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strength, and additional units of the Ameri- the House, after it had already passed the can army are moving down toward the border. Senate, was brought about by the revolt of

Figures recently published by the War thirty Democrats acting in conjunction with Department, however, show that from March the entire body of Republican Representatives. 16 to April 28, inclusive, only 5,417 recruits The names of these thirty Democrats are had been obtained to raise the army to deserving of record here. They were : full war strength as authorized by Congress Allen, Ohio.

Gallivan, Massachusetts. soon after our expedition crossed the Beakes, Michigan. Griffin, New York. border. At this rate, it will take all summer Bruckner, New York. Hamill, New Jersey. to get the 20,000 recruits called for by the Carew, New York. Hart, New Jersey. Hay Emergency Resolution, although it

Coady, Maryland. Hulbert, New York. ought to be pointed out that the present

Conry, New York. McAndrews, Illinois.

Dale, New York, McDermott, Illinois. rate of enlistment is much larger than it

Dooling, New York. Maher, New York. was before our soldiers entered Mexicɔ.

Driscoll, New York. Olney, Massachusetts. General Pershing is rapidly pulling to

Eagan, New Jersey. O'Shaunessy, R. I. gether his forces within Mexico into the unity Estiponal, Louisiana. Patten, New York. that is strength. The great majority of the Farley, New York. Phelan, Massachusetts. men under General Pershing are now re. Fitzgerald, New York. Riordan, New York. ported to be “dug in ” at Namiquipa, Flynn, New York. Smith, New York. waiting on events.

Gallagher, Illinois. Tague, Massachusetts. Two facts stand out clearly from the It will be observed that many of these men Mexican muddle as this is written.

First,

are Tammany Democrats from New York the pursuit of Villa has virtually ceased, City, a group of men in Congress who freand the chances of ever catching him after quently co:ne in for no little criticism from this delay—unless it be true that he is injured the public press.

There have been instances, - will be almost nil unless we resort to however, when Tammany Democrats in Conbroad-scale intervention and comb the coun- gress have seen National problems more try for him. Second, Carranza co-operation clearly and faced them more courageously thus far has been a myth. Actual efforts than some of their Democratic brethren from of the Carranzistas to assist in the hunt for other States. Villa, if there have been any at all, have Apparently this defeat of the Clarke been more than outweighed by the efforts of amendment on the floor of the House setCarranzistas to block our expedition, such tles for the present any prospect that Conas the ambuscade at Parral. So far the gress will give any definite promise concerning sum total of Carranza co-operation is zero, the date of independence of the Philippines. or minus.

As a substitute for the Philippine Bill with the

Clarke amendment, the House accepted the THE PHILIPPINE BILL

Jones Bill with its vague promise of indeIN THE HOUSE

pendence upon the establishment of a stable The Administration suffered a sharp defeat government and its revision of governmental on May 1, for the Clarke amendment to organization in the Philippines in the direction the Philippine Bill providing that the islands of enlarging the factor of native control. should be given complete independence The Jones Bill is by no means satisfactory to within four years, which had received the those who are most familiar with theotraditions specific indorsement of the President, was of the American occupation of the Philippines, decisively defeated in the House of Repre- but, compared with the Clarke amendment of sentatives. It was this feature of the Phil- the Senate bill, it is a step backward in the ippine Bill which called forth the severe right direction. criticism of ex-Secretary Garrison at the time of his resignation from the Cabinet. It was SECRETARY BAKER ON this feature of the Philippine Bill which has PREPAREDNESS been so severely attacked by practically all When Secretary Baker entered the Cabinet, impartial students of the Philippine situation, fear was expressed in many quarters that his and by an overwhelming majority of those appointment meant a change from Secretary who have made the welfare of the Philippines Garrison's sympathetic attitude towards the their primary interest.

view-point of the General Staff. Recent events The defeat of the Clarke amendment in have done much to dissipate this idea, and an interview with Secretary Baker published in Mr. Roosevelt, when he declared for the the Philadelphia “ Ledger” has still further introduction into the United States of a uniserved to place the Secretary of War accu- versal system of military service founded on rately in the public mind.

a modified form of the Swiss system, was In this interview Secretary Baker was more than a mere tribute to his personality. asked, “ Do you favor active preparedness ?” Mr. Roosevelt made it clear that in his He answered:

championing of the cause of preparedness he Unquestionably. It represents a power full had not forgotten the programme of social of possibilities for good. “Resolve and act” is justice which figured so prominently in the the order of the day, and it is far better to over- Progressive platform of 1912. Speaking of weight preparedness than to underweight it. industrial mobilization, Mr. Roosevelt said:

Mr. Baker was then asked : “ How large Preparedness must be both of the soul and an army', in your opinion, should the country of the body. It must be not only military but have, to meet future requirements ?" He

industrial and social. There can be no efficient replied:

preparedness against war unless there is in time The War College has figured it out most

of peace economic and spiritual preparedness

in the things of peace. Well-meaning men competently. To give us enough of a garrison

continually forget this interdependence. Wellto defend our overseas possessions properly and adequately to protect our coasts, these officers

meaning men continually speak as if efficient say we need a fully trained mobile force of

military preparedness could be achieved out of

industrial and social chaos, whereas such mili500,000 men, composed of the regular army and its militia reserve. Then, back of that, there

tary preparedness would represent merely a ought to be a citizen force, not first-line troops,

muscular arm on a withered body. but troops which had received certain training. Mr. Roosevelt emphatically indicated the This citizen body has been put at 500,000. side of preparedness which is of immediate Those who are strong in the belief that the

importance to the defense of the country. experts of the army and navy are most com

In the general discussion of the problems of petent to decide on the amount of prepara

military defense, the country has too often tion required to carry out the policies of the

forgotten the fact that the navy constitutes civil government will have no quarrel with the

the most vital element in its security. Mi. following statement made by Secretary Baker

Roosevelt said: in his interview in the “ Public Ledger :" We need, beyond anything else, a first-class Neither the soldier nor the sailor is responsi

navy. We cannot possibly get it unless the ble for the National policies, many of them

naval programme is handled with steady wisdom legacies of years' standing, yet both must as

from the standpoint of a nation that accepts the sume full responsibility for the amount of force

upbuilding and upkeep of such a navy as carnecessary to maintain these policies. Not only

dinal points of continuous policy. There should must they determine the extent of the force

be no party division along these lines. A party required, but they must see that the state of

which, whatever its views are on other subjects, readiness is maintained.

stops the upbuilding of the navy or lets it be

impaired in efficiency should be accepted as If Congress can only be brought to a false to the vital interests of the American peosimilar understanding of the value of expert ple. The navy should be trained in deep water, opinion, a long step away from present in salt water, and it should be trained always wasteful methods of making military and with one end in view—to increase its fighting naval appropriations will have been made. efficiency.

The whole question of preparedness in MR. ROOSEVELT IN

Mr. Roosevelt's view is bound up with the ILLINOIS

vital issue of Americanism. “ Not only,” he If the attitude of the Middle West towards says, “ questions of elective and legislative the question of preparedness can be judged machinery, but all questions of internal reby the reception given to Mr. Roosevelt's form, must stand second to our insistence address on “ National Duty and International that this is one nation, the American Nation, Ideals,” delivered before the Illinois Bar not a mere tangle of quarreling nationalities, Association, the current belief that this region and second also to the duty of facing the fact is in a pacifistic frame of mind is decidedly that at present all moral sanctions and standwrong.

ards in international relations are imperiled, Certainly the tremendous ovation given to and that our prime duty is to fit ourselves to

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an

defend the lives of our people and the honor ing on war-ships under naval officers and and vital interest of this Nation.”

naval discipline. In this last quotation Mr. Roosevelt has "To foster a patriotic spirit and give to clearly stated what we believe to be the great civilians some knowledge of the navy and issue of the coming Presidential campaign. the naval requirements of the country.

• To interest civilians in naval matters so A PLATTSBURG OF

that by taking future courses of training and THE SEA

by study many can qualify for acting commisThe military training camp for civilians sions after taking the necessary examination.” at Plattsburg, New York, last summer was A special appeal is made to the owners of so successful that this year there are to be yachis or motor boats which would be useful similar camps at half a dozen points in the as auxiliaries in time of war. During the United States. What has worked so well for final week of the cruise the battle-ships will the army ought to work as well for the navy, return to the naval districts whence they and the announcement of a training course came, and here the owners of such yachts for civilians in the navy this summer is and motor boats will be given training to timely and welcome.

enable them to operate their small craft in Substantially, the aim of the Navy Depart conjunction with the big war-ships. It is not ment in opening this training cruise for civil- necessary that such owners take the prelimiians is to do for the amateur tar what Platts- nary three weeks of instruction, although it burg has done for the amateur soldier. The is very desirable that they do so. To be Navy Department announces that the course eligible for enrollment a boat must be seawill begin on August 15 and will terminate worthy and able to care for a crew of at on September 12, and that the training will least four people for forty-eight hours. be given on board reserve battle-ships. The When this course of training was course is open to any citizen of the United nounced, many nautical experts made the States between the ages of nineteen and criticism that to put green men on a battle. forty-five who can pass a prescribed physical ship and to send them to sea without any examination and who can prove that he has preliminary training might so dampen their had a high school training and is " following enthusiasm for the navy that they would a trade or occupation where experience forsake it forever. This seems to be a point gained would be beneficial to the Government well made. We believe that this training in time of need." Undergraduates and grad- course would be more useful if permanent uates of colleges, pilots and pilots' appren- training camps were established on the shores tices, and those who have had six months' of such sheltered waters as Long Island experience in any one of a long list of speci- Sound and Narragansett Bay, and if the fied trades are also particularly referred to first part of the course were devoted to as eligible, but the abovequoted blanket teaching recruits naval rudiments and to clause will let in most men who can afford to getting them acclimated at such base camps. give thirty days of their time and the thirty With this single criticism, we heartily dollars which will cover everything but the approve the plan of training cruises for civilapplicant's traveling expenses to and from ians. The principal benefit which the coun. the ship. Applications must be made to any try derived from the Plattsburg camp last recruiting station or substation not later than summer, we believe, was the recognition June 1, and at these stations applicants can which it aroused among civilians of the need get full information as to the details of this of adequate military preparedness against brief naval course.

war and of the need that each citizen be In a general way, however, the studies to prepared to do his share in defending his be taken up will be largely optional, and country. The arousal of a similar interest recruits will have an opportunity to specialize on the side of naval affairs will be, we beon such subjects as navigation, signaling, lieve, the great benefit to be derived from

, engineering, etc. The object of the training this Plattsburg of the sea. cruise as announced by the Navy Department is :

A BOY SCOUT RALLY "To help equip properly qualified men to Any skeptic regarding the kind of military act as reserves in time of war or National training and discipline which the Boy Scouts emergency by giving them a course of train- of America receive would have had his doub:

removed if he could have attended a rally of would teach our boys how to do things with Boy Scouts which was reviewed by Governor their hands and their minds at the same time, Whitman, of the State of New York, in the under discipline and with prompt obedience Seventy-first Regiment Armory, New York to orders. The work of the Boy Scout organCity, on Saturday afternoon, April 29. The ization is a practical illustration in a voluntary rally was held under the direction of the organization of what might be done in the Manhattan-Bronx Council, of which Judge United States if we were to adopt a system Franklin C. Hoyt, of the New York Chil- of universal military service like that which dren's Court, is president. From two to is so successful in Switzerland or Australia. three thousand boys participated, and the Perhaps it is too much to hope that the time discipline, good order, and efficiency with will come when every public and private which they went through their various exer- school in the United States will have a Boy cises and performed their various “stunts” Scout organization connected with it. It is, was a remarkable demonstration of the suc- however, an ideal to be hoped and worked cess of the Boy Scout system. The great

for. drill floor of the armory was filled with groups That there is an æsthetic side to military of boys going through their evolutions and discipline was well illustrated at this particular performing their feats, and to the spectator rally by the very exceptionally good music it was more interesting and overwhelming furnished by the military brass band of the than a ten-ring circus. Games, calisthenics, Police Department. The music of the occasignaling, binding up the wounded, bicycle sion was furnished by the police band of the drills, races, tent-pitching, tying of knots, and city, through the courtesy of Police Commisvarious other feats were performed rapidly sioner Woods. The men were clad in police and without confusion.

fatigue uniforms, and they not only played Some of the performances were “ stunts ” Sousa marches as well as Sousa's band itself indeed. One troop, for example, brought could have played them, but they played the into the hall some lofty and fairly good-sized incidental music with unusual charm and protree trunks, and, lashing them together in fessional skill. In his address Governor tripod form, raised them up like an old- Whitman declared that he had attended few fashioned barn-raising, and thus formed a public occasions more impressive. signal tower perhaps twenty-five feet high. Our readers will remember that the Scout One of the boys then shinned up one of the law requires a Scout to be trustworthy, loyal, legs of this gigantic tripod, and, clinging to helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, the crotch at the top, went through his code cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, reverent. An of wigwag signaling. In the woods or fields organization which is cultivating these qualities this tripod could have stood partly embedded in American boys is performing a National in the earth, but on the polished foor of the work of the best kind of patriotism. armory the other boys of the troop clustered up around the foot of each of the three great A BUSINESSLIKE MAYOR legs and had to hold it in place by main The average New Yorker does not realize strength. The rapidity and skill of this how good a city government he is getting maneuver would have done credit to a band from the administration of Mayor Mitchel. of strong men trained in the art of woodcraft, He accepts clean streets, well-constructed mechanics, and the field operations of an pavements, good order maintained by the army. And yet not one of the boys appeared police, the reduced death rate, freedom from to be over seventeen or eighteen years of plague or contagious epidemics, the extension age, and many of them were much younger. of public school work, the development of Every number on the programme was inter- the park and playground system, the striking esting, and the one we have briefly described improvements in the docks and water fronts, is indicative of the skill and discipline which the decrease in the damage and danger all the participants displayed.

of fires, the successful efforts to deal with The remarkable performances of these the sick, suffering, injured, and dependents boys were not only a credit to their physical of the city in a more humane fashionprowess and their quickness of intelligence, all these things he accepts without much but the whole exhibition showed how inter- thought of their source, as he accepts the esting and how valuable a system of educa- air and sunlight. But the benefits of good tion might be made in this country which municipal government are not bestowed

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