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expansion ; finally, the cost of the building which these needs would justify. In the course of a year or two, as Mr. Whitaker adds, such a bureau would have accumulated sufficient data to enable it to deal with these problems without labor or expense.

Is it too much to hope that Congress will see this opportunity and provide means whereby accurate knowledge may be obtained and laid before it ?

for the building of a farm prison colony where prisoners will have a chance for reform as they have not in a prison of the cell-block type.

To fasten upon the State the old cell-block idea in the form of a modern building would be to hamper the whole movement for prison reform in which Thomas Mott Osborne has succeeded in interesting the entire country. The right solution of New York's prison system is a matter of National concern, for not only will it affect the greatest congested population in the country, but it will have much to do with the solution of the prison problem in every other State.

A SUBSTITUTE FOR
SING SING

Among the measures passed by the New York Legislature there are two which deal with a subject of National importance. These are the Sage Bill and the Towner Bill for the selection of a site for a prison to take the place of Sing Sing. There are two sites owned by the State, both in Dutchess County. Each bill provides a method for deciding between these two sites, but the methods differ. The Legislature evaded the responsibility of making a decision between these two methods by passing both bills and leaving it to the Governor to decide between them.

The Towner Bill provides for a commission, the majority of which are to be chosen by the Governor. This commission is to choose between the Wingdale and the Beekman sites. It, however, would provide for the erection on that site of an old-fashioned prison with cell-block and other features which modern views of punishment and reform condemn. It sanctions plans that have already been drawn, authorizes the employment of the architect who drew the plans, and specifies the fee that he should receive.

The Sage Bill, which was drawn up after a personal investigation by Mr. Sage, the introducer of the bill, and which has the approval of the Prison Association, provides for a commission, of which three State administra. tive officers shall be members ; and it leaves to this cominission authority to decide not only between the sites but also as to the plan of the building and the character of the prison, and enables the commission to save money in the use of funds for the plans and erection of the building

Of these two bills the Sage Bill is manifestly the better one. It not only provides for a new prison as a substitute for mediæval Sing Sing, as the Towner Bill does, but it also makes it possible, as the Towner Bill does not,

CERVANTES AND
SHAKESPEARE

The date of the tercentenary anniversary of Shakespeare's death can be said to have a double claim to fame, if we are lenient enough to disregard the discrepancy between the Gregorian and the Julian calendars. It was on April 23, 1616, that Cervantes died at Madrid.

The life story of Cervantes could have supplied enough material for a dozen plays from the pen of Shakespeare. Indeed, the story of Cervantes reminds one in many ways of the adventurous days which attended upon so many of Shakespeare's contemporaries. The Spanish novelist would not have felt a stranger to the soldierly labors of Ben Jonson, for he himself served gallantly in war. And Christopher Marlowe, Robert Greene, Thomas Dekker, George Peele, and Thomas Kyd, each and all would have felt a sympathetic understanding for the Spanish writer who suffered so rnuch both from the toils of the law and the hardships of fate.

The greatest of Cervantes's adventures is paralleled only in the romances of Defoe, and not even Defoe has imagined a more perilous experience than befell the great Spanish novelist at the hands of the Barbary pirates. It is not surprising that one who, like Cervantes, had seen war and the results of war at first hand, and who had experienced in such bitter form the disillusionment of great adventures, should have taken upon himself the task of satirizing the old romantic tradition which came to his contemporaries through the imitators of Amadís de Gaula.

How far the development of his satire on the current literary tradition of Spain carried him beyond his original intent is a familiar story to all those who have read the always

modern story of “Don Quixote." Cer- and almost simultaneously with the announced vantes's presentation of the manners and purpose of Dr. Mains not to stand for rethe customs of his time belongs among the election because of his years. He has few great efforts to crystallize within the passed threescore years and ten. The limits of a single writer's work the follies, character of the charge against him may be failures, and successes of an age. The deduced by our readers from his accuser's coarse humor of Boccaccio, the catholic un- quotation of the following sentence from his derstanding of Chaucer, the vision of Shake- supposedly heretical book : speare, the humanity of Cervantes—it would

I have learned to accept the fact that the be an ungracious task to attempt to appor- Bible, as other great literatures, takes into itself tion to each of these its separate fund of the elements of social development, including tribute from the commonwealth of literary tradition and fable, and, however it may be distinction.

shot through with the sun rays of inspiration, it It is interesting to remember that, just as is a book very human in its character, faithfully Cervantes in his attempt to satirize an older

reflecting the thought processes, early and late,

of the races with which it deals. literature created a new medium of expression, so Fielding, in attempting to satirize (in simi- We may add that in this book there is lar manner) the repellent virtues of Pamela, nothing out of harmony with the doctrines added to the world of English letters a taught concerning the Bible and theology by broadened understanding of the function of many, if not by most, of the orthodox theothe novel. The parallel between the devel- logical seminaries in the United States. opment of “Don Quixote ” and “ Joseph We suppose that the Methodist Church Andrews” supplies an interesting incident will recognize the right of Dr. Mains at for literary discussion.

seventy-one years of age to lay aside the

onerous duties of his office, and we write this ANOTHER HERESY HUNT

paragraph simply to advise our readers that In 1903 charges of heresy were brought his non-election will not indicate that the against Professor Borden E. Bowne, of Bos- Methodist Church has gone back on its ton University, one of the keenest and most previous decision in the case of Dr. Bowne. scholarly theological teachers in the Meth- We venture to say for that Church that, while odist Church. His supposed heresy con- it neither accepts nor rejects the modern sisted in holding what may be entitled the view of the Bible and of theology, it will connew theology. As soon as the case could tinue to hold to the right of its members and legitimately be brought before the Court the its ministers to discuss all such questions charges were dismissed. Similar charges freely within the Church, and it will continue have now been brought by the same com- to measure both members and ministers by plainant against Dr. George P. Mains, though their spiritual faith, not by their conformity they are not brought in the same fashion. to ancient tradition. He has been the publishing agent of the Methodist Church for the last ten years. THE CITY CHILD, PLAYGROUNDS Four years ago he published a book entitled AND THE POLICE “ Modern Thought and Traditional Faith,” A useful neighborhood conference took in which he took substantially the same place the other day in a big kindergarten positions as those maintained by Dr. Bowne. room of the New York Teachers College. One of the heresy hunters in the Church has It was called by a Mothers' Association now written “ An Open Letter to the Meth- interested in getting more play space for the odist Public,” the object of which is to pre- children of the upper West Side—where the vent the re-election of Dr. Mains as publish- parks are green and ample, but also where ing agent. The writer of this letter frankly the policeman is ever vigilant to keep restconfesses that he takes this method to oust less young feet on the hard asphalt walks. Dr. Mains from his position because it is These mothers wanted to know what lies impossible to secure his conviction by the behind the rough shout of the “ cop,” “ Hey, Conference to which Dr. Mains belongs. you kids, beat it off that grass !” —what the

It is a curious and somewhat suspicious police themselves think about it. So they coincidence that his charge against Dr. Mains asked the Police Commissioner to come and is not brought until more than four years talk. He did not come, but he sent Sergeant after the publication of his objectionable book Ferré, an embarrassed, upstanding officer

1916

THE WEEK

11

Of course,

who revealed to those New York mothers and the percentage of juvenile delinquency and fathers an astonishing new conception will be cut in half-yes, to a third. Ten kids of the man on the beat.

can find play space where five have it to-day.” ** What's the attitude of the police toward In the vigorous searching for a solution of the children?" Sergeant Ferré repeated, the problem of playgrounds for the city child, reading from a slip that had been handed has a better suggestion been made than is him. “ I'll tell you. We are trying to be the contained in this “ Big Brother” offer of a Big Brothers to the children. We're trying New York police sergeant ? to overcome the children's fear of the cop. We're trying to make the parents of the chil GUATEMALA dren understand that we're the best friends The Outlook on February 16 published an the kids can have. We are going into the account, from facts stated by a correspondent schools, at the assembly hour in the morning, in Guatemala, of the recent election--an acand talking to the kids—telling them why we count in harmony with the views of political have to have laws and why the police have to dominance in that country held by most enforce certain rules. We're trying to make observers. It told how a unanimous election mothers and fathers, as well as the children, was secured by mobilizing all the citizens understand that certain regulations concern between twenty and sixty years of age, pining the use of the parks must be enforced if ning on them buttons announcing their vote the parks are to be kept for the enjoyment for the re-election of the present President, of all. But we are insisting that no unrea and then marching them past the election urn. sonable regulation shall be given us to We now have from Mr. Roger W. Pabenforce.

son, writing from Guatemala, a protest, in * The New York police want the children which, while admitting that democracy in to get as much play as they can, in every Central America is only a name, he says that way and in every place it is possible for them the Republics are doing the best they can to play. We are glad to see certain streets with the raw material at hand. set aside for play and closed during certain however, as Mr. Babson adds, with eighty per hours to traffic ; we're with you in wanting cent of the people illiterate, democracy as every vacant lot in the city turned into a play we know it is practically impossible. ground for the children.

thermore, Mr. Babson insists that President “ Under Commissioner Woods, the police Cabrera “is a conscientious man with the have a strange ambition. I'll tell you what best of purposes.” it is," Sergeant Ferré paused and smiled Other news via Mexico would indicate that broadly. "You know what people think Cabrera was far from commanding the entire about the cop—what they've always thought confidence of the Guatemalans, that there about him. Well, it's got into the very nature has been an important defection in the army, of the cop himself. So that he's like the and that another familiar Central American little mongrel dog that grew up in the city revolt, if not revolution, is impending. streets. Since the first day that dog could remember some boy had tied a tin can to his THE POPE AND THE JEWS tail, and in time the little dog got used to it In the name of millions of Jewish citizens and thought it was all right-not pleasant, of the United States, on December 30, 1915, but all right. Finally it got so that the little the American Jewish Committee addressed a fellow would just naturally back up to every letter to Pope Benedict XV pleading for his tin can he found on the street !

intercession in alleviating the persecution to * The ambition of the New York police, which the Jews in various lands have been don't faint !—is to get rid of our reputation subjected. as ogres. We are not tyrants. We are, The Pope's reply, in a letter to the Com. most of us, fathers of children that we think mittee from Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of a lot of ! We are going to see the day, if our State to his Holiness, has just been made efforts can bring it about, when the kid will public. After some prelude the Pope declares : think of the cop first if he wants a friend. As the head of the Catholic Church, whichi, You know what that will mean for law and faithful to its divine doctrine, . . . considers all order. For solving the question of play men as brethren and teaches them to love one spaces for the children! Why, you take the another, he will not cease to inculcate the obkids and the cops and let them work together, servance among individuals, as among nations,

Fur

..

of the principles of natural right, and to reprove avoided which could injure the justifiable inevery violation of them. This right should be terests of neutral states and be susceptible of observed and respected in relation to the chil- bringing about an aggravation or extension of dren of Israel as it should be to all men, for the war. it would not conform to justice and to religion

Speaking concerning this, Deputy Haase, itself to derogate therefrom solely because of a difference of religious faith.

according to a despatch from Berlin printed

in the New York “ Times,” painted both The letter then says:

economic and military conditions in such dark Moreover, in his paternal heart, pained by and unwelcome colors as to provoke a parthe spectacle of the existing horrible war, the

liamentary storm. President Kämpf was Supreme Pontiff feels in this moment more

forced to close the sitting. deeply than ever before the necessity that all

Haase is a Socialist. men shall recollect that they are brothers and

He is so much esthat their salvation lies in the return to the law

teemed that, though adhering to the minority of love, which is the law of the Gospels. He or radical faction, he has remained President also desires to interest to this end all who,

of the Socialist caucus. The majority faction especially by reason of the sacred attributes of (the majority of Socialist members of Parliatheir pastoral ministrations, are able to bring ment, but, it would appear, not a majority of efficient aid to this important result.

the whole Socialist voting constituency) have, Finally :

as Herr Bernstein says, grown nearer and In the meantime his Holiness rejoices in the nearer to the non-Socialist parties; they are, unity which in civil matters exists in the United to quote him, like men " who, after a long States of America among the members of dif- time in a room with closed windows, no ferent faiths and which contributes so power

longer notice that the air is close.” fully to the peaceful prosperity of your great These conservative Socialists have been country.

standing with the Government as to war We are not surprised to find the “ Amer

credits. Not so the radical Socialists. They ican Hebrew," under the editorship of its

have steadily increased in numbers, but have new editor-in-chief, Hermann Bernstein, say

now themselves split by the withdrawal from ing:

them of the extreme radicals, eighteen memAmong all the Papal bulls ever issued with

bers of Parliament, led by Herr Haaseregard to Jews, throughout the history of the

the main result of his now famous speech. Vatican, there is no statement that equals this

They believe in calling a spade a spade direct, unmistakable plea for equality for the Jews, and against prejudice upon religious

and in telling the whole truth, as they grounds. The bull issued by Innocent IV de- see it. They are now known as Die claring the Jews innocent of the charge of using

Sozialdemokratische Arbeitsgemeinschaft, or Christian blood for ritual purposes, while a the Socialist Labor Community. Among the remarkable document, was, after all, merely a eighteen may be found the names of Liebstatement of fact, whereas the present statement knecht, Bernstein, Stadthagen, and Zubeil. by Pope Benedict XV is a plea against religious The Journal de Genève” declares that prejudice and persecution.

these men constitute the kernel of the Social

ists of the future. THREE KINDS OF

At all events, for the immediate present GERMAN SOCIALISTS

the German Socialists are divided into three The present is one of the most note

factions. The official organ of the Social worthy sessions of the German Parliament. It

Democratic party, the well-known Berlin was expected to be so because of the assertion

Vorwärts," says, according to press desby the reactionaries that they would support patches : the policy of " frightfulness." But, though the

Party unity is the outgrowth of the historic ambiguous measure finally adopted may mean

necessity of the proletarian struggle and of anything, it does not indicate that the Parlia

the indestructible force of Socialistic ideals ment has gone on record definitely in that

which will again weld together with irresistible direction.

strength all elements on Social Democratic Far more important and significant was the principles as soon as the errors and confusion resolution offered by the Progressists and of this maritime warfare shall have been overSocialists reading, as telegraphed, as follows: come.

The Reichstag expresses the hope that in the These “errors and confusion” are causing employment of submarines everything will be what seem to us hopeful divisions in the

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