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it was a Convention dominated overwhelm- mothers--a sine response. Philippine indeingly by an idea and not a man.

pendence---very little interest. The recital And therein lies its menace-in its empha- of diplomatic victories--some emotion. The sis. From the Democratic Administration, heavy hand of the National Government to as well as from the Democratic Convention, be laid against child labor—a tumult of we have heard much about peace--not yet cheers. And they came from the South as very much about duty. Peace or duty ? Is genuinely as from the North. Finally, the not the issue now plain before the American woman suffrage resolution and the confirmapeople? The determined and efficient moral tion of all the planks, and then adjournment. enthusiasm of '76 and '61 must be invoked And out of the Coliseum they poured for the against the deep but sentimental and danger- last time, with the band playing and the Conous spirit of peace at almost any cost. And vention singing "Onward, Christian Soldiers." it is only by invoking once more this pro

It was

a combination of spontaneity and found and patriotic sense of National duty- strategy, but taken in connection with the to our own citizens everywhere, to our weaker legislative achievements of the last four years neighbors, to the world—that the Republicans in Washington and the several States it invites will have either an issue or the victory.

a final reflection. It was not all tenseness at the Democratic There is one dynamic American personality gathering. There was a lighter side. You whose influence-directly or indirectly-pershould have heard the donkey in the alley meated all three conventions this year, as in bray loudly through the open window again 1912. In 1912 the battle of Roosevelt at and again in the very midst of the Glynn Chicago opened the way for the Bryan attack peroration Whether it was the woman at Baltimore, and made Wilson first the suffrage donkey that had appeared in the nominee of necessity and then the President preliminary parade or whether it was a gen- at Washington. In 1916 the deep-seated uinely Democratic donkey illustrating the hostility of the Republican delegates toward inherent fallacy in the argument of the Roosevelt could find no channel of expression speaker, I really could not say! There was which would at once fulfill the demands of realso another awful moment. Out of defer- sentment and patriotism, except in the adopence to the solidly Democratic South, the tion of the Roosevelt ideas and the nomination tune of “ Marching Through Georgia” is not of the man who, among all the party Republiyet regarded as courteous or tactful in a cans, can best organize and lead to victory what Democratic National Convention. When the was essential in those ideas. And back in band started suddenly to play it at one of the the mind of the Democratic delegates at St. high points of fervor, the temperature fell Louis, as they whole-heartedly flung thembelow zero in a quarter of a second. It froze selves out into the fight for social justice, was the band, who stopped in the middle of a bar the very practical conviction that the road to and left the tune in midair. The delegates success at the polls lies in the appeal to the were loyal party devotees. There was nothing great independent Progressive four millions else there. “I never scratched the Demo- who in 1912 threw off the weight of mere cratic ticket in my life, and I never will. I political tradition and subterranean political want to go to heaven," I heard one delegate tyranny and have this year forced the unwilling say to another, and he probably voiced the board of control of both parties into the normal universal habit, if not the universal yearning, course of National liberalism. The longof the Convention.

evident break-up of the Progressive political I have spoken of the great high point of machinery is no injury to the Nation or to the the Convention. At the end there was one cause of political freedom.

For purposes lesser but extremely significant climax. It of practical administration and resolute politicame during the reading of the platform. cal advance this is a two-party country, and Mirabile dictu. Senator Hollis, of New third-party movements are justified only when Hampshire, read the second part upon social nothing else will avail to open the eyes of justice. And the Convention rose to that unwise party leaders. Unwilling eyes have with eagerness and emotion. A living wage been forced open. That is the story of the --applause and cheers. An eight-hour day great National conventions so recently adand one day's rest in seven—" Read it journed. It is Bourbonism which has lost again!"--and Hollis had to read it again. the fight in America. Easing up on the labor of women and St. Louis, June 17, 1916.

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These pictures, which are now for the first time published in America, are part of a collection made by Mrs. Fiske Warren, of Boston. They have appeared in Germany and are striking examples of the sentiment and style of German cartoonists in their seriousness, their grasp,

their vigorous technique, and their somewhat grim humor

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This is the second of two stories about Akhmet Avarski, narrating Mr. Kennan's adventu and talks with Akhmet in Eastern Caucasia. The first appeared in The Outlook for May 2. THE EDITORS.


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and at intervals of ten or fifteen yards * KT., and thou shalt be killed, and he shall be killed sbo killeth thee."- Spanish Proverb.

passed ladders, or fights of narrow stu THEN Captain Cherkassof told me which gave access to the houses above.

in Khorochoi that the state of " How did people ever come to buik

society in Daghestan was that of village with underground streets?" I inqui the tenth century, I took his statement with of Akhmet, as we rode through these fi? some grains of allowance. “No doubt," I and noisome corridors. said to myself, “ the people of the eastern There wasn't much room," he explain Caucasus are uncivilized ; but they can hardly * between the precipice behind and the ri be nine hundred years behind the age in, in front, and they wanted all of it for house which they live." My skepticism was shaken " But why put a village in a place wh a little by the stories that Akhmet told me there wasn't room enough for streets ?" of his early life, but I did not become fully · Because it was an easy place to defen convinced that the Daghestan mountaineers he replied.

" Before the Russians came were still in the mediæval stage of social de- were all the time fighting among ourselv velopment until I encountered the armed man one clan against another, and it wasn't s. in the burial shroud and had an opportunity to build on low, open ground. We had to see the spirit of the tenth century in action. farms and pastures there, but we brought

Three or four days after Akhmet and I horses and cattle into the village every nig crossed the divide of the Andiski Khrebet, and, as you may have noticed, we still sta we stopped for the night in the aoul of our hay on the roofs of our houses." Inkheli

, the most extraordinary mountain I had noticed it, but did not know viage that I had yet seen. It was situ

reason for it. ated on a high, steep bluff overlooking the gorge of the Andiski Koisu, and seemed, continued, “ and the streets are undergrour

· This village is built in a solid mass,' as we dimbed toward it from the bed of the but it would be a hard place to storm in stream, to consist of a mass of broken-stone fight. A thousand men couldn't take it i drelings which had been built 'solidly to- month.”

About an eighth of a mile from the entra

gether, and which extended up the sloping muuntain-side for a distance of two or three to these village catacombs, with whose wi andred yards. The terraces, made one ings Akhmet seemed to be perfectly famii above another by the successive tiers of flat we dismounted, turned our horses inti rocés, were connected here and there by cave-like stable, and climbed a dirty lad adders, as in a New Mexican pueblo ; but into the house of a mountaineer whom Chere were no streets or passages between guide and interpreter knew. The gu the houses, and the only way, it seemed to chamber, to which we were at once ze, that a man could enter his own dwelling ducted. was a fairly spacious room, w was by climbing ladders, crossing roofs, and foor, walls, and ceiling of beaten clay mi descending into his attic through a scuttle. I with chopped straw. Its windows w soon discovered, however, that this great small unglazed port-holes, which overlool communal beehive might be entered from the flat roof of the next house below, a below as well as from above. Half-way up there was a door which opened upon the the mountain-side, on the edge of the settle- of another dwelling, so that the room mi. ment, Akhmet rode into the mouth of a dark, be entered either by climbing a ladder fra LITTU tunnel, and conducted me into a the underground street or by crossing labyrinth of subterranean passages whose sides were the foundation walls of the super- had no glass, and used no substitute for glass. In plea mposed buildings. Opening off from these

weather their small square windows were left open, passages, here and there, were black caverns,

when it stormed they were closed with tight planks

ters. Their rooms were warmed by open fireplace: viach were used, Akhmet said, as stables, dried cow-dung.

which, owing to the scarcity of wood, they burned cakt

111411.. 1.diler. JOHN BU'LL AND THE WAR-SILHOUETTES BY EICKE From above reading cun. John Bull Discover the Submarines-John Bull Throwing Money to the

Alides, The Alhes' Council of War-The Fleeing Australian Auxiliaries



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