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the letter of this law, we have violated in our PREPAREDNESS AND THE dealings with Mexico. We have destroyed

PRESIDENT one government by refusing to recognize Huerta ; we have tried to put another gov- On December 8, 1914, when the military ernment in its place by recognizing Carranza. and civic experts of the country were urging Mr. Lansing has declared, and his concise a policy of systematic preparedness, the Presihistory of the last three years has demon- dent said in his Message to Cɔngress that all stated the truth of his declaration, that this this was the talk of

nervous and excited” Carranza government is not worthy of the people. name, because it has failed to perform the To-day he is practically making war on paramount obligation for which governments Mexico, and is calling on the National Guard are organized. Under the régime which we as the second line of defense to the regular have helped to impose upon Mexico, north- army, which he and his party in Congress western Chihuahua has had seven govern- have up to within a few days kept in a state ments in five years. No “regrettable con- of military weakness. All praise is due to sequences " which might result from a strong, the young men of the National Guard who just, and beneficent government administered have responded to the call. But there is every by America could conceivably compare with evidence that the enlisted men of the Nathe “ regrettable consequences " which have tional Guard are being sent to the border ensued from our policy of intermeddling improperly trained and equipped. without intervention.

part of this evidence, we quote the following Our young men are going down to Mexico, statement made by Mayor Mitchel, of the summoned by the President, to protect our city of New York, on Tuesday of last week borders from marauders. They are going at a meeting called to discuss the situation. loyally because the President calls them and Mayor Mitchel is the best administrative he is the President; but the Nation is not officer that New York City has had for a responding in any such spirit of enthusiasm quarter of a century. He knows something to the call of President Wilson as that with about military affairs, for he was a “rookie" which it responded in 1898 to the call of at Plattsburg last year, and has made, as well, President McKinley. This is not because a careful study of military history and techMcKinley was a Republican and Wilson is a nique, and what he says cannot be ascribed Democrat; it is because when Wilson calls to partisan antipathy, for he is a Democrat Americans he publicly disavows any intention and has been a supporter of President Wilson : to use the power of America for the service

I don't suppose anything could more clearly of its unfortunate neighbor, and when demonstrate the present prostrate condition of McKinley called Americans he called them this country than what is going on in this city specifically to deliver a neighbor suffering

and in this State and in other States to-day, under the intolerable burden of a foreign

where we see the men of the National Guard despotism. Mr. Mason's article in The called to the concentration camps. These fel. Outlook last week, giving an account of the

lows, the finest in the country, are responding, American “ Crusaders of To-Day," demon.

only to find when they go out that they are withstrates that the spirit of chivalry is not extinct

out equipment, without horses, and without the

facilities for a successful campaign. in the hearts of the American people. We

I want to say that the Government that sends ought to send an army to Mexico, not to fight

these young men, unequipped as they are, down the Mexicans, but to protect them; not to to Mexico with any expectation that they will make war, but to end war ; not to govern accomplish results is exposing them to the them, but to lay the foundations for self- same risk and jeopardy that the first force that government, to feed the hungry, to heal the went from England was exposed to, and if somesick, to protect the defenseless, to make thing of the same kind happens we have only possible the rehabilitation of industry, to fulfill the American people and them to thank for it. for the time being what Mr. Lansing rightly

The most important thing, to my mind, is to

call for organization throughout the country to says is the first duty of any government-the

secure from Congress adequate legislation, and, protection of life and property—and then

if need be, to secure a Congress that will enact to enable the people, under rulers of their

adequate legislation. Just as the pacifism and own choosing, to organize a government able indifference of the sitting Congress is non-parand willing to fulfill this paramount obliga- tisan, so the movement to obtain a Congress tion.

that will enact adequate legislation ought to be

1916

THE TEST OF COURAGE

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non-partisan. We don't care-I don't, at all possible to build society on so strong a basis events-whether the men who go there pledged that it will automatically remain pure and to real defensive legislation are Democrats,

vigorous. Society must be saved in every Republicans, Progressives, or what you will. I firmly believe the situation that this country

generation. It is impossible to capitalize it faces, and the greater situation that eventually

so strongly that it can rest safely on its it will in the future, transcend all parties

accumulated moral strength. and party considerations; that it is the future

It has been shown many times in the comof the American Republic that is at stake, and mercial world that a business house cannot be men can decide that question irrespective of built so strongly that it will go on by its own party.

momentum after the men who have created Mayor Mitchel's words ought to be read

it have passed away. It will go on for a by every thoughtful citizen in this country. time, but with subsiding energy, and ultiThe man who is responsible for the situation

mately, unless its strength is renewed in the which he has described is the President of newer generations, it will end in bankruptcy. the United States. It is all very well to cry,

The attempt to establish society so that it " Support the President." But how can he can rest on its oars, so to speak, is doomed have whole-hearted support from those men

to failure ; because the “ power not of ourwhose sons and brothers and friends are go

selves which makes for righteousness” seems ing to the border to suffer from disease, lack

to take very little interest in ease and prosof food, lack of munitions, and lack of equip- perity and an enormous interest in the esment, and who were called “nervous and

tablishment of righteousness. Morality," excited” when they protested and prophesied

Lord Morley once said, “ is not in the nature eighteen months ago that this was exactly

of things; it is the nature of things ," and what was going to happen?

morality is a daily and hourly reassertion, in The only real step in the direction of pre

definition and conduct, of righteousness. paredness for this country to-day is to turn

The testing of courage is not the moment out the men who are the direct cause of all when the charge is made with ringing bugles the present deadly inefficiency, and elect and the impetus and inspiration of a great those who are competent and determined to strain onward; it is when the inspiration of remedy, as far as possible, the terrible action has been lost; when all the conditions mistakes of the last two years and to prevent

are full of disillusion, and few see clearly on their repetition in the future.

account of the depression and monotony; and only they are heroically strengthened who are

steadfast in the faith in which they began the THE TEST OF COURAGE

fight-loyal to the very end. No one who reads

the reports that come from the battlefields In all great crises phrases are born. Real of Europe can have the slightest idea of the phrases are not manufactured; they sum up stolid and almost despairing loyalty with which and express great experiences. Such a phrase millions of men are now living in the mud, is that which was used by General Gallieni, standing fast with grim determination, though quoted in The Outlook of June 1+: " Jusqu'au with hardly a glimpse of victory. These bout!” When a year ago he was attacked are the real heroes of the war ; and these by a grave illness which a slight operation and are its blackest hours. In every great a short but immediate rest would have cured, struggle, national or individual, the crisis he declined to drop his work, saying, “ A comes, not when the danger seems most imchief must set an example in war time, and minent, but when the inspiration has ebbed; go jusqu'au bout !!"—that is, to the very and men stand fast, not because they see end. Unconsciously or instinctively, as brave that they are gaining ground, but because men do, the "savior of Paris " not only struck they have pledged themselves to stand fast a great note but announced a great princi- to the very end. And no careers are more ple of life in those words. It is the men inspiring than those of the men who, like who go “ to the very end" who are in every Cavour, have stood year after year, through generation the saviors of society ; they pre long.continued and paralyzing discourageserve it from stagnation ; they redeem it ments and defeats, resolutely to the very from corruption. It is undeniable that there end. Victory waits for such men and rewards is a downward sag in society, that it is im- them.

W

HEN Mr. Roosevelt telegraphed In March Mr. Roosevelt had said that he V "conditional refusal ” of the nomito the Progressive Convention his was concerned that there should be a unity

of forces under a candidate who would not ination, there were some Progressives who only stand on a platform of National Amerithought that he might yet possibly be per- canism, but would in good faith put it through suaded to run against Mr. Hughes. These if elected. Mr. Hughes's record, in Mr. Progressives were solicitous for the preserva- Roosevelt's opinion, is a guarantee that he tion of their party, and they felt that that was will do just that. As to the support of Mr. the paramount issue. Most of the Progress- Hughes by professional German-Americans ives, however, felt that the paramount issues of the so-called German-American alliances, were those forced upon the country by the Mr. Roosevelt had this to say : European war. In this respect they agreed I believe that the attitude of these profeswith what Mr. Roosevelt himself had been say- sional German-Americans was due, not in the ing for months. The Progressive National least to any liking for Mr. Hughes, but solely to Committee represented the will of the majority their antagonism to me. ... These men may by voting, on Monday, June 26, to make no have nothing in common with the great body of nomination, but to indorse Mr. Hughes.

Americans who are in whole or in part of GerIn his letter making final his decision not

man blood, and who are precisely as good to run, Mr. Roosevelt put before the Pro

Americans as those of any other ancestry. ... gressive National Committee and before the

No good American, whatever his ancestry or

creed, can have any feeling except scorn and country the reasons for his decision. In

detestation for those professional German1912 events proved, he said, that the Pro

Americans who seek to make the American gressive party offered the only alternative to

President in effect a viceroy of the German Democratic success, and since 1912 the prin- Emperor. ciples for which the Progressive party stood The professional German-Americans of this have been given a tremendous impetus by type are acting purely in the sinister interest of what that party has done. It had become Germany. They have shown their eager readievident in the meantime, however, that the ness to sacrifice the interest of the United Progressive party had ceased to be a means

States whenever its interest conflicted with that by which those ideals could be put into effect.

of Germany. They represent that adherence to “ Under such circumstances,” said Mr.

the politico-racial hyphen which is the badge Roosevelt, “our duty is to do the best we

and sign of moral treason to the Republic. I

have singled these men out for specific denuncan, and not to sulk because our leadership ciation, and assuredly if I supposi a candidate is rejected.. . . It is unpatriotic to refuse

it may be accepted as proof that I am certain to do the best possible merely because the that the candidate is incapable of being influpeople have not put us in a position to do enced by the evil intrigues of these hyphenated what we regard as the very best.” In Mr. Americans. Roosevelt's opinion, the present Administra- Mr. Hughes's character and his whole course tion has been “guilty of shortcomings more

of conduct in public affairs justify us in the signal than those of any Administration since

assured conviction that the fact that these men the days of Buchanan.” It has relaxed the

have for their own purposes supported him will spring of the National will and deadened the

in no shape or way affect his public actions

before or after election. His entire public life National conscience. In that conviction he

is a guarantee of this. had spoken again and again on behalf of the reunion of the opposition to the Democratic Mr. Roosevelt then proceeded to contrast party under a leadership that would stand with this record of Mr. Hughes the three for Americanism and preparedness. If the years of Mr. Wilson's Administration. He Republicans refused to provide such leader- declared that in Mr. Wilson's case we do not ship, he had been prepared to accept the have to consider his words, but his deeds; that proposed Progressive nomination himself. the trouble caused by the professional GermanWhether he would accept or not, it had been Americans was due to Mr. Wilson's " timid and impossible for him to tell in advance. “In my vacillating course;" that the very existence of judgment," wrote Mr. Roosevelt, “ the nomi- the European war made it easier for Mr. nation of Mr. Hughes meets the conditions Wilson to assert our rights than if he had had set forth in a statement of the Progressive to deal with a strong Power unhampered by National Committee issued last January and war; that courage, resolution, and judgment in my own statements."

could have put a stop to the murder of

a

HUGHES, ROOSEVELT, AND UNION

533

years."

American men, women, and children ; that the there must be, Mr. Hughes said, a united members of the Republican Convention were party “reconsecrated to its loftiest ideal.” induced to nominate Mr. Hughes because In this message, which he sent by messenger his integrity, character, and record would to Oyster Bay, Mr. Hughes wrote to Mr. make him acceptable to the country. “I do Roosevelt : not believe that Mr. Hughes would have You have sounded forth the trumpet that been nominated,” Mr. Roosevelt added, " if shall never call retreat. And I want you to it had not been for the fight on behalf of feel that I wish to have all the aid that you are public decency and efficiency which the Pro- able and willing to give. I want the most gressive party has waged during the past four effective co-operation with all those who have

been fighting by your side. Let us work toAsking his fellow-Progressives to disregard gether for our National security and for the

peace of righteousness and justice. personal feelings and political fortunes, and to consider only the welfare of the whole In addition, Mr. Hughes at once sent to country, Mr. Roosevelt warns them that “no the Progressive National Committee a teleman can tell what trial and jeopardy will have gram which, like Mr. Roosevelt's letter, to be faced by this Nation during the years ought to be made accessible to every voter. immediately ahead.” There is only one

Like Mr. Roosevelt, he is profoundly conquestion before the country—" whether dur- vinced that by prompt and decisive action ing these possibly vital years this country the Lusitania tragedy would have been preshall be intrusted to the leadership of Mr. vented, and he holds the Administration Hughes or Mr. Wilson.” In Mr. Roosevelt's responsible for the use of our soil as a base view, Mr. Wilson and his party“ have for alien intrigues. He quoted from Mr. brought us to impotence abroad and to di- Lansing's note to Carranza a description of vision and weakness at home. . . . They conditions in Mexico (the same passage which have taught us that peace ... is to be put The Outlook quoted in its editorial last week), above righteousness. Yet in Mexico and declared that that passage was an indictthey have failed even to secure the peace ment of the Administration's Mexican policy which they thus sought. ... They have by the Administration itself. He pointed out raised indecision, hesitancy, and vacillation that support of the Government in such a into a settled Government policy.” In con- situation as the present one does not mean trast, Mr. Roosevelt places the record of approval of the course of the Administration. Mr. Hughes, which has shown him to have He expressed his profound belief in the " the instinct of efficiency," the habit of effort to improve conditions of labor, to protranslating words into facts, which warrants tect women and children, to conserve natural the belief that he will be the unfaltering op- resources, and to lay underneath every effort ponent of invisible government, and which to promote social justice “ a stable foundation proves him to be a man of unbending integ- for honorable enterprise.” He urged the rity and original and trained ability. Mr. necessity of rescuing commerce from uncerRoosevelt, therefore, earnestly bespeaks tainty and confusion, and of showing that we from his fellow-Progressives“ their ungrudg- know how to protect the public without criping support of Mr. Hughes."

pling our productive energies. This letter of Mr. Roosevelt's has been “To what agency," asked Mr. Hughes, accepted for publication in the “ Congres- "shall we look for the essential, construcsional Record,” and is therefore to be a tive programme on which security public document.

and prosperity must depend? It is vain to In words that are no less generous because expect it from the Democratic party. That they are just Mr. Hughes at once expressed party has not the National outlook. : . . We to Mr. Roosevelt his appreciation of Mr. must make the Republican party the instruRoosevelt's indorsement and his recognition ment of our advance. We want deeds, not of - the lasting indebtedness of the Nation" words. ... The Progressives have insisted to Mr. Roosevelt - for the quickening of the on responsible, not invisible, government; on National spirit, for the demand for an out-and- efficient administration. I yield to no one in out-one hundred per cent Americanism, that demand. ... I find no difference in and for the insistence upon the immediate ne platform or in aim which precludes the most cessity of a thoroughgoing preparedness. spir- hearty co-operation and the most compiete itual, military, and economic." To this end unity. It is within the party that the liberal

Our

izing spirit you invoke can have the widest candidate opposed to the extension of slavery and most effective influence."

and devoted to the preservation of the Union,

it is inconceivable that Abraham Lincoln As a separate political organization the would have insured the election of a proProgressive party will not figure in this Na- slavery and secession candidate by running tional campaign. As an influence revolution- on an opposing ticket. Those who regard izing the thought and action of the country, it the present crisis as one affecting the unity has been and will continue to be, perhaps, the and security of the country, threatened most powerful single factor in this campaign. by disloyalty and disregard of National · To have continued it as a separate party, duty from within and by aggression from with its own candidate, would have been to without, will be thankful that there is no destroy its power and to frustrate its purpose. such division of forces that will make the If in 1860 the Whig party had nominated a issue confused.

WAR WITH MEXICO?

A POLL OF THE PAN-AMERICAN PRESS

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civilized country then took it for granted that if the Chinese Government was not able to protect the legations the right to protect them existed elsewhere. It was not deemed that the landing of the allied force was in any way a violation of Chinese sovereignty. ... The American troops are in Mexico with right, and, being there with right, they are not subject to the peremptory orders of Carranza.

T appears almost certain that the Ameri

can public is going to be forced, very

much against its will, to learn a great deal concerning the geography, and particularly the topography, of northern Mexico." So says the “ News” of Greensboro, North Carolina. This is a natural remark. One has but to review the history of the present Administration at Washington as affected by Mexico to realize it. That history is thus chronicled by the Minneapolis “ Journal :”

Mr. Wilson began by ordering Americans to abandon their livelihood and their property in Mexico. ... He ordered an American cruiser out of Tampico, leaving the task of rescuing imperiled refugees to British and German warships. He demanded a salute from Huerta, and never got it. He occupied Vera Cruz, squeezed Huerta out of power, and then abandoned the port. ... He favored Villa and then Carranza, meanwhile facilitating the arming and equipping of first one and then the other. He permitted insult and outrage along the border, and wholly ignored the Santa Ysabel massacre. Then came the Columbus raid with its ... "punitive expedition."

MR. LANSING'S NOTES: TO CARRANZA

Our case against Mexico was outlined in the note of Mr. Robert Lansing, Secretary of State, to General Carranza, reported last week in The Outlook. Replying to Carranza's demand that American troops be removed from Mexican territory, the note sums up all that has passed before in the way of official dispute, and, as the Carranza Government has shown itself incapable of protecting our border against Mexican bandits, declines to withdraw our troops. Among other papers, the Grand Rapid "News" notes that insincerity on the part of the Carranza Government is more than hinted at. The "News" continues :

Although assurance has been given that American lives would be protected by the Carranza Government, no steps have been taken to protect them, and both the lives and the property of American citizens have been destroyed.

From the moment of Carranza's official recognition by the President he has had the unqualified support of this Government. ButoCarranza has double crossed the Administration at Washington beyond the shadow of a doubt. ...

He could not unite the various factions of Mexico excepung in one common cause-war

(Continued on page following illustrations)

THE CARRIZAL PRISONERS The latest event to complicate the international situation was a bloody encounter at Carrizal in which some American soldiers were killed and others taken prisoners. Says the New York 6 Globe :"

American troops are in Mexico because armed men coming from Mexico have repeatedly invaded the United States. ... The status of our punitive expedition is practically the same as that of the international punitive expedition that went to Peking when the legations were besieged by insurrectionary Chinese. Practically every

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