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it was a Convention dominated overwhelm- mothers--a sine response. Philippine indeingly by an idea and not a man.

pendence---very little interest. The recital And therein lies its menace-in its empha- of diplomatic victories--some emotion. The sis. From the Democratic Administration, heavy hand of the National Government to as well as from the Democratic Convention, be laid against child labor—a tumult of we have heard much about peace--not yet cheers. And they came from the South as very much about duty. Peace or duty ? Is genuinely as from the North. Finally, the not the issue now plain before the American woman suffrage resolution and the confirmapeople? The determined and efficient moral tion of all the planks, and then adjournment. enthusiasm of '76 and '61 must be invoked And out of the Coliseum they poured for the against the deep but sentimental and danger- last time, with the band playing and the Conous spirit of peace at almost any cost. And vention singing "Onward, Christian Soldiers." it is only by invoking once more this pro

It was

a combination of spontaneity and found and patriotic sense of National duty- strategy, but taken in connection with the to our own citizens everywhere, to our weaker legislative achievements of the last four years neighbors, to the world—that the Republicans in Washington and the several States it invites will have either an issue or the victory.

a final reflection. It was not all tenseness at the Democratic There is one dynamic American personality gathering. There was a lighter side. You whose influence-directly or indirectly-pershould have heard the donkey in the alley meated all three conventions this year, as in bray loudly through the open window again 1912. In 1912 the battle of Roosevelt at and again in the very midst of the Glynn Chicago opened the way for the Bryan attack peroration Whether it was the woman at Baltimore, and made Wilson first the suffrage donkey that had appeared in the nominee of necessity and then the President preliminary parade or whether it was a gen- at Washington. In 1916 the deep-seated uinely Democratic donkey illustrating the hostility of the Republican delegates toward inherent fallacy in the argument of the Roosevelt could find no channel of expression speaker, I really could not say! There was which would at once fulfill the demands of realso another awful moment. Out of defer- sentment and patriotism, except in the adopence to the solidly Democratic South, the tion of the Roosevelt ideas and the nomination tune of “ Marching Through Georgia” is not of the man who, among all the party Republiyet regarded as courteous or tactful in a cans, can best organize and lead to victory what Democratic National Convention. When the was essential in those ideas. And back in band started suddenly to play it at one of the the mind of the Democratic delegates at St. high points of fervor, the temperature fell Louis, as they whole-heartedly flung thembelow zero in a quarter of a second. It froze selves out into the fight for social justice, was the band, who stopped in the middle of a bar the very practical conviction that the road to and left the tune in midair. The delegates success at the polls lies in the appeal to the were loyal party devotees. There was nothing great independent Progressive four millions else there. “I never scratched the Demo- who in 1912 threw off the weight of mere cratic ticket in my life, and I never will. I political tradition and subterranean political want to go to heaven," I heard one delegate tyranny and have this year forced the unwilling say to another, and he probably voiced the board of control of both parties into the normal universal habit, if not the universal yearning, course of National liberalism. The longof the Convention.

evident break-up of the Progressive political I have spoken of the great high point of machinery is no injury to the Nation or to the the Convention. At the end there was one cause of political freedom.

For purposes lesser but extremely significant climax. It of practical administration and resolute politicame during the reading of the platform. cal advance this is a two-party country, and Mirabile dictu. Senator Hollis, of New third-party movements are justified only when Hampshire, read the second part upon social nothing else will avail to open the eyes of justice. And the Convention rose to that unwise party leaders. Unwilling eyes have with eagerness and emotion. A living wage been forced open. That is the story of the --applause and cheers. An eight-hour day great National conventions so recently adand one day's rest in seven—" Read it journed. It is Bourbonism which has lost again!"--and Hollis had to read it again. the fight in America. Easing up on the labor of women and St. Louis, June 17, 1916.

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These pictures, which are now for the first time published in America, are part of a collection made by Mrs. Fiske Warren, of Boston. They have appeared in Germany and are striking examples of the sentiment and style of German cartoonists in their seriousness, their grasp,

their vigorous technique, and their somewhat grim humor

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JOHN BULL AND THE WAR--SILHOUETTES BY EICKE From above reading down. John Bull Discovers the Submarines-John Bull Throwing Money to the

Alies The Allies' Council of War-The Fleeing Australian Auxiliaries



This is the second of two stories about Akhmet Avarski, narrating Mr. Kennan's adventu and talks with Akhmet in Eastern Caucasia. The first appeared in The Outlook for May THE EDITORS.

K and thou shalt be killed, and he shall be killed bo kiileth thee."-Spanish Proverb.

and at intervals of ten or fifteen yards passed ladders, or flights of narrow ste which gave access to the houses above.

"How did people ever come to buil village with underground streets?" I inqui of Akhmet, as we rode through these fil and noisome corridors.


HEN Captain Cherkassof told me in Khorochoi that the state of society in Daghestan was that of the tenth century, I took his statement with some grains of allowance. "No doubt," I said to myself, "the people of the eastern Caucasus are uncivilized; but they can hardly be nine hundred years behind the age in which they live." My skepticism was shaken a little by the stories that Akhmet told me of his early life, but I did not become fully convinced that the Daghestan mountaineers were still in the medieval stage of social development until I encountered the armed man in the burial shroud and had an opportunity to see the spirit of the tenth century in action. Three or four days after Akhmet and I crossed the divide of the Andiski Khrebet, we stopped for the night in the aoul of Inkheli, the most extraordinary mountain vage that I had yet seen. It was situated on a high, steep bluff overlooking the gorge of the Andiski Koisu, and seemed, as we climbed toward it from the bed of the stream, to consist of a mass of broken-stone dwellings which had been built solidly together, and which extended up the sloping ountain-side for a distance of two or three dred yards. The terraces, made one bove another by the successive tiers of flat ofs, were connected here and there by adders, as in a New Mexican pueblo; but There were no streets or passages between the houses, and the only way, it seemed to me, that a man could enter his own dwelling was by climbing ladders, crossing roofs, and descending into his attic through a scuttle. I soon discovered, however, that this great Communal beehive might be entered from below as well as from above. Half-way up the mountain-side, on the edge of the settlement, Akhmet rode into the mouth of a dark, arrow tunnel, and conducted me into a labyrinth of subterranean passages whose sides were the foundation walls of the supermposed buildings. Opening off from these passages, here and there, were black caverns, wach were used, Akhmet said, as stables,



"There wasn't much room," he explain between the precipice behind and the ri in front, and they wanted all of it for house "But why put a village in a place wh there wasn't room enough for streets?" "Because it was an easy place to defen he replied. Before the Russians came were all the time fighting among ourselv one clan against another, and it wasn't s to build on low, open ground. We had farms and pastures there, but we brought horses and cattle into the village every nig and, as you may have noticed, we still st our hay on the roofs of our houses."

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I had noticed it, but did not know
reason for it.

continued, "and the streets are undergrou
"This village is built in a solid mass,"
but it would be a hard place to storm i
fight. A thousand men couldn't take it i

About an eighth of a mile from the entra ings Akhmet seemed to be perfectly fami to these village catacombs, with whose w we dismounted, turned our horses int into the house of a mountaineer whom cave-like stable, and climbed a dirty lad guide and interpreter knew. The g chamber, to which we were at once ducted. was a fairly spacious room, floor, walls, and ceiling of beaten clay mi with chopped straw. small unglazed port-holes, which overloo the flat roof of the next house below, Its windows w there was a door which opened upon the of another dwelling, so that the room m be entered either by climbing a ladder f the underground street or by crossing

'The Daghestan mountaineers, at the time of my
had no glass, and used no substitute for glass. In plea
weather their small square windows were left open
dried cow-dung.
when it stormed they were closed with tight plank
ters. Their rooms were warmed by open fireplac
which, owing to the scarcity of wood, they burned cal

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