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and, second, whether the Republicans, after but twelve years of Democratic rule since four years in which to think it over, are now 1861, it is clear that the Republicans rather ready to concede some of the more important

than the Democrats were the chief enemy in principles for which the Progressives con- mind. Of the new conception of “governtended. On neither of these points, of ment of the people, by the people, and for course, is it possible to speak with certainty. the people,” for which the Progressives How far the Progressives have kept up their stood, Mr. Roosevelt, for nearly eight years party organization since 1912 in anything a Republican President, had been the most but name is difficult to say. There is much conspicuous embodiment; but, although his reason for thinking, however, that not only party reluctantly commended his Administrahas the organization not been kept up, but tion in 1904 and 1908, and reaffirmed its that in some States it has largely lapsed, and commendation in 1912, it nevertheless cast that a considerable amount of reconstruction him out as unworthy, and went down to will be necessary to fit it for the arduous disastrous defeat in consequence. work of a Presidential campaign. An enthu- It would be idle to deny that the Republisiastic convention in this or that State does can party was guilty of much with which the not necessarily mean an effective party organ- Progressives charged it. But it is also useization in the country as a whole. A decline less to cry over spilled milk. Public opinion in the permanent effectiveness of party organi- in this country has undergone great changes zation, however, is likely to mean a weaken in the past eight years, and not the least siging hold of party principles, an admission nificant of those changes is that which has that the policies for which the party now taken place in the Republican party itself. stands do not seem so vivid or imperative as And the surest proof that the party could they appeared to be when the party was give that it has taken to heart the lesson of formed. To the extent to which the Wilson its defeat, that it does not propose to ignore Administration has stolen the Progressive popular rights because it also protects vested thunder-and a good deal of it has certainly interests, and that it is the supporter of big been appropriated, at least in terms— the business only so long as big business does strength of the Progressives has been weak- justice and obeys the law, would be to nomiened ; and it is entirely possible that a con- nate for President in 1916 the man whom it siderable percentage of the Progressive vote repudiated in 1912, and go into the campaign of 1912 might be given to President Wilson to win.

So far as the Progressive platform in 1916 unless a candidate satisfactory to of 1912 is concerned, there are few of its the Progressives is nominated by the Repub- planks at which a rejuvenated Republicanism licans.

need hesitate. The demand for social and The other question, that of Republican industrial reform, the regulation of inter-State concession to Progressivism, goes nearer to corporations, the development of foreign the heart of the matter. As a matter of fact, commerce, the reduction of the high cost of the Progressive movement of 1912 was not, living, the conservation of natural resources, as a party movement, either Democratic or the development of waterways, the abolition Socialistic. It was a revolt against the of corrupt practices in elections, the improveRepublican party as then constituted and ment of agriculture and country life, National controlled. It was born of a widespread control of public health, the strengthening of conviction that the Republican party, notwith the powers of the Inter-State Commerce Comstanding its distinguished record and the mission, the protection of American citizens extraordinary loyalty of its adherents, was at abroad, the regulation of immigration, the heart a party of interests” rather than of enforcement and extension of civil service the people ; that it championed property laws, and Government supervision of investrather than men, employers rather than wage ments—what are these but drawings from carners, monopoly and big business rather Republican sketches, specific illustrations of than the consumer, private advantage rather that broad view of Constitutional power for than public welfare. The“ fatal incapacity” which the Republican party has always stood, of the Democrats and the “deliberate be- and in furtherance of which it has placed in trayal of its trust” by the Republicans were, the statute-books a greater volume of conto be sure, joined in the denunciation of the structive legislation than all other American Progressive platform ; but with no Demo- parties put together ? cratic Administration since 1897, and with To-day, on the eve of another Presidential campaign, the American people are asking man; he has “done the job.” He needs for leadership. They are weary of delay no introduction either to the United States and makeshift and strong words not backed or to any other country ; his name is familiar by deeds. They want a leader who knows everywhere. His views on National issues his own mind and who is not afraid to act are not a secret yet to be divulged; everyas well as to speak. They do not want to body knows where he stands. He is not the go to war with any nation, but they do want representative of any class or section or intera preparedness which will make it unlikely est. He would be the most available Repubthat any other nation will go to war with us. lican candidate, even if the coming election And they want many other things in addition were to be nothing more than a skillful playto preparedness. The deep dissatisfaction ing of the political game ; and every thinking of the people with the Wilson Administration American knows in his heart that the coming is the Republican opportunity. Mr. Roose- election is very much more than a skillful velt is admittedly a great leader. Whether playing of the game. The question for the one likes him or not, he is unquestionably Republican party is not whether it can afford the most vivid and interesting personality in to accept Mr. Roosevelt, but whether it can the modern world. He is not an untried afford to get on without him.




T is a safe rule that the intensity of a

man's convictions on Mexico varies in

versely as the square of the distance between his home and the border.

But what about the American whose home is over the border ? Alas! his opinion counts for little in the determination of the Nation's Mexican policy, for he cannot vote. But I have found that, whereas the Mexican views of Americans on the outside looking in are as various as the hues in a Guadalajara blanket, the views of the men on the inside looking out are fairly monochromatic, and that one color is usually dark, and often black.

I was surprised by the unanimity which I found on my recent trip to Mexico in the feelings of the Americans who are on the inside looking out. Their feelings in sum and substance were virtually this :

“ By no means do we think it necessary or even altogether desirable that the United States should annex Mexico. But it is altogether desirable and necessary that order should be restored in Mexico. We patiently stood the inconveniences of the Madero revolution, for that was the expression in good faith of the popular demand for a more democratic government in Mexico. Our attitude was nearly as serene during the first stages of the Carranza revolution, for,

although some Americans here thought that President Wilson ought to have recognized Huerta, it soon became apparent that Huerta could not control the country, and what all of us want above everything else is a government strong enough to guarantee the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of business. But Carranza has failed to provide such a government, Villa has failed, Zapata has failed, all the Mexicans that have tried it since Diaz have failed, and even Diaz was not so successful a policeman as many of you in the United States believe.

" It has been apparent to us for many months now that this country can be made a fit living-place for civilized people only by the co-operation of some outside power with the best elements among the natives. The United States is the natural power to do this. We hoped that this was going to be done when our forces got a foothold at Vera Cruz. But they soon scuttled out, and we endured the more than ever contemptuous taunts of the class of Mexicans whose favorite sport is gringo-baiting

“Now our soldiers have entered Mexico again, this time, by the President's avowal, for the sole purpose of getting Villa. The American uniform looks as good to us as a sail to men marooned on a desert island.




“ But the · dispersing' of Villa—whatever Americans. Dublan should be accented on that ambiguous phrase may mean—will not the second syllable, but the indomitable Irishbe enough. Even if Villa were caught, the men in our army have dubbed the town situation would be very precarious for Colony of Dublin,” as they have nicknamed Americans who remained here after the the near-by Mexican village of Casas Grandes army had left. If the army leaves without · Casey's Grandest." breaking up all of the lawless bands that make Two of its features force Dublan on the life sg uncertain and painfully dramatic here, retina of the passer-by. In the first place, it every one of us will give up the outposts of is remarkably well preserved. Only every civilization we have struggled so long to hold, tenth house has been war-ruined, instead of and go back to the United States.''

every other house, as in most of the surThat is the warning which comes from our rounding towns. But the first thing you colonists in Mexico, which ought to be heard notice about the village is the architecture. now when the newspapers are filled with After passing, one after another, typical towns reports that the expedition will be recalled of ramshackle, crumbling adobe structure, from Mexico without getting Villa.

suddenly on a high plain you see the pointed To withdraw the expedition now means to towers, baroque gables, and multiform winwithdraw every American from Mexico. dows of multicolored glass characteristic of the

Try to put yourself in the position of the atrocious gingerbread style of architecture that man on the inside looking out. It is strange visited many parts of the United States like what a difference the point of view makes. a plague in the latter part of the nineteenth From the comparative safety of the lobby of century. The walls of most of the buildings an El Paso hotel it is easy to join the chorus are of those small, red, clean-cut bricks which of glory-shouters who assure each other that gave Boston ivy its first foothold; but the ** one American can lick ten greasers.” But gables, roofs, and superstructure in general when you are riding your horse alone past a are shingled over the gingerbread patterns cuartel, with its lounging guard of boy sol- once so popular in Boston's suburbs. diers, you salute them with the utmost An orderly, well-laid-out town it is, intirespect, even though many of them are under mating the orderly, well-laid-out minds of its sixteen, most of them stunted and weak, and solid, plodding citizens. Man has bifurcated all of them dirty, disheveled, and unmartial the Rio Casas Grandes above the town, and in appearance.

one arm of the river is Aung caressingly The first request of Bishop A. B. Call, of about the upper limits of the village, protectthe Mormon colony of Colonia Dublan, to the ing it from the scorching sun and smarting American soldiers that came to camp near sand of the hungry desert. From this arm his town was :

long fingers poke through the town, giving “Don't laugh at the Carranza soldiers, each of the several far-stretching longitudinal fellows. Some of them, who are only bare- streets of Dublan two irrigation ditches as foot boys little higher than their rifles, may gutters, whereby double rows of stately cotseem ridiculous to you well-trained, well- tonwoods have been nourished into a blossomequipped veterans of Philippine campaigns; ing and aromatic maturity. but don't laugh at them. For, if you do, In this garden town the Mormons lived in they'll take it out on us when you have comparative peace until five years ago, raispassed south.”

ing with untroubled minds their abundant The Mormons of Colonia Dublan have crops of grain, live stock, and children. For, fared rather better than the average Ameri- although they will assure the visitor to the cans in Mexico. One reason is that this contrary, polygamy is still practiced enthusicolony, like the other Mormon villages estab- astically. In the single large building of lished in Chihuahua about twenty years white adobe among the village of red bricks, ago, has been sufficient unto itself and has where flocks of tow-headed children learned steadfastly avoided meddling in Mexican pol- their A B C's on week-days, Bishop A. B. itics. Thus what the Mormons have suf- Call—" Alphabet Call” he is called—exfered most other Americans in Mexico have pounded the religion of his people's choice to suffered to a greater degree.

them on warm, clear-skied Sundays. This town was named by the Mormons Up to five years ago at the fairs in El Paso for a Mexican patriot. That was the first and other American cities near the border stroke of diplomacy scored by these shrewd there were no apples, peaches, and pears so luscious and full blown as the fruit of the kind-hearted bandits had left them, they Chihuahua Mormons, no hogs so fat and raised a hard-won crop. This harvest they clean-skinned, no cattle so well-beefed, no counted on for the nourishment of themselves horses so soft-coated, hard-muscled, and high- and their returning neighbors through the strung

winter. But last September Francisco Villa Then came the social earthquake managed came to fair, well-watered Dublan on his way by Madero. The Mormons stuck to their to Sonora for what proved to be his last Mexican homes longer than some Americans, great effort to break Carranza's power, and but the shocks of the “ Red Flagger” up- win the greatest prize of Mexican politics, heaval shook them harder than the Madero recognition of the United States. With the disturbance, and on July 28, 1912, one thou- puissant Pancho was his last army, 12,000 sand Mormons, mostly women and children men and 3,000 women, all half starved and and old men, went to El Paso over the jolt- ripe for looting. ing rails of the Mexican Northwestern and However, the Mormons still remember moved into the tent colony established on gratefully that that time there was much less McGoffin Avenue with the help of a Govern- stealing than they expected. Pancho Villa ment appropriation. Eighty-five lean, hard- directed his people to pay for what they took, handed men remained herding the live stock and, even though the payment was made in of the colony with Winchesters for crooks. the worthless Villista paper currency, the Mor

But a week or two later the attentions of the mons gave him credit for good intentions. thieving followers of that great railway dyna- Proving the fertility of its soil and the miter, Pascual Orozco, had become so un- industry and economy of its men and women, .pleasantly insistent that the rear guard of Colonia Dublan supported those 15,000 blue-eyed husbands followed their wives and hungry Villistas for twenty-five days. children, carrying the last of their family When the army marched out into the heirlooms through the Sierra Madres to mountains toward Sonora, three Mormon boys Hachita, New Mexico, in long-bodied farm- went as guides, leading the horde in which wagons. The considerate Orozcistas did less many a cavalier was astride a horse stolen burning than some of the earnest reformers from the Americans. that have followed them, but they were The battle of Agua Prieta on the Amerifairly efficient looters and left not a centavo's can border settled Villa. It also left in his worth of ribbon in the big Mormon store and heart an undying hate for the gringoes with storehouse which had been filled with goods whom he had recently been so friendly, whose worth $2,000,000.

chiefs had given him many unofficial assurThe subsequent history of the colony is ances that he was their favorite and would suggestive of the wanderings of the Israel- ultimately be recognized by the United States. ites. Bishop Call was a veritable Moses, but Villa left the battlefield at Agua Prieta feelhis rod was a repeating rifle and his decrees ing that he had been “ double-crossed.” And were enforced with a Colt six-shooter. Yet we must admit that there was foundation for he and his people have never actually come his bitterness. Villa lost the battle of Agua to blows with Mexicans. With remarkable Prieta because Carranza troops had been faith in their religion these Mormons have re- permitted to pass through United States terriserved their firearms solely for the protection tory to take the Villistas on the flank. Villa of their persons, watching the plundering of left that battlefield cursing the gringoes up their houses and farms in dumb resignation. and down the whole sulphurous gamut of

A month after the first exodus the men Mexican profanity and pledging the rest of began to come back, and soon their families his life to vengeance on the “traitorous followed them from the tents of Uncle Sam. Americans.” But on April 24, 1914, with their National Our nationals in Mexico, including the Uncle at war with Victoriano Huerta, there Mormons at Colonia Dublan, soon felt the was another exodus. This time few of the wrath of the once powerful general who had Mormons came back to their bone-bare vil- been restored to banditry. Villa himself lage till the fall of 1915. But a few daring cut back through the Sierra Madres south of men and boys with a handful of brave women Dublan, but a detachment of his ragged, had remained through it all, and, with the aid hungry, enraged, and disappointed men deof some of the poorer steeds from their own scended on the little town with the eagerness once numerous herds of horses which the of ravenous locusts, and they cleaned Dublan




of everything edible as effectually as any men to come back, and safe for them to begin swarming insect pests. Everything of value the re-creation of such a paradise on earth as that had escaped the previous four years of would again be a shining lure for every unreplundering was taken now. Approaching strained thief and bandit. And I met not one the Mormons in an assumed air of friendliness, who did not say that the withdrawal of our they asked to see all the firearms in the place. troops without the capture of Villa and the When the weapons were produced, they were subsequent establishment of order would be promptly seized. Thus when later the the signal for that American to leave the village Villistas, growing drunk, demanded that the where most of his life had been spent, this time Mormon women be brought to them, the never to return unless a later Administration men of the colony had only axes and pitch- shouldered the burden which it seems the forks to defend their wives and daughters. present Administration may shirk. But strategy proved stronger than force, and In this the Mormons were no different from the women were smuggled into a shed where, the other Americans in Mexico. But the teshiding under straw, they escaped detection timony of the Mormons is particularly valuwhile the Villistas remained. How the men able because certainly they cannot be called of the colony escaped assassination is inex- capitalists with axes to sharpen on the interplicable. The Villistas taunted, cursed, and vention grindstone. I had an experience that threatened them as the sons of the nation illustrated how all Americans in Mexico have that had betrayed their chief, but stopped suffered during the past five years. At just short of killing. Bishop Call attributes Columbus, before entering Mexico, I bought the escape to the “consistent neutrality of a diminutive sorrel cow pony from a rancher, our colonists and the benevolence of God.” getting a bill of sale for him in due form.

I believe it was more due to their God The day before I left Mexico I was about to than to their neutrality that the Mormons sell the tough little animal to another corresurvived. Neutrality is never a thing to spondent, when a leather-faced, moist-eyed boast of with grace, and it may be sus- old American strolled up. Glancing at the pected that sometimes the Mormons pursued pony, he started, and then drawled, “ Thet's their neutrality to the point of excessive sub- one o' my boy's hosses.” I produced the mission. They are very reluctant to talk of bill of sale, and the old man was forced to their sufferings at the hands of the Mexicans, admit that the horse bore the Circle and lest the vengeful arm of Villa should reach reversed B brand mentioned in the bill. But them even now, with our troops in Mexico. below the reversed B he pointed out a faint But one needs only eyes to get the tragic P, and several scouts in the crowd that had story of the rape of Colonia Dublan.

now gathered around us testified that a circle Where once were window-panes now are and a P was the brand of Arthur McKinney, boards sealing the windows of houses, and even son of this old man, William Q. McKinney. the outer windows of the combination church The reversed B had evidently been burnt and school-house, which is now illuminated into the broncho's hide later than the circle only by candles and by windows on an interior and the P. Arthur McKinney had been a court. Most of the houses are barred and cow-puncher and horse-owner. Three years lucked, but those wherein the brave men and ago his stock was driven off the range by women of the Mormon rear guard still linger bandits and he was warned never to return. to watch the property of the community are He did return, and was shot by Villa a few stripped of all ornaments and of all furniture

months ago

“Old man McKinney” was but the most primitive pieces. Picture frames now in Mexico trying to recover what he still hang on walls, but now frame only empti- could of his son's property. When the brand ness. In barn, corral, and pasture hobble the was identified, I was glad to turn over the lame and halt cattle and horses which even pony to the brave old man. But the incident Mexicans scorn to steal, the worthless rem- is a reminder of what the Americans in Mexnant of former riches.

ico have suffered, and is a warning to those In spite of what they have suffered through who would buy horses or cattle on the border. five years of chaos, I met no Mormon who Caveat emptor ! wanted Mexico annexed to the United States. To every American civilian I met in MexBut I met not one whose first wish was not ico I put this question: for the establishment of a government that will “What will you do if our soldiers leave make it safe for their wives, children, and old Mexico with Villa still at large ?"

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