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covers the bottom of my tin can to the depth of about an inch and a half.

“ And three gills of water is all the inmates of this place are allowed in twenty-four hours.

“ And up to the time that Warden Rattigan took office and first visited the jail all

the water a man here was allowed in twentyfour hours was one gill!”

What do our readers think of these illustrations of the method commonly pursued to-day in civilized America. for the cure and prevention of crime?

THE GARMENT TRADE AND THE MINIMUM

WAGE

AN INTERVIEW WITH
DR. HENRY MOSKOWITZ

PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

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Dr. Henry Moskowitz knows labor conditions in New York City as an industrial center as well, perhaps, as any other citizen. He was secretary of the Board of Arbitration under the Protocol for five years. He recently sent The Outlook an article dealing with the psychology and philosophy of labor conflicts. As a result of reading this article we asked him to tell us about his own personal experience. He kindly consented, and this interview is the result.

Especial interest is added to Dr. Moskowitz's discussion of labor conditions by the great labor dispute between employers and employees in the cloak, suit, and skirt manufacturing shops in New York. From 30,000 to 60,000 employees are without employment as the direct result of a lockout declared by the employers, at once followed by the declaration of a general strike by the employees. The unions claim to be willing to arbitrate and assert that the employers have refused to arbitrate, that they have treated with contempt the Mayor's Conciliation Board formed some time ago to handle just such matters, and that the employers intend to fight organized labor (that is, the unions) to a finish. The manufacturers say that the unions not only demand the closed shop but that they insist that the employers should practically act as collectors of union dues and that the employees' demands as to working conditions and pay are exorbitant and unfair.—THE EDITORS.

HERE is the waist or cloak made wage is a living wage; for the unskilled

that the farmer's wife in Wisconsin workers, no. This is a seasonal industry. A wears ?

worker may be getting a good wage during Chiefly in the biggest market of the United the period she works, but the actual wage States for women's industries, which is the may not be sufficient to pay all her expenses city of New York. Compared with New for the year. Most of them are women York City, the markets in Cleveland, Phila- workers in the waist industry, and most of delphia, Chicago, and Boston are small. the workers in the cloak industry are men.

Are those garments made in factories that In your boyhood days did you know these look like steel works or places where they make people? machines ?

Yes. I even worked in a sweat-shop for They were made until ten years ago in a short time—in a tailor shop. I lived with sweat-shops. Now the great bulk of work is these people and was brought up with them. made in factories in the big loft buildings that I was brought up on the lower East Side of look like office buildings, such as those across New York, which now consists of tenementthe street here, opposite The Outlook's office, houses, and in my boyhood days of many or in similar factories which are located west sweat-shops. Many of these sweat-shops have of Broadway.

now been removed, owing to the activity of the Do the people who make these garments get unions and of the social workers, to progressive good wages ?

legislation, to the removal of the trade to new The unskilled people have been getting buildings in better districts, and to the natural poor annual wages; the very skilled people progress of the industry itself. But the conhave been getting increasingly better wages. gestion on the East Side was chiefly due to

Can they be considered living wages ? the fact that these factories were located near For the skilled operators, yes, their annual (Continued on page following illustrations)

Current Events Pictorially Treated

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PHOTOGRAPH BY C. M. BARNARD

DOMINION SQUARE, MONTREAL This attractive photograph of a business center in a city that is usually pictured as the home of snow and ice presents an aspect which is fully as characteristic as the winter scenes, though less familiar to

most Americans. The new building at the left is the home of a prominent life insurance company

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A GREAT CONFERENCE OF THE ALLIES IN PARIS
To co-ordinate their operations more effectively the Allied Powers recently held a very important conference in the French capital. Some of the distinguished
delegates are easily recognizable in the photograph. At the extreme left of the picture is Mr. Asquith, England's Premier ; to the right, a little farther on, Mr.
Lloyd George's face is turned toward the reader; the figure in the center, with his back to the reader, is Lord Kitchener; at his right, at the table, is Sir William
Robertson, British Chief of Staff, with a military aide behind him; behind the aide sits Premier Salandra, of Italy; and at the extreme right of the picture is
General Cadorna, the great military figure of Italy: at the center of the table in the background of the picture sits Mr. Patchitch, the Servian Premier, patriarchal
in his white beard. Among the other figures in the background are General de Castelnau, General Joffre, M. Briand, Premier of France, and General Roques

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CONTICHT OV UNDERWOOD I UNDERW000

AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT-WOODS NEAR VERDUN
This is not, although it might well be, a picture of a fire-devastated forest in the White Mountains or Michigan. While Americans may gaze with pity at the desola-
tion wrought by war as here shown, they may see many similar examples of devastation in this country, the result of carelessness ao less destructive than cannon
shot. l'ast tracts of valuable forest are destroyed by fire every year in the United States through the carelessness of campers, the scattering of sparks by

locomotives, or the indifference of people who throw lighted matches by the roadside

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COURTESY OF THE ARLINGTON ANT BALLERICA

"THE DOVES OF THE GARDEN," BY SEROR DON ERNESTO VALLS, OF VALENCIA, SPAIN

Señor Valls is a pupil and friend of the great Spanish master Sorolla. It will be remembered that an exhibition of Sorolla's works in New York a few years ago opened the eyes of the American public to the significance and charm of modern Spanish art. Sefior Valls's work has been highly praised by both

American and foreign critics

TWO NOTABLE PICTURES IN RECENT

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