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certain of his fellow Catholics has been a fine for two reasons: first, because it is in conexample of political and moral courage. trast with the protest against Mr. Brandeis's
But, although all the facts in this contro- confirmation signed by the present President versy have not yet been determined, the of Harvard, Mr. Lowell; and, second, because principles may be laid down on which action in certain particulars Mr. Brandeis's views, should be taken when the facts are known. as, for instance, with regard to trades unions,
A democracy ought to sail an even course are known to be at odds with some of Mr. between autocracy and anarchy. The less Eliot's opinions. Mr. Eliot writes as follows: police espionage we have in a democracy, the “I have known Mr. Louis D. Brandeis better. To say the less crime we have in a for forty years, and believe that I understand democracy the better is an equally self-evident his capacities and his character. He was a statement. Russia is a country that well illus- distinguished student in the Harvard Law trates the evils of too much police espionage, School in 1875-8. He possessed by nature too much governmental interference in the a keen intelligence, quick and generous symaffairs of individuals. Mexico is a country pathies, a remarkable capacity for labor, and that represents the evils of too little police a character in which gentleness, courage, and supervision, too little protection of its citizens joy in combat were intimately blended. His by the Government. But it may be that professional career has exhibited all these police methods which would never be tol- qualities, and with them much practical altruerated in a democracy when applied to ism and public spirit. He has sometimes innocent citizens are necessary and desira- advocated measures or policies which did not ble in application to criminals or to those commend themselves to me, but I have never whom there is good reason to suspect of questioned his honesty and sincerity or his crime.
desire for justice. He has become a learned Between the course of Russia and the jurist. course of Mexico it ought to be possible for “Under present circumstances I believe the United States to steer an intermediate that the rejection by the Senate of his nomicourse. Above all, we must remember one nation to the Supreme Court would be a grave principle--that is, that if a representative of misfortune for the whole legal profession, the the people seems to be wielding a power Court, all American business, and the counarbitrarily or unjustly, the remedy is not to try.” weaken that power with checks on the man Our readers will find on another page an holding it. The remedy is to put that power article on Mr. Brandeis by Mr. William Hard. into the hands of a man responsible and capable of using it justly. In the present con- LAKE MOHONK troversy it may be suggested that the ques- ARBITRATION CONFERENCE tion is not whether the police ought or ought The Lake Mohonk Conference is not a not to have the privilege of tapping the tele- peace conference ; it is a conference for phone wires ; the question is whether the international arbitration. The object is not police have used that power with good judg- primarily to secure peace, but to secure a ment.
better means of obtaining justice between nations than is furnished by war. The ultimate end is justice ; peace is regarded as an
important incident and a sure result from Senate Judiciary Committee justice. This, repeatedly asserted by Albert Wednesday of last week reported, by a strict K. Smiley, the founder of the Conference, party vote of 10 to 8, a recommendation that was implied in the opening address of Mr. the nomination of Mr. Louis D. Brandeis as Daniel Smiley at the Conference held at Lake a Justice of the l'nited States Supreme Court Mohonk, May 17, 18, and 19, and underlay be confirmed.
all the discussions which occupied the attenSupport for the nomination of Mr. Brandeis tion of the Conference both morning and has come from widely various sources. Nota- evening of the three days' session. It may ble among the expressions of approval is a be safely assumed that the entire membership letter sent to Senator Culberson, Chairman believe that it is both desirable and practicaof the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, ble to substitute the appeal to reason for the by Charles W'. Eliot, President Emeritus of appeal to force ; if there were any disbeHarvard. This letter is particularly notable lievers, they were not in evidence. The
differences elicited, and they were clearly defined and ably presented in the debates, concerned not the end to be sought but the means to be furnished.
Mr. James Brown Scott, who presided on Wednesday morning, in a great and scholarly address showed that the postal international union furnished a precedent for a judicial international union; its agreement to leave to arbitration all questions concerning postal matters which might arise demonstrated that such an agreement was not inconsistent with the sovereignty of the States and was not so regarded. To this extent he sustained the International League to Enforce Peace. But he considered that it was better, at least for the present, to trust to public opinion rather than to military power both to secure the fulfillment of their agreement by the members of that League and to enforce the decrees of the international court whenever such decree was made. Ex-President Taft, who presided during the remaining sessions, presented the plan of the League, and stated with great clearness the objections which have been made to it and the answers to these objections. This address was a fine specimen of the modern unoratorical style of oratory. It might have been an argument addressed to a university class or even to the Supreme Court of the United States ; it was accompanied with very little gesture; it was wholly free from passion, though at times expressive of great earnestness of conviction ; but its clarityðf statement and its occasional touches of good-natured humor held the absorbed attention of the audience for something over an hour.
While the educational processes are necessary to induce the nations to substitute judicial proceedings for the wager of battle as a means of settling controversies between nations, what shall peace-loving nations do to maintain international justice and peace ? This question divided the membership into two groups-one for disarmament, the other for military preparedness. The argument for disarmament was ably presented by Professor William I. Hull, of Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, who maintained that the present war in Europe had been brought on by the preceding competition in building up great armaments, and who cited the century of peace between Great Britain and the United States, the result of a treaty of disarmament between the United States and Canada made in 1817, as the best possible
evidence that disarmament is the road to peace. The same view was presented on the following evening by Mr. W. J. Bryan, for whom, on his unexpected arrival, a place was made on the programme. His address, like that of Professor Hull's, assumed that armament leads to war and disarmament to peace. Rear-Admiral Austin M. Knight, in a carefully prepared paper, maintained that a deeper study of history made it clear that armaments were not a cause of war, but a consequence of the precedent war spirit, and that as long as nations obsessed by that spirit armed for purposes of aggression peaceful nations must arm for purposes of defense. In one paragraph of this remarkable paper-remarkable alike for its literary and its historical qualities—he showed that Great Britain's island character had never sufficed for her defense, that she had been invaded and subjugated repeatedly-as by the Romans, the Scandinavians, the Normans; that what had in later years saved her from invasion was a navy that made her mistress of the seas. The moral for the people of the United States it was easy to draw. No votes are taken in the Conference except on the platform at the close of the session, but so far as the heartiness and strength of the applause is any indication it seemed to be evident that the sentiment of the audience was at least four or five to one in favor of some form of military preparedness both to endow an international court with some form of power and to protect peaceful nations from aggression while waiting for the organization and established authority of such a court. We doubt whether any address was received with more enthusiastic applause than that of George Haven Putnam, who maintained that the United States ought to have protested against the invasion of Belgium and even now could and should unite with other neutral nations in opposing war upon non-combatants in viola. tion both of humanity and of international law.
It is the constitution of the Lake Mohonk Conference, established by an unvaried tradition, to adopt nothing in its platform which cannot be adopted unanimously. The platform, therefore, while it strongly reiterates its previous declaration in favor of a permanent court of arbitration, is silent on the question whether there should be any organization of or agreement among the Powers to enforce its decisions or whether enforce
ment should be left wholly to international National forests against fire and insect blight; public opinion. It therefore expressed neither and how the Department of Public Health approval nor disapproval of the platform of protects the country against epidemics of the International League to Enforce Peace. typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and The Outlook's views on the question,
worse diseases. What is the true path to peace ? are expressed
But the exhibits are not confined entirely in an editorial on another page.
to the scope of the term “safety first,” in the
narrow sense in which it has come to be THE "SAFETY FIRST SPECIAL"
accepted. There is particular interest for For the education of the people of the the people of the country who visit this train interior States who live near the center of now in learning how the army and the navy the country's population, Secretary Frank- protect the country from foreign peril and lin K. Lane, of the Department of the how soldiers and sailors are themselves proInterior, and other Government officials have tected in war. The exhibits on the army launched the “ Safety First Special.” Secre- and navy range all the way from the $12,000 tary Lane engaged the co-operation of Presi- Whitehead torpedo to a demonstration of dent Daniel Willard, of the Baltimore and the mask used to protect soldiers against Ohio Railroad, and the twelve cars of the poisonous gases and to moving pictures special and the engine that draws them were showing the men of the army and navy at provided by that railway. After an inspection work and at play. by President Wilson and the Cabinet, the Knowledge is the first protection against special began its tour recently. Pictures of danger. On the thousands of people who the interior of two of these cars appear on will see it this museum on wheels, like the another page.
similar National Exposition of Safety and On board the special train are representa
Sanitation in New York City lately, will tives of the army and navy, the Departments have a vastly salutary effect by showing them of Agriculture, Interior, Commerce, Labor, how Americans ought to be prepared against Coast Defense, of the Weather Bureau, the war, disease, accident, and all other influences Bureau of Mines, the Inter-State Commerce that endanger life and health. Commission, the American Red Cross, and the medical and engineering staff of the BOOKER WASHINGTON'S Government. These men live in two of the SUCCESSOR cars of the train ; the other ten steel coaches The installation of Major Robert R. Moton contain the exhibits of this traveling mu- as principal of the Tuskegee Institute, for seum. The capacity of the train is about which a distinguished company gathered from one thousand sightseers an hour, and at all parts of the country assembled on Thursmany of the stops which it has already made day of last week, naturally renews the moral nearly that rate of attendance has been and historical bond between Hampton Instimaintained.
tute and Tuskegee, the first the forerunner Visitors to the train are shown how the and, in a sense, parent of the second, for it Coast Guard Service enforces the fishing and was Hampton that made Booker Washington navigation laws, patrols the ocean against what he was, and it is now Hampton again icebergs and derelicts, and how last year that supplies his fit successor. As The property valued at $11,000,000 and 1,507 Outlook has already said, the new principal of lives were saved by these intrepid policemen Tuskegee is a full-blooded Negro ; his ancesof the sea.
try goes back to an African slave brought to Visitors also learn how the rescuers from this country in 1735. It was a fortunate day the Bureau of Mines succor the victims of for Hampton, and for Tuskegee also, when mine accidents; how the Weather Bureau as a young man Major Moton came directly makes its predictions which result in the under the influence of General Armstrong, saving of millions of dollars' worth of prop- of Hampton, was taught by him, was urged erty annually ; how the Locomotive Inspec- by him to remain at Hampton as a teacher, tion Service of the Government has reduced and thus was put into the line of opportunity the number of accidents due to the failure and development which now has made him of locomotive boilers by fifty per cent in the head of Tuskegee. three years, how the en of the Forest Major Moton fitly chose as the title of his Service protect 156,000,000 acres of the inaugural address the words “ Co-operation