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covers the bottom of my tin can to the depth of about an inch and a half.
“ And three gills of water is all the inmates of this place are allowed in twenty-four hours.
“ And up to the time that Warden Rattigan took office and first visited the jail all
the water a man here was allowed in twentyfour hours was one gill!”
What do our readers think of these illustrations of the method commonly pursued to-day in civilized America. for the cure and prevention of crime?
THE GARMENT TRADE AND THE MINIMUM
AN INTERVIEW WITH
PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
Dr. Henry Moskowitz knows labor conditions in New York City as an industrial center as well, perhaps, as any other citizen. He was secretary of the Board of Arbitration under the Protocol for five years. He recently sent The Outlook an article dealing with the psychology and philosophy of labor conflicts. As a result of reading this article we asked him to tell us about his own personal experience. He kindly consented, and this interview is the result.
Especial interest is added to Dr. Moskowitz's discussion of labor conditions by the great labor dispute between employers and employees in the cloak, suit, and skirt manufacturing shops in New York. From 30,000 to 60,000 employees are without employment as the direct result of a lockout declared by the employers, at once followed by the declaration of a general strike by the employees. The unions claim to be willing to arbitrate and assert that the employers have refused to arbitrate, that they have treated with contempt the Mayor's Conciliation Board formed some time ago to handle just such matters, and that the employers intend to fight organized labor (that is, the unions) to a finish. The manufacturers say that the unions not only demand the closed shop but that they insist that the employers should practically act as collectors of union dues and that the employees' demands as to working conditions and pay are exorbitant and unfair.—THE EDITORS.
HERE is the waist or cloak made wage is a living wage; for the unskilled
that the farmer's wife in Wisconsin workers, no. This is a seasonal industry. A wears ?
worker may be getting a good wage during Chiefly in the biggest market of the United the period she works, but the actual wage States for women's industries, which is the may not be sufficient to pay all her expenses city of New York. Compared with New for the year. Most of them are women York City, the markets in Cleveland, Phila- workers in the waist industry, and most of delphia, Chicago, and Boston are small. the workers in the cloak industry are men.
Are those garments made in factories that In your boyhood days did you know these look like steel works or places where they make people? machines ?
Yes. I even worked in a sweat-shop for They were made until ten years ago in a short time—in a tailor shop. I lived with sweat-shops. Now the great bulk of work is these people and was brought up with them. made in factories in the big loft buildings that I was brought up on the lower East Side of look like office buildings, such as those across New York, which now consists of tenementthe street here, opposite The Outlook's office, houses, and in my boyhood days of many or in similar factories which are located west sweat-shops. Many of these sweat-shops have of Broadway.
now been removed, owing to the activity of the Do the people who make these garments get unions and of the social workers, to progressive good wages ?
legislation, to the removal of the trade to new The unskilled people have been getting buildings in better districts, and to the natural poor annual wages; the very skilled people progress of the industry itself. But the conhave been getting increasingly better wages. gestion on the East Side was chiefly due to
Can they be considered living wages ? the fact that these factories were located near For the skilled operators, yes, their annual (Continued on page following illustrations)
Current Events Pictorially Treated
PHOTOGRAPH BY C. M. BARNARD
DOMINION SQUARE, MONTREAL This attractive photograph of a business center in a city that is usually pictured as the home of snow and ice presents an aspect which is fully as characteristic as the winter scenes, though less familiar to
most Americans. The new building at the left is the home of a prominent life insurance company
A GREAT CONFERENCE OF THE ALLIES IN PARIS
CONTICHT OV UNDERWOOD I UNDERW000
AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT-WOODS NEAR VERDUN
locomotives, or the indifference of people who throw lighted matches by the roadside
COURTESY OF THE ARLINGTON ANT BALLERICA
"THE DOVES OF THE GARDEN," BY SEROR DON ERNESTO VALLS, OF VALENCIA, SPAIN
Señor Valls is a pupil and friend of the great Spanish master Sorolla. It will be remembered that an exhibition of Sorolla's works in New York a few years ago opened the eyes of the American public to the significance and charm of modern Spanish art. Sefior Valls's work has been highly praised by both
American and foreign critics
TWO NOTABLE PICTURES IN RECENT