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the principal weakness in the American case a firm or company is composed of individuals, is Captain Morey's statement that the Amer- and sometimes of many individuals, there are icans planned to take the aggressive. His thousands in the ranks of what one may note say's : * We formed for attack, his call the Extra-Military Army of United (Captain Boyd's] intention being to move States Volunteers. up to the line of about one hundred There is good reason for such an army. and twenty Mexicans on the edge of the Many employees have left tasks in which town. ... When were within three they were making comfortable livings to hundred yards, the Mexicans opened fire, and answer their country's call, and some of these a strong one, before we fired a shot; then employees have been able to save hardly we opened up."

anything for the families dependent upon The result of the fight was the defeat of them for support.

Thus at this juncture the the Americans, who were apparently out- employers come forward—such employers as numbered by the Mexicans. The use of the Bethlehem Steel Company, the Century machine guns by the enemy played an im- Company and Collier's Weekly, the Consoliportant part in the result. Captain Boyd, dated Gas Company, the Edison Company, Lieutenant Henry Adair, and at least eleven the German-American Insurance Company, troopers are known to have been killed, the Hammond and the Mergenthaler Typealthough the list of dead may later prove to writing Companies, J. P. Morgan & Co., the be greater, and twenty-four American prison- National Lead Company, the National Surety ers were taken to the penitentiary in Chi- Company, the National Cloak and Suit Comhuahua City.

pany, the Royal Baking Powder Company, In the meantime the American militia has the New York Central and Southern Pacific been mobilizing, and as this is written already Railway Companies, the Westinghouse and several thousand citizen soldiers have gone to ll'estern Electric Companies, and the Schaefer the border. This militia mobilization is de- Brewing Company. With regard to the last scribed elsewhere in this issue of The Outlook named, it has not only granted full pay, but in an article entitled “Our Citizens in has also made a cash present to each guardsArms.”

man in its employ. As we go to press it is reported that Other companies, such as the Southern President Wilson has demanded the imme- Pacific, make interesting divisions, as, for diate release of the twenty-four Americans instance, full pay to married privates ; threeimprisoned in Chihuahua City. Apparently quarters to full pay to unmarried privates ; Carranza's refusal of this demand will mean half-pay to unmarried privates without dewar.

pendent families; and to married officers The latest outrage to be added to the long the entire loss in full average pay incurred list of Mexican atrocities perpetrated against by being in army service—in other words, the Americans is the killing of Mr. William difference between company and Government Parker and his bride, Mrs. Alice Parker, on rates of pay; while unmarried officers with their ranch near Hachita, New Mexico. A dependent families get three-quarters full posse of soldiers and citizens went in pursuit average pay and unmarried officers without of the bandits who committed this brutal dependent families half-pay. Then there is crime, but lost the trail before reaching the the time limit to be considered. The National border.

Lead and Westinghouse Companies, for in

stance, will pay till January first; other comTHE EXTRA-MILITARY ARMY OF

panies, such as the Schaefer Brewing ComUNITED STATES VOLUNTEERS

pany, will pay for as long a time as their America may be proud to possess a volun- men are in military service. teer army for which no special training is As the statement has been published that needed and in which there are no officers. the Ford Motor Company employees enlistThe army consists wholly of employers, and ing in the National Guard would be disof those employers who want to defend their charged, we are glad to note a prompt denial employees, called to the front, against anxiety telegraphed to the New York - Times " by regarding their dependent families. The Vr. Henry Ford, who adds : When the men army is large. It consists of about five who have enlisted return, their old positions hundred units already-that is, counting a will be open for them, and they will be treated business firm or company as a unit.

But, as

as though they had not left our employ."

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1916

THE WEEK

521

a

COMMENCEMENT

sister universities to respond to the Nation's NOTES

call to service. So did the pitched tents and At Brown University Mr. Hughes was the artillery of the Yale Battery. Responsiveness chief center of interest. Declining a platform to remoter needs appeared in the contingent seat, he sat with his classmates of 1881. soon to reinforce Yale-in-China. A college Called up to speak, he referred admiringly to now ten years old, whose heads are consulted the influence of his college President, Ezekiel by Chinese officials on all sorts of questions, Robinson, as “a man whom nothing could it was warmly eulogized both by ex-President swerve from what he thought right." He Taft and the Chinese Minister, Dr. Koo. repeated what he had then felt about “ Old Governor Whitman, of New York, addressed Zeke:” “There is a man who will mean to the graduating class of Smith College on the us our redemption and success if we can responsibility of women as well as men in the emulate and in some degree achieve his firm- present world crisis. “ Civilization," said he, ness and resolution and catch the clearness “has not progressed to the point where the of his vision.” When the cheering subsided, safety of a nation and its institutions can be he added : “ I am just a Brown boy trying to guaranteed by a moral precept. Our predo my duty.”

paredness must be social as well as military. Harvard's commencement exercises were The big questions of to-day are social, and held for the first time in its spacious Stadium. are nothing but mothering on a large scale. President Lowell's address spoke of the readi- There is no virtue in emotionalism that is not ness of Harvard men to serve their country expressed in action.” as evidenced in their spontaneous formation Some large gifts have been received this of the Harvard Regiment. He expected that year. Williams has raised practically the Harvard will soon be able to turn out each whole of a first endowment of a million. year men capable of accepting commissions Harvard announced gifts aggregating over in an army of volunteers. “No sane man,” $1,300,000, and Yale total of over said he, “ will deny that we are a short-sighted $1,700,000. people, and do not recognize a pestilence Among the notable honorary degrees conuntil it is on us. We lack vision. The Nation ferred this year, in addition to those menhas a right to turn to its institutions of higher tioned last week, were: Franklin Lane, H. C. learning, which are in verity the eyes of the Hoover, and Brand Whitlock (Brown, LL.D.); Nation.”

Joseph H. Choate and Governor McCall At Yale President Hadley's usual bacca- (Columbia and Williams, LL.D.); George laureate sermon, preached as in old times Hodges and Henry Churchill King (Harvard, from a text of Scripture, urged the pursuit of D.D.); Police Commissioner Arthur Woods moral ideals as the path to real success: (Harvard, M.A.); Governor Charles S. W'hitThis he presented as the burden of Jesus' man (Williams, LL.D.); Katharine Lee Bates Sermon on the Mount and the basis of all (Wesleyan, LL.D) ; K. W. Koo and Simeon real virtue. “ It requires,” said he, “self- E. Baldwin (Yale, LL.D.); John Jay Chaprestraint and self-devotion. We must first man (Yale, Litt.D.); W. C. Brownell (Amprepare ourselves to set an example of this. herst, LL.D.); E. M. Hopkins, the new We must also make it clear to others that President of Dartmouth (Amherst, Litt.D.); the same personal responsibility rests on them. Herbert Adams, the sculptor (Yale. M.A.); We must not yield to the fatal temptation to and John Singer Sargent (Yale, LL.D.; and flatter democracy, but must be ready to suffer Harvard, Doctor of Arts). Portraits of Mr. abuse for our unwillingness to trust short Sargent and Mr. Adams are to be found on cuts to righteousness. Leadership is not

another page. worth having through sacrifice of intellectual straightforwardness. And we must believe COLLEGE ROWING in humanity even when it deserts us. Faith When "college rowing" is mentioned, in man, faith in the truth, faith in God, are many college men and a good many of the different names for the same thing. Whoso non-college public think at once of the classic keeps one has kept all, and secured the best annual Harvard-Yale contest. But, as a thing life has to offer."

matter of fact, the annual regatta at PoughNew graduates of Yale and Harvard keepsie, in which Cornell, Columbia, Pennkhaki-clad among their black-gowned class- sylvania, Syracuse, and often one or two other mates demonstrated the readiness of these universities settle their supremacy with the

and this year was forced to watch the race from the bank with a trained nurse by his side. No more will he lift to his lips the old red megaphone through which more than a generation of Cornellians have learned of rowing about all that there is to know. Since the formation of the Intercollegiate Rowing Association in 1895 Courtney's crews have won fourteen of the twenty-two races.

sweep, is, as a rule, a more spectacular contest than the Harvard-Yale race, and usually produces better rowing.

This year Syracuse won every race rowed, and defeated Cornell, Columbia, and Pennsylvania, in the order named, on the Hudson. Both Princeton and Harvard, two crews that did not row at Poughkeepsie, have records to demand attention. Princeton scored victories over Harvard, Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Yale. The fact that Princeton beat Harvard, while Harvard defeated Cornell—the crew that pressed Syracuse so hard for first honors at Poughkeepsie-makes one wish that the Tiger and Crimson eights might have pulled in that grueling race on the Hudson. Cornell's victory over Princeton on Lake Cayuga shows how difficult it is to “rate" crews on the record of their races.

Mr. Constance Titus, retired amateur champion of sweeps and sculls, and a rowing expert of high authority, gives us his estimate of the Eastern college crews by placing them in the following order : Syracuse, Harvard, Cornell, Princeton, Annapolis, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Yale.

Harvard's victory over Yale at New London was expected, in view of the preliminary season records of the two crews. Yale, however, surprised a good many “ experts ” by rowing as well as she did, for, though beaten by three and a half lengths, the Yale crew stuck close to Harvard during the first part of the race, and undoubtedly this early forcing was instrumental in the lowering of the old record by the Crimson. Harvard's margin of improvement over the old record which was made by Bob Cook’s Yale crew in 1888 was eight seconds.

This result of the race on the Thames has been heralded by some critics as a proof of the inferiority of the modified English stroke used by the Yale crew. But this conclusion seems unjustified without further evidence, inasmuch as last year, with the same stroke, Yale beat Harvard. Yale and Harvard have now rowed fifty races, and each has won twenty-five.

Every rowing man, whatever his Alma Mater, will regret the passing of Charles E. Courtney, the “ Grand Old Man” of Cornell aquatics. For Courtney's sake, many who held no grudge against Syracuse hoped for a Cornell victory on the Hudson this year, for it was the “ Old Man's " last year in harness. Courtney suffered a fracture of the skull just before the Poughkeepsie regatta of 1915,

COLLEGE BASEBALL

It is useless to try to pick the champion among the college baseball teams of the East. Columbia, Tufts, Harvard, and Syracuse were the leaders, and the supporters of all of them have ample reason to be proud. Inasmuch as there was only one meeting among these four notable contenders—and that was the eleven-inning game in which Harvard beat Tufts 4 to 3—there are no data by which it is fair to declare any one of the four the best. On a pure basis of percentage, Columbia ranks the highest, having won eighteen games, tied one, and lost one-to Cornell.

Out of twenty-two games played Tufts was defeated only by Harvard and Bowdoin, while the Crimson, in twenty-five games, was tied once but was defeated only by Brown, Boston College, and the American Catholic University. Syracuse played twenty-two games and won nineteen. Harvard's two baseball victories over Yale make it a banner year for the Cambridge men, who in the college year just ended have won three of the so-called four major sports from the Elis--football, baseball, and rowing. Yale won the dual track meet.

Standing out among the really remarkable achievements in college baseball this year are the pitching of George Smith, of Columbia, and Whittaker, of Tufts, and the heavy batting of the Tufts boys. The greatest feat of Smith was achieved in his last five games, when he allowed his opponents only twelve hits, struck out seventy-four men, and was scored on only once. Tufts compiled the remarkable team batting average of 315, which means that on an average every man on the team got a safe hit out of about every three times at bat. But the batting of Leland, the Tufts' right fielder, was little short of phenomenal. This youth's batting average was +36.

In other words, almost every other time that he faced the pitcher he got to first base simply and solely by virtue of his skill with the ash.

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