. We the mortal weariness of the dying Gerontius : could hardly give the passage higher praise “So pray for me, my friends, who have not than to say that, while it recalls Amfortas's strength to pray."
FIGURE III. From “The Dream of Gerontius."
Here the music-lover will feel the imagina- painter, or even poet, has quite the Innigkeit tive justice and the musical beauty of Elgar's of Schumann ?), and for showing that even in interpretation, while the student of harmony the twentieth century the spiritual drama set will not fail to note the masterly use of forth in a work of pure music, like his first Wagner's method of free transition from symphony, can be as thrilling as those that key to key, perhaps his greatest contribution have made immortal Beethoven's later quarto musical expression.
tettes and sonatas. The reader may also be struck by the char- This symphony, which has been called acteristic difference between Elgar's treat- “ Brahms's Fifth,” just as Brahms's first ment here and that of the same subject—the was called “Beethoven's Tenth," is worthy languor of approaching death-in Strauss's of the descent thus suggested for it.
It “ Tod und Verklärung.” It is not acci- is a musical epic of nothing in the outdental, but highly significant of the opposed side world, but of the deepest tragedy and attitudes of the two artists, that while Strauss triumph that can go on in a man's soul : emphasizes the external picture—the panting the struggle to attain, in the turmoil of breath, the choking cries-Elgar penetrates the actual world, ideal ends; the bitterly to the inward emotional state.
learned lesson of human finitude ; and the written surprisingly little programme music. final attainment of peace through stoic resigAside from a few realistic touches scattered nation and the spiritualization of ideals. This through the choral works, and the delicate is the burden of all the greatest philosophers little vignette of the friend at sea in the from Marcus Aurelius to Bertrand Russell. "Enigma” Variations, there is only “Fal- It is the element of vitality that gives Beestaff”—and that deals more with character thoven's music its eternal youth. We have than with picture. In this respect Elgar de- reason for the deepest satisfaction that so serves well of his contemporaries for standing eloquent, so thoroughly modern, a version of against a popular but dangerous tendency to the old yet ever new story should have been externalize the most inward of the arts (what made by a musician of our own day.
A MARVEL OF CONSTRUCTION
BY B. C. FORBES
HE art of war in Europe has taught It meant, among many other things, the
the United States new lessons in the expert laying of 3,060,000 bricks, the skillful art of peace.
placing of 7,958,400 pounds of structural This is the steel age—the age of steel battle- steel and castings, the clinching of 352,200 ships and steel sky-scrapers, steel shells and rivets—all in eighty-five days, remember ! steel rails, steel submarines and steel automo- It meant the spending of not less than biles. Mammoth machine shops, munition fac- $1,000,000 ; but it meant, also, the productories, and other “war material ” plants have tion before the furnace's fire should go out been brought into being as if by the waving of of $20,000,000 worth of iron, to be transa fairy's wand. Row upon row of workmen's formed into steel worth—no one dares guess dwellings have sprung out of the ground at how many scores of millions of dollars. industrial centers.
It meant something more than all that. Here is one marvel : A full-sized blast-fur- It meant team-work in industry. It meant nace has been built within the space of eighty- enthusiasm, loyalty, and efficiency of the five days, against a previous record of fully highest order among a thousand workmen, six months.
speaking many tongues, but all intent upon This meant that in less than three months one purpose—the breaking of all records for from the time the first shovelful of earth was furnace-building the world had ever known. dug there was planned, assembled, directed, To accomplish this new methods of indusand set going a monster apparatus for turn- trial co-operation were evolved. ing iron ore into pig iron at the rate of 500 It was on March 6 last that the directors tons per day, worth $10,000.
of the Cambria Steel Company, of Johns
town, Pennsylvania, authorized the construc- As plate after plate was riveted in place by tion of a new furnace. This action was en- the steel workers, the bricklayers climbed tirely unexpected. Control of the company after them, lining the great funnel with brick had passed to a new combination. Steel
to an average thickness of 313 feet.
To prices were soaring, European and American guard against falling material from above the consumers were cla for supplies, and men worked below a very strong roof, or every plant in the country was working at scaffolding, which was built inside the furhigh pressure. The profits on the product of nace; and as the steel workers moved higher a new 500-ton-a-day furnace were alluring. and higher other roofs were built below The order was given for quick action.
them, so that the bricklayers could creep up On March 12 the actual construction and up in perfect safety. So closely did the began. Incidentally, the first measurements bricklaying follow the steel work that the for the foundations were paced by a giant civil entire structure was lined seven days after engineer-he had no tape at hand—and his the steel workers had finished at the top. paces proved so much longer than the regu- The one-half million and more bricks used lation three feet that some six feet additional inside the furnace were laid in twenty-eight unnecessary excavation was done before the days. pacing operation could be checked up ! Meanwhile the four blast stoves and the Foundation holes had to be dug out, not only 180-foot chimney, 9 feet 9 inches in diamefor the wide-girth furnace, which was to ter, were rising out of the earth. Two days tower one hundred and forty-six feet in the after the excavators withdrew the laying of air, but for four other brick-and-steel monu- the foundations was completed. The steel ments in the form of hot “stoves," for a work on the stoves was begun on April 4, monster chimney, and for other minor struc- and here also the bricklayers worked close tures.
behind the steel workers. The first pair were The engineering department was working finished on April 28, and the second pair on day and night preparing detailed plans and May 12. When it is explained that these specifications, for it had had no warning of four stoves contain a total of some 1,600,000 what was required of it. Some one hun- bricks, most of them of special shapes, and dred and fifty huge drawings were devised at 500 tons of steel, and that they measure 100 the highest pressure.
feet in height and 24 feet in diameter, it will The word was passed around among all be realized that this job in itself was not a the workmen, including the Slav laborers, contemptible one. that the company was "out for a record.” June 5 was the goal set as the opening Every man Jack of them entered into the date. I journeyed to Johnstown that mornspirit of the thing, and operations were begun ing and went to the spot-it is called the with a whoop.
Franklin Plant. Bees could not have worked In blast-furnace erection the custom had more busily than these men.
The great always been for one set of workmen to finish brick-lined furnace was being filled up pretheir part and get out of the way before paratory to the torch being applied. another set started. A new system of team- At the bottom was a mass of oil shavings work was originated.
and the like; next was a thick layer of wood; Bricklayers entered the excavation and
then tons upon tons of coke; next a light almost trod on the heels of the excavators. layer of limestone ;- then several tons of iron No sooner was a foot of the ground dug out ore, with coke, limestone, and ore, layer upon than the bricklayers plied their art. Steel layer, all the way up for ninety feet. A workers, too, joined the beehive.
huge bucket was hoisted to the capacious The foundation was finished on April 7, mouth of the furnace every minute and its and twenty-nine days later, on May 6, the contents dumped on a huge bell, which dissteel work was erected completely. That is tributed the material evenly around. Railway to say, the whole steel monument, having a tracks were being laid faster than Hill or diameter of 24 feet at the base, or hearth, Harriman ever built a road. Men were widening to 3034 feet at the “bosh,” and running hither and thither twisting a nut here, tapering to 2272 feet at the “ throat,” had closing a steel port-hole there, painting ironbeen reared to a height of 146 feet, or higher work yonder.
work yonder. Foremen and superintendents than the highest building New York could were making hurried final inspections all boast not many years ago.
over the place. Yet there was no confusion.