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the hay corral on the flats beyond the lava gress, one of the best books in the world,” entrance arch at Gardiner. As soon as it it gave a stimulus to Christian work fairly appears at the mouth of the canyon, so the comparable to that of “Uncle Tom's Cabin " railway officials inform us, the elk and ante- to the anti-slavery movement. Nearly the lope, which usually sleep out on the lower whole of it has been republished in portions hills above the hay bottom, begin to troop by pamphlets and the daily press, American in, at first slowly in single file, and then, as and British, some of it even in Chinese, and those behind press forward, on the run. it has gone into European tongues. They mass together, reach the corral in hun- Other works followed rapidly, among them dreds and occasionally in thousands, and “ The New Era,” “ The Twentieth Century wait patiently until the wagon starts on its City,'' “ Religious Movements for Social Betround of scattering the alfalfa where they can terment," " The Next Great Awakening," conveniently reach it.

“Social Progress," “ The Challenge of the The hay is distributed in long rows along City,”

,"? " Our World: The New World-Life," the road, and the elk and antelope follow it “ Our World: The New World-Religion." like ordinary sheep or cattle. Teams, pedes- This last remains unfinished. In 1898 Dr. trians, or photographers disturb the animals Strong organized the American Institute but little. Sometimes the elk move clumsily of Social Service, of which he was president off for a rod or two, or the sheep plunge up till his death. Organizations on its plan have or down the bank for a short distance. Some- been formed in five European countries and times a deer will kick its heels in the air as in Australia. Several of Dr. Strong's publicait runs, in sheer playfulness. Where these tions have been translated into European wild animals keep themselves before the and Asiatic languages. Some have been wagon appears and how they know of its used in our colleges, seminaries, Bible classes, arrival is a mystery. But from the hills prayer-meetings, and daily readings at family where they lie more or less hidden their worship. sharp eyes, and possibly their noses, give What the great Belgian economist, Emile them all the information they need.

de Laveleye, had asserted, “The earthly welPhotographing the wild life gathered on fare of mankind was a capital principle of the this winter feeding-ground is a sport which Founder of Christianity,” Dr. Strong saw on furnishes many of the allurements and none the face of the Gospel. He saw that its of the remorse of big-game shooting. Yel- neglect by a Church intent only on the salvalowstone Park is well known to summer tion of individual souls had alienated the tourists, but here is a phase of its winter life masses of workingmen suffering under social which is well worth the consideration of the wrongs. Only Christ's Gospel of social as traveler and wild animal lover.

well as individual salvation could regain their

respect, their confidence. “ Try the untried JOSIAH STRONG

half of the Gospel,” was his awakening cry. In the death of Dr. Josiah Strong, April Among the now manifest signs of this con28, our country has lost an eminent repre- version of the Church to Christ” that Dr. sentative of a fine type of American citizen- Strong preached is the programme of social ship. A patriot to his heart's core, his reform put forth some years ago by the Fedideal of patriotism was not devotion to eral Council of the Churches of Christ, and our country only, but rather to our country emphasized lately by the Men and Religion for the world. To him our country meant

Forward Movement. our countrymen, who make it what it is, and should make it what it must become, an A MEMORIAL TO inspiring example of the equality of high and HARRIET BEECHER STOWE low in reciprocal duties, rights, and oppor- In the spring of 1914 we were glad to tunities.

publish a letter from Mrs. Susan Huntington Of this patriotic ideal Dr. Strong, for five Hooker asking the friends of Harriet of his earlier years in home missionary serv- Beecher Stowe to help place a memorial ice, has been for the past thirty years our window in the little Church of Our Saviour foremost missionary by voice and pen at in Mandarin, Florida, where Professor and home and abroad. His pioneer book, “ Our Mrs. Stowe so long made their home. BeCountry," appeared in 1886. Pronounced fore Mrs. Stowe's death, many years ago, by Mr. Spofford, then chief librarian of Con- she hoped that such a window would be

1916

THE WEEK

57

was

placed in the church as a memorial to to the quality of mind and heart that made her Professor Stowe, who gathered the people of so dear to her friends. the little Florida community for his Bible Is it not significant of the solidity and perreadings first in the Stowe home and later in manence of the American Union that such a the school-house. It was largely through memorial in honor of the author of Uncle Mrs. Stowe's efforts that the church Tom's Cabin ” should be erected in a Southbuilt, and her friends felt that the time had ern State ? come to place a Stowe memorial window in the church with which Professor Stowe

STRAUSS'S and Mrs. Stowe were so closely and influ- “ALPINE SYMPHONY" entially associated.

Dr. Richard Strauss's latest work, “An Mrs. Hooker now writes us that the work of Alpine Symphony," in which he returns to the Committee is completed, and that a beau- orchestral music after ten years spent in tiful memorial window has been constructed writing music-dramas, received its first perby the Tiffany Studios of New York, which formances in America by the Cincinnati the Committee believes will be a source of Symphony Orchestra on April 27, and by the satisfaction to Mrs. Stowe's friends, “and Philadelphia Orchestra on April 28 and 29. the many pilgrims who come to Mandarin This symphony has been much talked about every year to worship at her shrine.” The since its first European performance in Berwindow is now on exhibition at the Tiffany lin, on October 28, 1915, because of the Studios. Mrs. Hooker adds :

enormous orchestral resources demanded

(including, for example, sixteen horns, six The first dollar that came from the appeal in The Outlook was from a farmer in Iowa whose

trumpets, four tenor tubas, two bass tubas, mother had read “Uncle Tom's Cabin” to him

and six trombones in the brass alone, besides when it appeared in the “ National Era," and,

such “ freak "instruments as a wind machine although he was only seven years old, it had

and a thunder machine), and because of the influenced his character and opinions through extreme to which he has pushed in it his life.

practice of writing programme music-music, A letter from Andrew D. White gave a most that is, that attempts to paint scenes as well charming description of his visit to Mrs. Stowe

as express feelings and ideas. in Mandarin ; of their ride with the mule in the

There are certainly some impressive cart, gathering oranges in a market basket, and

instances of musical scene-painting in the while eating them discussing all kinds of vital

new symphony. It opens, for instance, with questions. A letter from Cambridge tells of a visit as a

a picture of Night, suggested by a slow downchild in the delightful Stowe home, and says

ward-creeping minor scale, each tone held that "the little buzzing Mary Draper" referred until all are sounding in a cloudy mass from to in “ Palmetto Leaves " was named for the the stringed instruments, while the trombones writer of the letter.

solemnly announce a choral-like theme sugA well-known banker in New York recalls the gestive of the mountains. There is a silvery fact that his father was one of the students at flashing Alpine cascade, pictured in gushing Lane Seminary when Lyman Beecher was

arpeggios of futes, clarinets, violins, harps, president and there was so much agitation over the pros and cons of slavery.

and the happily named celesta. There is a In sending a contribution from the colored

truly blood-curdling storm, with ebbing and school-children of Mandarin, their teacher flowing noise from the gigantic orchestra fit writes: “It goes as a tribute to that noble to crack the welkin. And Strauss is such a woman who, by writing · Uncle Tom's Cabin,' master of the orchestra, such a magician in achieved so much for the emancipation of their rich and ear-seducing sonorities, that there race."

are many passages more nearly approaching A son of the artist who painted “ The Signing the older idea of music which cannot but of the Emancipation Proclamation” at the delight the ear, as a part of the “ Entrance Capitol in Washington asked to share in the

into the Woods" does, or astonish and overwork; Mandarin friends who had returned to England even in the stress of war did not wish

power it as the tense, almost painful sounds to be left out ; the colored people of Mandarin, of “ On the Summit” do. many of whom she had taught to read and write,

But as this typical modern German comwere all glad to help. Letters and money from

poser has gone from work to work, piling up her old friends in Hartford and all New Eng- an ever more formidable array of material land have been full of reminiscences and tributes means, aiming always at more exaggerated, So

sensational, and crudely quantitative con- history as marked by great inventions and trasts, subordinating the mind to the senses, industrial development, but there is noththe thought to the sound, expression to de- ing to indicate it. The displacement of the piction, one has been unable to resist the horse as a tractive power by the first elesuspicion that there is something funda- mentary steam-engine was followed by dismentally wrong in such an artistic materialism, placement of this engine by another more such a policy of “frightfulness" in music. complicated, the displacement of that by a Such a policy, it would seem, too much ig- type yet more advanced, and so on, till we nores the mental, emotional, and spiritual have come to the turbine and modern comside of art, which, though less obvious than plicated steam-engine. Now steam is giving the physical or sensuous, is, in music espe- way to electricity as a motive power. cially, far more vital. The essence of music new gods supplant the old. is the thought, the melody. If this thought Recently the United States launched a is commonplace, as it often is with Strauss, new dreadnought driven by electricity generno splendor of instrumental embodiment, no ated by steam. Several railways have already glory of its flesh, so to speak, will permanently taken the electrical power that has worked conceal the poverty of its soul. If, on the so well on street, elevated, and subway sysother hand, the thought is noble, profound, tems and applied it to their regular passenger tender with the tenderness that comes only service. But the Chicago, Milwaukee, and to a wise and chastened spirit, as so many St. Paul Railway has recently been the first of the melodies of that other great German one to inaugurate an epoch in transportation of a far different ideal, Beethoven, so con- by establishing the first long-distance stretch stantly are, then it needs po elaborate physi- of electrified track. cal incorporation to make its quiet but potent The Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul is appeal to our sense of beauty. The greatest already using mainly electric locomotives over of Beethoven's immortal thoughts need no a two-hundred-and-thirty-mile section of road more than two violins, a viola, and a violon- between Harlowton and Deer Lodge, Moncello to give them voice. Yet so full of tana. This section includes two entire “ enmeaning are they, so rich with garnered ex- gine divisions " and traverses the great conperience, with human sympathy, with spiritual tinental divide of the Rocky Mountains as aspiration, that it takes a lifetime of study to well as the main ridge of the Belt Mounappreciate them.

tains. Officials of this road promise that in Strauss is more easily approachable, in- a few weeks not a single steam locomotive finitely more effective superficially, more sat- will be left on this section. And within a isfying to the man who listens with his ears few months it is planned to complete the rather than with his mind and heart. His electrification already begun of two additional vivid pictures appeal to many who do not engine divisions comprising a stretch of track yet respond to the deeper emotional power between Deer Lodge and Avery, Idaho, makof music. He gives much, too, especially in ing the total distance of the four divisions such a masterpiece as “ Till Eulenspiegel," four hundred and forty miles of continuous to the purely musical faculty. But his in- electrified track. creasing preoccupation with the body rather The advantages of the electric power from than the soul of art is disquieting. It indi- the passenger's point of view are evidentcates a materialism which may prove disas- less noise, no smoke, and no cinders. From trous. For in art, as in ordinary life, it is the point of view of the railway management, possible in a veritable palace of luxury, fitted it is said that the electric locomotive excels with “all the modern conveniences,” to the steam locomotive on stiff grades, particustarve to death.

larly in winter, when the steam-engine loses

much heat by radiation. The elimination of NEW GODS FOR OLD

fuel trains, coal and water stations, and ash The rapid strides made in industry and dumping is another advantage to the railway. commerce during the nineteenth century by The electric locomotive costs more to build the application of science and man's inventive than the steam, but costs less to operate, has powers to the problems of his material exist- a greater tractive power, and is much more ence have yet shown no indication of slacken- responsive to an unexpected extra demand ing in the twentieth century. We may be on its strength than a steam locomotive. Of nearing the end of the era to go down in course the initial cost of supplanting steam

1916

COURAGE WITHOUT FORESIGHT

59

power with electric is great, but more and

COURAGE WITHOUT FOREmore railway men are coming to believe that in the long run the substitution pays.

SIGHT

The unconditional surrender of General THE AMERICAN

Townshend's forces, long besieged in Kut-elARTISTS' AID SOCIETY

Amara by the Turks, ends, for the present The plight of the Blakelock family, to which at least, England's brave but ill-considered The Outlook has already called the attention Bagdad adventure. The loss does not in the of its readers, also calls attention to the fact least affect the major battle-lines of the great that, though we are in this country far from war ; from the large military standpoint it is being as well supplied with material aid to insignificant; it does not appreciably diminish necessitous artists and their families as is the Allies' prospect of final success. What is France, for instance, our artists have been important is its moral effect. The attempt was endeavoring to do what they could among doomed to failure from the outset. English themselves. The result has been the forma- soldiers have everywhere fought well, but tion of an Artists' Aid Society, which certainly English generals and war councils seem slow needs wider support than it now has.

to learn the lesson of the Boer War; over 'It may be said that there is no reason and over again—at Gallipoli, in the case of why a painter who becomes incapacitated or Servia (and, some would say, of Belgium), in dies should receive greater material succor the Balkans negotiations, and in the Mesothan if he had been in some other walk in potamian campaign—they have moved too life. Doubtless among plumbers, for in- soon or too late ; they have fought without stance, or bricklayers, there may be found taking account of the odds; they have been quite as many cases appealing for aid. ill served by their information departments. And yet the fact that men have enriched “ Dogged does it " is a capital motto, but the world by painting beautiful pictures- “ Haste makes waste ” is equally sound. To pictures which go to make men finer in push ahead in a bull-headed way and hope to quality as they gaze at them, pictures which "muddle through” somehow is disastrous. because of the inspiration of their creators Fortunately—and again exactly as in the awaken aspiration in the observers—certainly Boer War-hard experience has had its gives to those creators a peculiar niche in the effect, and since this Bagdad fiasco was respect, appreciation, and esteem of the pub- entered upon the reconstitution of Great lic.

Britain's war methods at home and in the The society in question is composed of field promises better foresight and judgment artists not over fifty years of age who main- than were seen in Churchill's belated and tain a fund for the families of deceased mem- weak attempt to relieve Antwerp; or in the bers. But such a fund is far from being blunders which lost the chance of breaking sufficient to meet all needs. We should have the Turks' defense at Suvla Bay, as frankly here, if possible, the French law, which re- and convincingly told by Sir Ian Hamilton; quires from all sales of pictures at public. or in the blindness as to seemingly obvious auction a small percentage for the benefit probabilities which led to this Kut-el-Amara of incapacitated artists or the estates of surrender. those deceased. Should an artist have no The Mesopotamian campaign was a huge heirs, the portion of the fund that would go blunder. It was to be a dash to Bagdad from to his estate is accumulated as a benevolent the Persian Gulf—that is, a “dash" over hunfund for other artists.

dreds of miles in a difficult country against a A plan now proposed is that artists should fortified enemy of unknown strength. Genreceive a small percentage, say two per cent, eral Townshend's army started with at least of the increase in value of their pictures from twenty-five thousand men ; it surrendered each sale. Public attention has been justly less than ten thousand strong. What has bearoused by notable instances in which painters come of the rest ? It was sent (English newsfailed to realize anything like the value of their papers say against General Townshend's masterpieces—such an instance as the now judgment) up the Tigris River, with no rail famous “Moonlight,” sold by its creator, communication, nearly five hundred miles Blakelock, for $400, and resold a few weeks from its water base, to attack whatever army ago for $20,000. A reproduction of this the enemy might have. Victorious in its picture appears on another page.

earlier actions, it was first checked at

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PERSIAN

GULF

THE WAR IN ASIA MINOR
Two recent events in the war, reported this week in The Outlook, relate to the regions shown on these maps. The surrender of General Townshend's
forces took place at Kut-el-Amara, shown here on the larger map, over 100 miles southeast of Bagdad. The Russian forces moving south toward Bagdad

have reached Diarbekr, about 400 miles northwest of Bagdad-see small inserted map

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