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The Outlook

JULY 5, 1916

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

THE STORY OF THE WAR:

weight of the combat swings from one line to, THE ALLIED OFFENSIVE

another ; and it is fair to add that, while As the fighting on the various fronts in Russia has made a pretty clean sweep in the Europe develops to its high summer activity, Bukowina, has driven the Austrians back to it is more and more apparent that the several the Carpathians, and, according to the Russian offensives undertaken by the Allies are not War Office, is approaching the Transylvanian sporadic outbursts here and there, but that passes, the German forces under General von a unity of plan prevails; that a system of Linsingen have so strengthened the Austrian campaign has been determined on at the line in the northern part of this field of fightrepeated conferences of military and govern- ing that the Russians have made little or no mental authorities in Paris. Probably the progress in their great objectives aimed at Paris “ Matin " is right in saying," The hour

Kovel and Lemberg. of action for the Allies is here; attacks suc- As to the British activity, military experts ceed defense on many fronts.” Thus, just as differ as to the intent and seriousness of it. the Russian offensive in Galicia and che Buko- On June 26 London despatches reported a wina is checked to some extent by German strong offensive by the British, with heavy reinforcements to the Austrians (especially in bombardments, and asserted that the infantry the region of Kovel), promptly comes the had penetrated German lines at ten different Italian counter-attack on the Austrians in the points in night raids ; in this fighting six Trentino. As the fighting at Verdun shows enemy observation balloons were brought renewed fierceness on the part of the Ger- down. Even German despatches go so far mans and slow yielding inch by inch by the as to describe "important fighting activity ” French. comes the news of great activity on on the British front. As we write, there the British lines, now stretching from the seems to have been a lull in this direction, Somme to the North Sea. In short, Russians, but very likely it may be the lull before the French, Italians, and British are alternately storm. attacking. It is not a rash conjecture to say that the generals of the Allies believe that A CRISIS AT. VERDUN this pounding on different parts of the lines The recent fighting at Verdun has been is what will most worry the Germans, whose almost unparalleled in fierceness, even by forces may be worn out as they are driven former German drives there. The capture of from the support of one position to the sup- the French lines at Thiaumont and the occuport of another in turn.

pation of all or part of the village of Fleury The counter-attack of the Italians in the by the Germans are pretty serious dents in the Trentino has been powerful, persistent, and French defense, and may very possibly mean effective, although the Italians have not yet such a driving in of the German wedge as to regained anything like all the ground occu- make the abandonment of the Verdun sector pied by the Austrians in their southern by the French necessary. But at what a drive. The fact that Italy has retaken the price is this success gained ! One French important towns of Asiago and Arsiero in report pictures the three days' attack at itself indicates that the move is serious. Thiaumont as having been carried on by one The Italians have driven forward on a hundred thousand Germans on a three-mile twenty-five-mile front, and the Austrians, front following the usual artillery deluge, in who undertook their great forward movement which the German guns were lined up wheel with some three hundred thousand men, to wheel. When the final assault was made have probably been weakened by the neces- by the Germans, the massed formation was sity of supporting the Austrian line in the so close that observers say that the French east against General Brusiloff. So the could not see any bare ground. The German soldiers were mowed down by the machine tacit consent to the recent invasion of Greece guns and 75's with “indescribable massacre.” by the Bulgarians. This supports the conThe struggle for Fleury was also savagely con- tention that the Allies' action is not in violation tested, the Germans gaining part of the town of Greek neutrality, but in preservation of that only after the sacrifice of thousands. A glance neutrality. Once more the comparison of the at any detailed map will show that the Thiau- treatment of Greece by the Allies with the mont farm and road and the village of Fleury treatment of Belgium by Germany comes up. are southwest of Douaumont and Vaux, and The nearer parallel would be if Russia on one are not only much closer in direct distance side or Austria on the other were to throw its from the town of Verdun than any other troops into Rumania against Rumania's conposition occupied by the Germans, but are sent. Neither of these things is likely to only a bare mile from comparatively level happen ; but, as matters stand now, such an country through which go the main roads action would constitute the violation of neurunning from Verdun north.

trality of a smaller state. Greece, on the other 'The Verdun combat entered upon its hand, flirted, so to speak, with both sides, eighteenth week on June 26, and the dura- never seriously resenting and never at all retion and fierceness of the fight are marvel- sisting the landing of the Allies at Salonika. ous. No military critic can see, from the And King Constantine, instead of résisting cold blooded, scientific point of view, any foreign entry into Greece and leading his such possible gain to the Germans in wiping people in battle against such entrance, as did out the curve in the general line made by the King Albert of Belgium, has played politics Verdun sector as would be comparable with to the limit, has deceived the Allies diplothe terrible loss incurred in men and mu- matically, and has thwarted the will of his own nitions—terrible not only absolutely, but people. A writer in the New York “ Times” relatively to the French loss. The German object at Verdun is really the great mystery The coercion of Greek neutrality by the of the war. Half a dozen theories have Allied Powers consists in delivering the Govbeen adduced--some political, as for the ernment of Greece into the hands of the people. effect on the German people, and some

If there is detected any color of similarity betactical ; perhaps the best tactical theory is

tween such treatment of Greece by England, that the Germans hoped to apply the

France, and Russia, her protectors, and that of well-known idea that “the best way to

Belgium by the Germans, Heaven save the

human reason! Belgium lies prostrate. Greece defend is to attack," and thought that the

is rescued from Government that had been Verdun drive would hinder, embarrass, and

willing to deliver its people into hands that tear check all the Allies' plans for a general up treaties and smash neutrality for getting in offensive and thereby at least prolong the war.

well says :

the way.

army.

GREECE SUBMITS

A RESUME OF RECENT Recent despatches from Athens state that MEXICAN HISTORY King Constantine has yielded unconditionally

It is worth while refreshing the memory to the joint demands of Great Britain, with a condensed review of the recent events France, and Russia. These demands, in in Mexican and American history that have brief, were:

immediately led up to the present strained Complete general demobilization of the Greek situation.

On March 9, 1916, nineteen Americans Removal of the Chief of Police of Athens. were killed and about twenty wounded in a

Popular pro-Entente sentiment not to be sup- raid on Columbus, New Mexico, by Mexican pressed by the authorities.

bandits, supposedly led by General Villa. Deportation of agents who are spreading

On March 15 an American column under German propaganda.

General Pershing crossed the border in purThe Greek Cabinet under Premier Skou- suit of the raiders. It was generally underloudis had already resigned, and the political stood by the American public that this incursituation was impossible. One reason for sion was made with the consent of the Carthe pressure thus brought to bear upon the ranza Government, that the Mexican de facto Greek King—note that it is upon the King Government would co-operate with the L'nited rather than the people of G ece—was the States in the bandit hunt, and that the Amerrepeated rumor that the King had given his ican troops would be withdrawn as soon as

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THE WEEK

519

the marauders who had attacked Columbus war-ships were sent to watch Mexican ports. were killed or captured. In fact, an official On June 20 the President's reply to CarAmerican statement declared that Pershing's ranza's demand for the withdrawal of our force would have “the single object of cap- troops was issued. This demand the Amerituring him (Villa) and putting a stop to his can Government refused, and, while admitting forays.”

“that American troops had crossed the interOn April 19 General Pershing's expedition national boundary in hot pursuit of the Coreached its “farthest south" by the arrival of lumbus raiders, and without notice to or the two troops of the Thirteenth Cavalry at Parral, consent of your Government,” served notice about four hundred miles from the border that any attempt of the de facto Government by the twisting American trail, where they to expel the American soldiers by force would were ambushed by Carranzista soldiers be followed by “the gravest consequences.” and townsmen and forced to retreat, with a loss of two killed and seven wounded. DEVELOPMENTS This virtually ended the pursuit of Villa by OF THE WEEK the Americans, and led to the despatch of With matters in this delicate shape OCheavy reinforcements to General Pershing curred the battle at Carrizal, Chihuahua, and a general contraction of his lines. Within which may be written into our history in as a few days after this ambuscade the advance large type as is the destruction of the Maine. base of the American column was at Nami- Carrizal is a little town on the Mexican Cenquipa, only two hundred miles into Mexico tral Railroad, about eighty miles below Juarez. as the American communications lay.

Perhaps, like the details of the disaster to the On April 29 conferences began at Juarez, Maine, the details of this fight between two Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, between Gen- troops of the Tenth Cavalry and a larger eral Alvaro Obregon, representing Carranza, force of Mexican soldiers will never be enand Generals Scott and Funston, representing tirely clear. Only the following essential the United States.

facts are known as we go to press : On May 5 Mexicans raided the “Big The two troops of Negro cavalry apBend " district of Texas, killing six or seven proached Carrizal from the west. Troop C Americans.

was commanded by Captain Charles T. Boyd, On May 11 the conferences at Juarez and and Troop K by Captain Lewis S. Morey. El Paso were discontinued, with no substan- As senior officer, Captain Boyd was in comtial agreement reached. About the same mand of the whole force. About a mile from time American cavalrymen captured fourteen Carrizal Captain Boyd sent a courier to Mexicans alleged to have taken part in the ask the Carranzista commander for permisraid on Glen Springs in the “ Big Bend” sion to pass through the streets of the town. district, and a little later other cavalrymen The permission was refused. Then a meskilled a number of the companions of these senger arrived from the Carranza commander, captured bandits.

General Felix Gomez, with word that the On May 31 the American Government re- Americans might pass through the town if ceived a note from the Carranza Governinent they would stop to confer with General Gomez stating that the Pershing expedition had gone on their way. Before they could act on this into Mexico without the consent of Carranza, suggestion, however, General Gomez himself and asking for “ the immediate withdrawal arrived and conferred with Captain Boyd. of American troops which are now in Mexi- While this conference was going on the can territory.”

Americans noticed Mexicans coming out from On June 11 Mexicans raided an American the town and taking positions ahead and on ranch near Laredo, Texas, with the result each flank of the Americans. Apparently that sixteen hundred American regulars were General Gomez was on his way back to his drawn from the Engineer Corps of the Coast own men when they opened fire on the Artillery to further reinforce the defenses of Americans. Captain Morey's note, written our border.

as he lay wounded in a ditch, is indefinite on During the week of June 14 to 21 Texas this point, but he says that Captain Boyd soil was twice again raided by Mexicans. “feared an ambush," and " was under the President Wilson's summons to the militia of impression that the Mexicans would run as all States, except the three border States soon as we fired.” already called, resulted, on June 18. Sixteen The single piece of evidence that makes

we were

the principal weakness in the American case a firm or company is composed of individuals, is Captain Morey's statement that the Amer- and sometimes of many individuals, there are icans planned to take the aggressive. His thousands in the ranks of what one may note says:

" We formed for attack, his call the Extra-Military Army of United [Captain Boyd's] intention being to move States Volunteers. up to the line of about one hundred There is good reason for such an army. and twenty Mexicans on the edge of the Many employees have left tasks in which town. .. When

within three they were making comfortable livings to hundred yards, the Mexicans opened fire, and answer their country's call, and some of these a strong one, before we fired a shot; then employees have been able to save hardly we opened up."

anything for the families dependent upon The result of the fight was the defeat of them for support. Thus at this juncture the the Americans, who were apparently out- employers come forward—such employers as numbered by the Mexicans. The use of the Bethlehem Steel Company, the Century machine guns by the enemy played an im- Company and Collier's Weekly, the Consoliportant part in the result. Captain Boyd, dated Gas Company, the Edison Company, Lieutenant Henry Adair, and at least eleven the German-American Inşurance Company, troopers are known to have been killed, the Hammond and the Mergenthaler Typealthough the list of dead may later prove to writing Companies, J. P. Morgan & Co., the be greater, and twenty-four American prison- National Lead Company, the National Surety ers were taken to the penitentiary in Chi- Company, the National Cloak and Suit Comhuahua City.

pany, the Royal Baking Powder Company, In the meantime the American militia has the New York Central and Southern Pacific been mobilizing, and as this is written already Railway Companies, the Westinghouse and several thousand citizen soldiers have gone to Western Electric Companies, and the Schaefer the border. This militia mobilization is de- Brewing Company. With regard to the last scribed elsewhere in this issue of The Outlook named, it has not only granted full pay, but in an article entitled “ Our Citizens in has also made a cash present to each guardsArms."

man in its employ. As we go to press it is reported that Other companies, such as the Southern President Wilson has demanded the imme- Pacific, make interesting divisions, as, for diate release of the twenty-four Americans instance, full pay to married privates ; threeimprisoned in Chihuahua City. Apparently

Apparently quarters to full pay to unmarried privates ; Carranza's refusal of this demand will mean half-pay to unmarried privates without dewar.

pendent families; and to married officers The latest outrage to be added to the long the entire loss in full average pay incurred list of Mexican atrocities perpetrated against by being in army service—in other words, the Americans is the killing of Mr. William difference between company and Government Parker and his bride, Mrs. Alice Parker, on rates of pay ; while unmarried officers with their ranch near Hachita, New Mexico. A dependent families get three-quarters full posse of soldiers and citizens went in pursuit average pay and unmarried officers without of the bandits who committed this brutal dependent families half-pay. Then there is crime, but lost the trail before reaching the the time limit to be considered. The National border.

Lead and Westinghouse Companies, for in

stance, will pay till January first; other comTHE EXTRA-MILITARY ARMY OF

panies, such as the Schaefer Brewing ComUNITED STATES VOLUNTEERS

pany, will pay for as long a time as their America may be proud to possess a volun- men are in military service. teer army for which no special training is As the statement has been published that needed and in which there are no officers. the Ford Motor Company employees enlistThe army consists wholly of employers, and ing in the National Guard would be disof those employers who want to defend their charged, we are glad to note a prompt denial employees, called to the front, against anxiety telegraphed to the New York Times " by regarding their dependent families. The Mr. Henry Ford, who adds : " When the men army is large. It consists of about five who have enlisted return, their old positions hundred units already—that is, counting a will be open for them, and they will be treated business firm or company as a unit. But, as as though they had not left our employ."

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THE WEEK

521

a

COMMENCEMENT

sister universities to respond to the Nation's NOTES

call to service. So did the pitched tents and At Brown University Mr. Hughes was the artillery of the Yale Battery. Responsiveness chief center of interest. Declining a platform to remoter needs appeared in the contingent seat, he sat with his classmates of 1881. soon to reinforce Yale-in-China. A college Called up to speak, he referred admiringly to now ten years old, whose heads are consulted the influence of his college President, Ezekiel by Chinese officials on all sorts of questions, Robinson, as “a man whom nothing could it was warmly eulogized both by ex-President swerve from what he thought right.” He Taft and the Chinese Minister, Dr. Koo. repeated what he had then felt about “ Old Governor Whitman, of New York, addressed Zeke:" “ There is a man who will mean to the graduating class of Smith College on the us our redemption and success if we can responsibility of women as well as men in the emulate and in some degree achieve his firm- present world crisis. “Civilization,” said he, ness and resolution and catch the clearness “has not progressed to the point where the of his vision.” When the cheering subsided, safety of a nation and its institutions can be he added : “ I am just a Brown boy trying to guaranteed by a moral precept. Our predo my duty."

paredness must be social as well as military. Harvard's commencement exercises were The big questions of to-day are social, and held for the first time in its spacious Stadium. are nothing but mothering on a large scale. President Lowell's address spoke of the readi- There is no virtue in emotionalism that is not ness of Harvard men to serve their country expressed in action." as evidenced in their spontaneous formation Some large gifts have been received this of the Harvard Regiment. He expected that year. Williams has raised practically the Harvard will soon be able to turn out each whole of a first endowment of a million. year men capable of accepting commissions Harvard announced gifts aggregating over in an army of volunteers.

" No sane man,” $1,300,000, and Yale total of over said he,“ will deny that we are a short-sighted $1,700,000. people, and do not recognize a pestilence Among the notable honorary degrees conuntil it is on us. We lack vision. The Nation ferred this year, in addition to those menhas a right to turn to its institutions of higher tioned last week, were : Franklin Lane, H. C. learning, which are in verity the eyes of the Hoover, and Brand Whitlock (Brown, LL.D.); Nation.”

Joseph H. Choate and Governor McCall At Yale President Hadley's usual bacca- (Columbia and Williams, LL.D.); George laureate sermon, preached as in old times Hodges and Henry Churchill King (Harvard, from a text of Scripture, urged the pursuit of D.D.); Police Commissioner Arthur Woods moral ideals as the path to real success: (Harvard, M.A.); Governor Charles S. WhitThis he presented as the burden of Jesus' man (Williams, LL.D.); Katharine Lee Bates Sermon on the Mount and the basis of all (Wesleyan, LL.D) ; K. W. Koo and Simeon real virtue. “ It requires,” said he, “self- E. Baldwin (Yale, LL.D.); John Jay Chaprestraint and self-devotion. We must first man (Yale, Litt.D.); W. C. Brownell (Amprepare ourselves to set an example of this. herst, LL.D.); E. M. Hopkins, the new We must also make it clear to others that President of Dartmouth (Amherst, Litt.D.); the same personal responsibility rests on them. Herbert Adams, the sculptor (Yale, M.A.); We must not yield to the fatal temptation to and John Singer Sargent (Yale, LL.D.; and flatter democracy, but must be ready to suffer Harvard, Doctor of Arts). Portraits of Mr. abuse for our unwillingness to trust short Sargent and Mr. Adams are to be found on cuts to righteousness. Leadership is not

another page. worth having through sacrifice of intellectual straightforwardness. And we must believe COLLEGE ROWING in humanity even when it deserts us. Faith When "college rowing" is mentioned, in man, faith in the truth, faith in God, are many college men and a good many of the different names for the same thing. Whoso non-college public think at once of the classic keeps one has kept all, and secured the best annual Harvard-Yale contest. But, as a thing life has to offer."

matter of fact, the annual regatta at PoughNew graduates of Yale and Harvard keepsie, in which Cornell, Columbia, Pennkhaki-clad among their black-gowned class- sylvania, Syracuse, and often one or two other mates demonstrated the readiness of these universities settle their supremacy with the

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