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1916

KNOLL PAPERS

459

them ; but they do not permanently survive. tion of his book is devoted to a vigorous and The notion that the Negro is not a man but always entertaining indictment of individual. an animal could not outlive Booker T. Wash- ism and to an interpretation of the tendency ington and the intellectual and material prog- to substitute therefor a quasi-Socialism. “ The ress of his race. The daughters of the Allies,” he says, “ will become state firms, as aristocracy of England are working on Sun- Germany was, indeed, already becoming bedays in the munition factories to give the fore the war; setting private profit aside in daughters of the working classes one day in the common interest, handling agriculture, seven for rest and recreation. They can transport, shipping, coal, the supply of metals, never look down upon their working-girl sisters the manufacture of a thousand staple articles, with quite the same pity akin to contempt, as national concerns." nor can their fellow-workers look up to their He does not lay equal emphasis upon, aristocratic sisters with quite the same envy indeed he hardly recognizes, any tendency akin to hate, as before.

toward industrial liberty. Like most SocialIII. The effect of the war on the relation istic writers, he treats individual liberty and between employer and employed it is not so social efficiency as sworn foes. I believe easy to forecast. Temporarily it has appar- that they are no more inconsistent forces in ently intensified rather than lessened the society than are centrifugal and centripetal strain between the two. The capitalists are forces in nature ; that Germany, the Socialmaking money out of the war. No wonder ized state, and Great Britain and France, the that the workingmen are eager to get their democratic states, will exchange ideas and share. Yet there seems to me to be a real ideals, and each will be better for the exvalue in the pregnant suggestions of Mr. change. Wells :

V. Similarly the world is learning that the We are beginning to agree that reasonably spirit of nationalism and the spirit of internaany man may be asked to die for his country; tionalism are not incongruous. The war is de what we have to recognize is that any man's veloping even in this country a new patriotism proprietorship, interest, claims, or rights may expressed not by shouting over the present just as properly be called upon to die. ...

nor by glorifying the past, but by service. For every one there are two diametrically The spring of the great National movement different ways of thinking about life; there is

in the United States for military preparedindividualism, the way that comes as naturally as the grunt from a pig, of thinking outwardly

ness is no spirit of militarism, no liking for from oneself as the center of the universe, military glory, no ambition for military doand there is the way that every religion is trying minion, no sordid desire for military profits, in some form to teach, of thinking back to one- no craven fear of foreign invasion ; it is an self from greater standards and realities. enkindled desire to render some service and

It is at least reasonable to hope that this bear some burden in expression of a deeply larger view, taught in the trenches and by stirred spirit of American patriotism. So machine guns, will continue after the war to far is this desire from being incongruous subordinate individual interests to the com- with the spirit of international brotherhood, mon welfare. This tendency will be aided that at the same time and by the same by the increased distribution of wealth which leaders the desire is expressed and plans the aftermath of this war is certain to bring. are formed for an international federation Political economists have long been telling us of world powers. As love for the family is that the economic problem of our time is r.ot the source of neighborliness, so neighborlithe acquisition but the right distribution of ness is the source of nationalism and nationwealth. There are already abundant signs, alism is the source of universal brotherhood. in the land tax, the progressive income tax, VI. Growing out of this better brotherhood the progressive inheritance tax, and the cor- between individuals of different races, religporation tax, of the growing resolve of de- ions, and castes in each nation, I look to see mocracy to transfer the burden of taxation a development of that brotherhood between from the shoulders of the poor to the shoul- nations of which the Hague Conference and ders of the rich. It will hardly be possible to the Hague Tribunal are a prophecy and a retransfer it after the war.

symptom. Dr. Alfred H. Fried's little book, IV. Mr. Wells lays great stress on the * The Restoration of Europe," I gives both lesson of co-operation which Great Britain is "The Restoration of Europe. By Dr. Alfred H. Fried. learning from the war. A considerable por

Translated from the German by Lewis Stiles Gannett.
The Macmillan Company, New York. Sl.

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inspiration to the hope and clarity to the vision Europe. “ Militarism has been dealt a blow of such an international brotherhood—a book from which it can never recover." the more significant because its author is a Mr. Fried's vision of a “co-operative EuGerman, though writing in Switzerland. rope” appears to me much more significant

Imperialism has attempted to establish a than Mr. Wells's guesses at the map of world unity by subjugation. It has made Europe after the war.

These guesses I this attempt again and again, and always shall not here report, nor shall I attempt any failed. Egypt, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, guesses of my own. Nor shall I lengthen Spain, France, have all essayed the task. this Paper by describing his suggestive Germany will not succeed where they have chapter on the effect of the war upon the failed. In truth, Germany already begins to present consciousness and the future life of realize that she cannot succeed. “Imperial- the United States. But from that chapter ism attempts to achieve its aims clumsily, by I quote these special sentences, giving them a policy of force, with the desire to reap for my hearty indorsement and making them my a single state all the benefits of world organization. It would impose order upon the The pevple of the United States have shed world instead of attaining it by mutual agree- their delusion that there is an Eastern and ment." The Pan-American Union, the a IVestern Hemisphere, and that nothing can voluntary union of states in Great Britain,

ezer pass between them. but immigrants and the voluntary union of states in the United turists and trade. This is one world, States, point out the way by which a world and bayonets are a crop that spreads. organization is to be sought and obtained

There is no real peace but the peace of the which will take the place of a world anarchy. whole world, and that is only to be kept by Not all armaments will disappear, but com- the whole world resisting and suppressing petitive armaments. Treaties will not become

aggression wherever it arises. Vo longer scraps of paper. On the contrary,

when

a political Thoreau in the woods, al sort of the fever is past, there will surely be a new vegetarian recluse among nations, ar being of and higher appreciation of the value of trea

negative virtues and unpremeditated superiorities.” . The Hague vision of a world organi- ties, she [Americi) girds herself for a manly zation will be reinforced by a public will part in the toilsome world of men.determined to realize it in a co-operative The Knoll, Cornwall-on-Hudson.

T

MAKING THE

THE ISSUE CLEAR'
STAFF CORRESPONDENCE FROM THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION

BY FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT
THE Progressive Convention was one that it had done its best for the party and

of yearning impossibility and frus- the country. The temper of the Conven-
trated hopes.

The times were o t tion mind of both these branches of Republic of joint for a third party or for the pressi:canism was in part the product of the fierce upon the Republicans of a candidate noi clash of the last political quadrennium, of the regarded by them as "regular" or " avail

"regular" or "avail- impetuous distrust and the sullen hostility able.” The sun set in thick clouds, and eager, thereby created on either side. carnest men forsook the politico-spiritual The Democratic Convention met at St. exaltation of the convention hall in gloom, to Louis under totally different auspices. It face again the stern and ruthless realities of was the party in power, the party of accomAmerican politics. The Republican Con- plishment, the party with an issue, the party vention began in dull uncertainty and listless with a great leader--this was its temper of unenthusiasm, and grew measurably day by mind, the reason for its high enthusiasm, its day in patriotic spirit and desire, but never ardent hope, its buoyant spirit. The cold quite got over its timidities, its resentments, and cheerless Coliseum at Chicago felt for its prejudices, its fears, even when it had two days like a mausoleum. The Coliseum reached a fixed and unalterable conviction at St. Louis was immediately gay with color

and sunshine and patriotic exuberance. The See the editorial “ Democracy in Dreamland.”

(Continued on page following illustrations)

Current Events Pictorially Treated

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PHOTOGRAPH FROM BAIN NEWS SERVICE

GENERAL BRUSILOV
Commander of the Russian forces in the great new offensive against the Austrians

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COPYRIGHT BY INTERNATIONAL FILM SERVICE

MEMBERS OF THE RUSSIAN DUMA ON A VISIT TO ENGLAND FOR A CONFERENCE Seated on the extreme right is Professor Milyukov, leader of the Liberal party in the Duma; seated in the center with arms folded is Speaker Lowther, of the British House of Commons; next to him at the right

is Baron Rosen, formerly Russian Ambassador at Washington

RUSSIA REDIVIVUS

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