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charging employees, and to substitute a raNEW PRESIDENT

tional, systematic method for the arbitrary College presidents are no longer selected will of a foreman, has been the sort of probsolely from the so called professional ranks. lem with which Mr. Hopkins has dealt. The new President of Dartmouth comes to his This work on the human side of industry office from a life very far removed from that and business involves an educational process. of the theologian or scholastic recluse, for- It is just as much educational as the executive merly the typical college president. Ernest work connected with a university, and, indeed, Martin Hopkins has been engaged since his calls for some of the methods of the university graduation from Dartmouth in 1901 part of laboratory and class-room. Mr. Hopkins's the time in academic life and part of the time experience, therefore, may be said to be in wrestling with the most complex of modern directly in the line of the duties which he is industrial problems—the problem of the rela- now called upon to perform. tion of employer and employee.

As can be told from the photograph reproDartmouth itself in recent years has illus- duced on another page, Mr. Hopkins is a trated the wide variation in vocations from young man. He is not yet forty years of which men are called to the college presi- age. He has been a loyal son of Dartmouth, dency. Mr. Hopkins's immediate predeces- and particularly active in alumni affairs. sor, Ernest Fox Nichols, did not even have He founded the “ Dartmouth Alumni Mag. the Arts degree. He gained his eminence azine," and for some time was its editor. in the field of pure science, particularly by He believes more in the importance of “the measuring planetary light and heat. Mr. method of the curriculum" than its content, to Nichols's immediate predecessor, on the other use his own phrase, or, to put it more colhand, was Dr. Tucker, who, though a writer loquially, he believes that the way a subject on social and economic questions, was, when is taught is more important than the subject he became president, primarily a clergyman, itself. He has been a special student in a preacher, a theologian. In contrast to both vocational training and vocational guidance. of these, Mr. Hopkins has gained his experi- The selection of such a man illustrates not ence in the world of business and manufac- only the broadening of the American college, ture. It is, however, not on the material but but also the broadening of the spirit of Ameron the human side of business and industry ican business and industry. The barriers that that he has been active.

used to be so firm between trade and science After his graduation from Dartmouth Mr. and the so-called professions are disappearHopkins was appointed secretary to President ing.

ing. - The mellowing effect of the “humanTucker, and for eight years had experience ities" is to be seen in business and in science, in academic life on the executive and admin- and the influence of business and of science istrative side. In 1910 he undertook a new in the direction of reality and exactitude is line of work, but not as different from his evident in those circles that once were reformer experience as it might at first seem. garded as safely and serenely academic. He associated himself as staff worker with various corporations-among them the West- MAYOR MITCHEL AND ern Electric Company and the Bell Telephone THE CHILDREN System. He was among the first to interpret In his struggle to secure protection and the functions of the employment manager, good care for the children committed by the and helped to found the Association of Em- city to various charitable institutions, Mayor ployment Managers in Boston, Philadelphia, Mitchel, of New York City, has been receivand New York. Such a problem, for instance, ing the support of substantial and influential as that of the relation of labor unions to citizens of various faiths. As our readers efficient production is one that may be treated know, the Mayor's efforts to investigate contheoretically in books or practically by the ditions in these institutions have been vigor. management of an industrial plant. It is the ously opposed by certain men connected practical side of such questions with which directly or indirectly with some of these Mr. Hopkins has been dealing. The arbi- institutions, and by certain members of the trary discharge of an employee—to cite an- State Board of Charities. Testimony conother instance—has usually been left in the cerning some of the abuses in these institupower of department heads. To replace this tions, Protestant as well as Catholic, was by a scientific study of the causes for dis- brought out at hearings before a



missioner appointed by the Governor of the industry could not continue. One of the State.

results that the Associated Advertising Clubs As a result of the testimony at these of the World has helped to bring about is the hearings, Mayor Mitchel has laid a formal practically universal recognition of the fact complaint before the District Attorney of that advertising is essential to the merchanNew York County. The Mayor and his dising of goods, and that it is useless to make Police Commissioner hold that, in the course things for sale unless there is some systematic of the opposition to the investigation and re- and intelligent way of letting the consumer form of the institutions which housed some of know how things may be obtained. the city's dependent children, certain breaches More than that, these Clubs have made of the criminal law have been committed. it clear that it is of no use to advertise a Inasmuch as Grand Jury proceedings are product unless that product is a good product secret, the District Attorney made an effort of its kind. Advertising will not sell that to find a judge before whom the matter could which of itself has no merit. And so the be laid openly and who would be acceptable advertising agencies and advertising men to both parties. Unable to find such a judge, have been influences for better production he laid the matter before Justice John Proctor and better products. Clarke, of the Appellate Division of the Su- In turn, the Associated Advertising Clubs preme Court, who designated Justice Green- of the World have laid emphasis, particularly. baum, of the Supreme Court, to sit as judge in the last two or three years, upon the in this matter to hear the Mayor's case. This, necessity of truthfulness in advertising. Not we are informed, is the only formal complaint only must the goods themselves that are in the matter that has been laid before the advertised be meritorious, but what is said District Attorney.

about them in advertisements must be said in In the meantime, as we have said, the good faith. Mayor has received letters and other expres- It is a highly significant fact that advertis sions of confidence in him and many pledges ing, which not so very many years ago had to of support for his brave course.

bear the opprobrium resulting from practices

that were fanciful and sensational and in disADVERTISING MEN

regard of truth or good faith, has now become IN CONVENTION

one of the forces for ethical progress in busiLast week and the week before, in Philadelphia, the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World met their twelfth Convention. IN THE CAUSE OF FREEDOM Their principal meetings were held in the A few days ago a young American gave Metropolitan Opera House and in the Com- his life to the cause of France and her allies. mercial Museum of the University of Pennsyl- He was in a military aeroplane over the Gervania. In addition there were departmental man lines, and was shot. sessions at the University.

Those who are living aloof from the EuroThe sight of advertising men on university pean war, considering it only a huge game grounds would have seemed strange to aca- played with the lives of men by “ blood-bedemic minds of former days; but the modern spattered monarchs,” may think of this young conception of business and the modern con. man as an adventurer, a soldier of fortune, ception of the university meet on common who has merely paid the price for enjoying ground. Indeed, the President of the Asso- the thrill of combat. If there are any such, ciated Advertising Clubs, Mr. Houston, has let them give heed to this incident, which we received an honorary degree from the Uni- can vouch for. versity of Pennsylvania. Lord Melbourne's That young man's father was in Germany indignation, which he expressed as he stalked at the outbreak of the European war. With out of a church in the midst of a very prac- scores and hundreds of other Americans he tical ethical sermon, because religion was found his way to London. There he apallowed to invade the sphere of private life, peared in a hotel in the golfing costume he is hardly more antiquated than is astonishment had on when the news of war came to him. at the idea that intellectual standards should The sights he had seen on his way, the brutal invade the sphere of business.

efficiency of that German military machine, Advertising has become recognized as an the sense of oppression and denial of liberty, essential element in modern life. Without it had outraged all his instincts as an American





freeman, and when he reached English soil applied to hygiene, of bacteriology and prohe felt himself liberated. There one of the tozoology, of epidemiology, of vital statistics, staff of The Outlook met him and heard a museum and library. The schools of medfrom his lips the story of a conversation he icine, engineering, and social science, the had had with one of his kinswomen in Ger- hospital and other departments will supply admany, several of whose sons were in the ditional facilities for instruction and research. German army. Just before the outbreak of The work of organization is to be underthe war he had been talking with her about taken by Dr. William H. Welch and Dr. German education, and had said to her: William H. Howell, respectively Professors * The trouble with education in Germany is of Pathology and Physiology at the Johns that it kills individual initiative ; it destroy's Hopkins University. Dr. Welch will be the the power of a young man to think for him- director of the school. self.”

And his kinswoman replied, “Why With this announcement the Rockefeller should a young man think for himself? I Foundation has impressively added to its crave nothing better for my sons than that good deeds.

Americans may justly expect they should lose themselves in the thought that the School of Public Health, designed of the Empire."

primarily to benefit those who plan to give That sacrifice of the individual's mind, the their lives to the administration of scientific individual's heart, the individual's conscience, sanitation, will become an institution comto the necessity or to the ambition of the paring in usefulness with the Rockefeller state was to this man's mind intolerable, and Institute for Medical Research. when war broke out he wanted to reach as soon as possible some place where liberty still prevailed.

UNHAPPY MEXICONow that man's son has died for France

OUR DUTY and her allies.

The five great burdens of society are A SCHOOL OF HEALTH

ignorance, poverty, war, pestilence, and Among the men and women of a com- famine. All five of these burdens have fallen munity those who are to promote public upon the people of Mexico. During the last health must be experts in that field. Now,

three years these burdens have been steadily as a matter of fact, cities and States have growing heavier and the tragedy more terexperienced great difficulty in finding men rible. equipped for promoting public health, sani

IGNORANCE tation, and preventive measures generally,

Nothing effective has ever been done and this despite the fact that the possibility

for the education of the Mexican people. of usefulness of such men has in recent

Such state schools as exist are ineffective. years been shown to be practically without

The teachers themselves are rarely prepared limit. The efforts of the American Red Cross

to teach. The sons and daughters of the in combating typhus in Servia, and the efforts

educated class do not go into the teaching of the Rockefeller Foundation in its cam

profession. The Church has opposed the paign against the hookworm disease, show

state schools, and the Church schools have what men and organizations can do when

been ecclesiastical, not human. The one intelligent and rightly directed energy is

chief university of Mexico, established in *. on tap."

1551, once or twice suppressed, has finally The announcement, therefore, that the

lapsed. The incompetence of such educaRockefeller Foundation is going to establish

tional institutions as have existed in Mexico an Institute of Hygiene and Public Health

is evidenced by the fact that from eighty to will be welcome in every State and city eighty-five per cent of the population do not where there is need for trained experts along know how to read. this line. The Rockefeller Foundation proposes to locate its Institute at Baltimore in connection with the Johns Hopkins Univer- The poverty of the common people is sity. In this building are to be housed almost unbelievable. The peons have been various laboratories and departments needed robbed of their land by the Government, in such a school—those of sanitary chem- sometimes in disregard of law, sometimes by istry, for example, and of physiology as the operation of law. Under guise of pro


as this, no humanity to restrain the warriors, no far-sighted self-interest to lead them to preserve a land which they hope eventually to possess and a people whom they hope eventually to govern.

tecting titles, in 1894 notices were posted requiring landowners to appear on a certain day before a designated official and swear to the propriety of their claims. As the peons could not read, few of them paid any attention to these notices, and their lands were taken from them and sold to the favored rich. Successive Governments have forced paper money upon the people, with the result that Carranza money is now worth about two cents gold on the dollar, and many storekeepers will not take it at all. Last October the “ Mexican Herald " advertised American flour at $115 per sack. What this means to Mexican laborers we leave our readers to imagine. As though this were not enough, Government officials have given Government sanction to counter

One of our correspondents from Mexico has told our readers this story : “When the Villa Government called in its paper money to be validated, on the ground that some of it was counterfeit, this merchant found that the clerks at the stamping window could be · reached' so that they would stamp the paper as valid instead of counterfeit. He was compelled to avail himself of this opportunity, along with other merchants, because the paper was actually valid, and he felt he had a right to persuade the clerks to stamp it valid.”

PESTILENCE AND FAMINE In the trail of this devastating war have followed pestilence and famine.

The American Red Cross in Mexico reported in January last thirty thousand cases of typhus in Mexico City alone, and in the November preceding it was providing daily rations to approximately one hundred thousand persons.

We find it difficult to understand the incredible pride which led Carranza to request the American Red Cross to discontinue all relief operations on behalf of Mexican citizens for no other conceivable reason than that the Red Cross service demonstrated the inability of his so-called Government to provide the required relief.

feit money:



To the burden of ignorance and poverty have been added for the last three years the burden of war. This has partly been a blind revolution of the peons against their employers, partly factional fights between political gangs possessing no political principles but formed only to advance the interest of the leaders whose names they bear, partly the work of bands of bandits graduating from the revolutionists and the political gangs and inspired simply by the desire for plunder. In these bands have been enlisted an increasing number of peons who, unable to earn money and suffering from other bandits, have fallen into what may almost be called a national habit. “Give a peon a rifle,” says one of our correspondents, " and he will fight for half as much as he could earn as a laborer or small farmer ; for enlisting in the army means opportunity to travel, to avenge real or fancied wrongs on the property and persons of the rich men, and to enjoy the glamour of war that inevitably appeals to the half-Indian race."

There are no laws governing such a war

What is the duty of the American people toward their neighbors whose life is being crushed out by this fivefold burden of ignorance, poverty, war, pestilence, and famine ? Our Secretary of State has officially declared in his note to the South American Puwers the answer of the Administration to this question :

I take this opportunity to inform you that this Government would have for its object, not intervention in Mexican affairs, with all the regrettable consequences which might result from such a policy, but the defense of American territory from further invasion by bands of armed Mexicans, protection of American citizens and property along the boundary from outrages committed by such bandits, and the prevention of future depredations by force of arms against the marauders infesting this region, and against a government which is encouraging and aiding them in their hostilities.

It is America's duty to protect American territory from Mexican marauders and to recover from the hands of Mexicans the captured soldiers whom we sent there to arrest Mexican marauders, and whom we are there. fore under special obligation to protect. The American soldiers who are going to fulfill this part of our task are performing an important National duty and are making a sacrifice for their country's good. But this is not the whole duty of the Nation. We owe a duty to the people of Mexico as well.

To this unhappy people, suffering from this fivefold burden, we owe a duty of pro




tection, food, and medicine.

We should go and schools to lessen that ignorance. That into Mexico, not merely in a punitive ex- their work has not been more effectual is due pedition to capture and punish a robber less to the failure of the churches than to chief, not merely in a protective expedition conditions which made their work almost to guard our own citizens on our own terri- impossible. tory from future marauding expeditions. We But America has some share of responsishould go into Mexico to carry relief, succor, bility for the poverty of the Mexican people. and help to a suffering neighbor. We should It is true that the common people of Mexico go into Mexico, not to fight the Mexicans, are better off, not worse off, because of but to fight for the Mexicans, as we went American industries ; that American pioneers into Cuba to fight for the Cubans, and as we in Mexico have been giving them better pay, went into the Philippines to fight Aguinaldo better homes, better clothes, better food, and that we might protect the Filipinos. We doing something to give them better schools repeat what we said last January, which was than they before enjoyed. But it is also true itself a repetition of what we had said in that there have been some corrupt American previous issues :

capitalists in Mexico who have co-operated The Government of the United States ought,

with a corrupt Government in capitalistic at the earliest possible moment, to send troops

oppression ; have obtained by corrupt methinto Mexico. . . . Such a point or such points ods special privileges ; have fallen into, if as American military authorities might select they have not absolutely instigated, Mexican for the purpose should now be occupied by methods in getting possession of lands and American troops. ... Under the authority and their values; who have even acquiesced in, guidance of these forces, Mexicans themselves

if not promoted, anarchy for personal profit. should be formed into a constabulary force which should be the active force for pacifica

American employers of peon labor in Mexico tion. ... This is the method that was adopted

frankly admitted to our correspondent, Mr. in Cuba. Under General Leonard Wood, Cu

Mason, " that they prefer ten years of anarbans of character and ability were chosen to

chy followed by the good old days of peon act in suppressing disorder in that island and in labor' to intervention of any kind which establishing orderly government. . . . If, in this would mean the restoration of peace and a intervention to protect American lives and higher wage scale." property, the lives and property of Europeans And as a Nation we have had no inconsidfor whom this country is responsible, and the erable share in promoting the conditions lives and property of Mexicans themselves,

which have produced anarchy and internecine Carranza will co-operate, so much the better. If

war in Mexico. We think that our Adminhe will not, he then must be counted among the enemies of Mexico.

istration did right in refusing to recognize the

Government of Huerta. His was certainly We owe this duty to the Mexicans because not a de jure Government. It was brought they are our brothers, because they are unable about by treachery and assassination. It to protect themselves, because the Golden would have represented the old capitalisRule applies to nations as well as to indi- tic oppression. It might have preserved viduals, because a purely selfish regard for order--we cannot tell. So the Government our own interests, coupled with a selfish in- of the Bourbon kings preserved order in difference to the interests of others, is as France. We have no great admiration for great a vice in a nation as in an individual, a government which preserves order by and because our Nation, wnich owes its own garroting the people with one hand while it liberty in part to the aid furnished us in our picks their pockets with the other. time of peril by the French nation, has a But when we as a Nation drove Huerta special reason for rendering our aid to a from Mexico, destroying the only government people in the hour of their peril.

it possessed, we made ourselves morally re

sponsible for seeing that some other and But this duty is reinforced and re-empha- better government was substituted in its sized by the fact that we have some degree place. It is a recognized principle of interof responsibility for the present awful condi- national law that if, by war, a nation destroy's tions in Mexico.

the government of a people, it is bound to We are not responsible for the ignorance maintain, at least for the time being, a govof the Mexican people. Our missionary ernment in the place of that which has been bodies have done something by their churches destroyed. The spirit of this principle, if not

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